Current as of: 2011
32.05 Condemnation for sewers and transportation facilities. In this section, "mass transit facility" includes, without limitation because of enumeration, exclusive or preferential bus lanes if those lanes are limited to abandoned railroad rights-of-way or existing expressways constructed before May 17, 1978, highway control devices, bus passenger loading areas and terminal facilities, including shelters, and fringe and corridor parking facilities to serve bus and other public mass transportation passengers, together with the acquisition, construction, reconstruction and maintenance of lands and facilities for the development, improvement and use of public mass transportation systems for the transportation of passengers. This section does not apply to proceedings in 1st class cities under subch. II. In any city, condemnation for housing under §§ 66.1201 to 66.1211, for urban renewal under § 66.1333, or for cultural arts facilities under subch. V of ch. 229, may proceed under this section or under § 32.06 at the option of the condemning authority. In any village, condemnation for housing under §§ 66.1201 to 66.1211 or for urban renewal under § 66.1333 may proceed under this section or under § 32.06 at the option of the condemning authority. Condemnation by a local exposition district under subch. II of ch. 229 for any exposition center or exposition center facility may proceed under this section or under § 32.06 at the option of the local exposition district. All other condemnation of property for public alleys, streets, highways, airports, spaceports, mass transit facilities, or other transportation facilities, gas or leachate extraction systems to remedy environmental pollution from a solid waste disposal facility, storm sewers and sanitary sewers, watercourses or water transmission and distribution facilities shall proceed as follows:
(1) Relocation order.
(b) No relocation order is necessary under para. (a) if the compensation, as estimated by the appraisal under sub. (a), will be less than $1,000 in the aggregate.
(b) Describing the property and the interest therein sought to be taken.
(a) Except as provided under para. (b), a county board of supervisors or a county highway committee when so authorized by the county board of supervisors, a city council, a village board, a town board, a sewerage commission governing a metropolitan sewerage district created by §§ 200.05 or 200.21 to 200.65, the secretary of transportation, a commission created by contract under § 66.0301, a joint local water authority created by contract under § 66.0823, a housing authority under §§ 66.1201 to 66.1211, a local exposition district created under subch. II of ch. 229, a local cultural arts district created under subch. V of ch. 229, a redevelopment authority under § 66.1333 or a community development authority under § 66.1335 shall make an order providing for the laying out, relocation and improvement of the public highway, street, alley, storm and sanitary sewers, watercourses, water transmission and distribution facilities, mass transit facilities, airport, or other transportation facilities, gas or leachate extraction systems to remedy environmental pollution from a solid waste disposal facility, housing project, redevelopment project, cultural arts facilities, exposition center or exposition center facilities which shall be known as the relocation order. This order shall include a map or plat showing the old and new locations and the lands and interests required. A copy of the order shall, within 20 days after its issue, be filed with the county clerk of the county wherein the lands are located or, in lieu of filing a copy of the order, a plat may be filed or recorded in accordance with § 84.095.
(a) The condemnor shall cause at least one, or more in the condemnor's discretion, appraisal to be made of all property proposed to be acquired. In making any such appraisal the appraiser shall confer with the owner or one of the owners, or the personal representative of the owner or one of the owners, if reasonably possible.
(3) Jurisdictional offer to purchase. Condemnor shall send to the owner, or one of the owners of record, and to the mortgagee, or one of the mortgagees of each mortgage of record, a notice:
(c) Stating the proposed date of occupancy regardless of the date of taking.
(b) The condemnor shall provide the owner with a full narrative appraisal upon which the jurisdictional offer is based and a copy of any other appraisal made under para. (a) and at the same time shall inform the owner of his or her right to obtain an appraisal under this paragraph. The owner may obtain an appraisal by a qualified appraiser of all property proposed to be acquired, and may submit the reasonable costs of the appraisal to the condemnor for payment. The owner shall submit a full narrative appraisal to the condemnor within 60 days after the owner receives the condemnor's appraisal. If the owner does not accept a negotiated offer under sub. (2a) or the jurisdictional offer under sub. (3), the owner may use an appraisal prepared under this paragraph in any subsequent appeal.
(a) Stating briefly the nature of the project, with reference to the relocation order if required, and that the condemnor in good faith intends to use the property sought to be condemned for such public purpose.
(d) Stating the amount of compensation offered, itemized as to the items of damage as set forth in § 32.09 and that compensation for additional items of damage as set forth in § 32.19 may be claimed under § 32.20 and will be paid if shown to exist.
(e) Stating that the appraisal or one of the appraisals of the property on which condemnor's offer is based is available for inspection at a specified place by persons having an interest in the lands sought to be acquired.
(g) Stating that the owner has 20 days from date of completion of service upon the owner of the offer, as specified in sub. (6), in which to accept or reject the offer.
(h) Stating that if the owner has not accepted such offer as provided in sub. (6) the owner has 40 days from the date of completion of service upon the owner of the offer to commence a court action to contest the right of condemnation as provided in sub. (5); provided that the acceptance and retention of any compensation resulting from an award made prior to the commencement of such an action shall be an absolute bar to such action.
(6) Acceptance of jurisdictional offer. The owner has 20 days from the date of personal service of the jurisdictional offer or 20 days from the date of postmark of the certified mail letter transmitting such offer, or if publication of the jurisdictional offer was necessary and was made, 20 days after the date of such publication, in which to accept the jurisdictional offer unless such time is extended by mutual written consent of the condemnor and condemnee. If such offer is accepted, the transfer of title shall be accomplished within 60 days after acceptance including payment of the consideration stipulated in such offer. If the jurisdictional offer is rejected in writing by all of the owners of record the condemnor may proceed to make an award forthwith. At any time prior to acceptance of the jurisdictional offer by the condemnee the same may be withdrawn by the condemnor.
(2a) Negotiation. Before making the jurisdictional offer provided in sub. (3), the condemnor shall attempt to negotiate personally with the owner or one of the owners or his or her representative of the property sought to be taken for the purchase of the same. In such negotiation the condemnor shall consider the owner's appraisal under sub. (b) and may contract to pay the items of compensation enumerated in §§ 32.09 and 32.19 as may be applicable to the property in one or more installments on such conditions as the condemnor and property owners may agree. Before attempting to negotiate under this paragraph, the condemnor shall provide the owner or his or her representative with copies of applicable pamphlets prepared under § 32.26 (6). When negotiating under this subsection, the condemnor shall provide the owner or his or her representative with the names of at least 10 neighboring landowners to whom offers are being made, or a list of all offerees if less than 10 owners are affected, together with a map showing all property affected by the project. Upon request by an owner or his or her representative, the condemnor shall provide the name of the owner of any other property which may be taken for the project. The owner or his or her representative shall also have the right, upon request, to examine any maps in the possession of the condemnor showing property affected by the project. The owner or his or her representative may obtain copies of such maps by tendering the reasonable and necessary costs of preparing copies. The condemnor shall record any conveyance by or on behalf of the owner of the property to the condemnor executed as a result of negotiations under this subsection with the register of deeds of the county in which the property is located. The conveyance shall state the identity of all persons having an interest of record in the property immediately prior to its conveyance, the legal description of the property, the nature of the interest acquired and the compensation for such acquisition. The condemnor shall serve upon or mail by certified mail to all persons named therein a copy of the conveyance and a notice of the right to appeal the amount of compensation under this subsection. Any person named in the conveyance may, within 6 months after the date of its recording, appeal from the amount of compensation therein stated in the manner set forth in subs. (9) to (12) and chs. 808 and 809 for appeals from an award under sub. (7). For purposes of any such appeal, the amount of compensation stated in the conveyance shall be treated as the award and the date the conveyance is recorded shall be treated as the date of taking and the date of evaluation.
(7) Award of compensation. If the owner has not accepted the jurisdictional offer within the periods limited in sub. (6) or fails to consummate an acceptance as provided therein, the condemnor may make an award of damages in the manner and sequence of acts as follows:
(i) Stating that the owner, subject to subs. (9) (a) and (11), will have 2 years from the date of taking the property by award in which to appeal for greater compensation without prejudice to the right to use the compensation given by the award. If the condemning authority is a housing authority organized under §§ 66.1201 to 66.1211 a redevelopment authority organized under § 66.1333 or a community development authority organized under § 66.1335, the notice shall also state that in the case of an appeal under sub. (a) the parties having an interest in the property who are taking the appeal may initiate such appeal by filing with the condemning authority a letter requesting that the issue of the amount of such compensation be determined by the condemnation commission.
(3m) Uneconomic remnant. In this section, "uneconomic remnant" means the property remaining after a partial taking of property, if the property remaining is of such size, shape or condition as to be of little value or of substantially impaired economic viability. If the acquisition of only part of a property would leave its owner with an uneconomic remnant, the condemnor shall offer to acquire the remnant concurrently and may acquire it by purchase or by condemnation if the owner consents.
(4) How notice of jurisdictional offer is given. The giving of such notice is a jurisdictional requisite to a taking by condemnation. Such notice may be given by personal service in the manner of service of a circuit court summons, or it may be transmitted by certified mail. If service is by mail, service of the papers shall be deemed completed on the date of mailing and the use of mail service shall not increase the time allowed to act in answer to or in consequence of such service. If such owner or mortgagee is unknown or cannot be found there shall be published in the county wherein the property is located a class 1 notice, under ch. 985. If such owner is a minor, or an individual adjudicated incompetent, the condemnor shall serve such notice upon the legal guardian of the minor or individual, and if there is no such guardian the condemnor shall proceed under § 32.15 to have a special guardian appointed to represent the minor or individual in the proceeding. The reasonable fees of any special guardian as approved by the court shall be paid by the condemnor. The notice shall be called the "jurisdictional offer". The condemnor shall file a lis pendens on or within 14 days of the date of service or mailing of the jurisdictional offer or within 14 days of the date of publication if publication is necessary. The lis pendens shall include a copy of the jurisdictional offer. From the time of such filing every purchaser or encumbrancer whose conveyance or encumbrance is not recorded or filed shall be deemed a subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer and shall be bound by the terms of the jurisdictional offer and it shall not be necessary to serve other jurisdictional offers on such subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer. In the award the condemnor may name and make payment to parties who were owners or mortgagees at the time of the filing of the lis pendens unless subsequent purchasers or encumbrancers give written notice to the condemnor of their subsequently acquired interests in which event such parties shall be named in the award as their interests may appear.
(8) Occupancy; writ of assistance; waste.
(9) Appeal from award by owner or other party in interest.
(10) Appeal from commission's award to circuit court.
(5) Court action to contest right of condemnation. If an owner desires to contest the right of the condemnor to condemn the property described in the jurisdictional offer, for any reason other than that the amount of compensation offered is inadequate, the owner may within 40 days from the date of personal service of the jurisdictional offer or within 40 days from the date of postmark of the certified mail letter transmitting such offer, or within 40 days after date of publication of the jurisdictional offer as to persons for whom such publication was necessary and was made, commence an action in the circuit court of the county wherein the property is located, naming the condemnor as defendant. Such action shall be the only manner in which any issue other than the amount of just compensation, or other than proceedings to perfect title under §§ 32.11 and 32.12, may be raised pertaining to the condemnation of the property described in the jurisdictional offer. The trial of the issues raised by the pleadings in such action shall be given precedence over all other actions in said court then not on trial. If the action is not commenced within the time limited the owner or other person having any interest in the property shall be barred from raising any such objection in any other manner. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit in any respect the right to determine the necessity of taking as conferred by § 32.07 nor to prevent the condemnor from proceeding with condemnation during the pendency of the action to contest the right to condemn.
(a) The award shall be in writing. Except as provided in sub. (b), the award shall state that it is made pursuant to relocation order of (name of commission, authority, board or council having jurisdiction to make the improvement) No. .... dated .... filed in the office of the County Clerk, County of ...., or pursuant to transportation project plat no. .... dated .... filed or recorded in the office of register of deeds, .... County. If a relocation order is not required under sub. (b), the award shall name the condemnor. It shall name all persons having an interest of record in the property taken and may name the other persons. It shall describe such property by legal description, or by the parcel number shown on a plat filed or recorded under § 84.095, and state the interest therein sought to be condemned and the date when actual occupancy of the property condemned will be taken by condemnor. The award shall also state the compensation for the taking which shall be an amount at least equal to the amount of the jurisdictional offer. The award shall state that the condemnor has complied with all jurisdictional requirements. An amended award for the purpose of correcting errors wherein the award as recorded differs from the jurisdictional offer may be made, served and recorded as provided by this section.
(b) Copy of such award shall be served on or mailed by certified mail to all persons named therein. If any such person cannot be found or the person's address is unknown, the award shall be published in the county wherein the property is situated as a class 3 notice, under ch. 985, and completed publication as shown by affidavit shall constitute proper service. Such award shall be known as the "basic award".
(c) When service of the award has been completed, and after payment of the award as provided in para. (d), the award shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds of the county wherein the property is located. Thereupon title in fee simple to the property described in the award, or the lesser right in property acquired by the award shall vest in the condemnor as of the time of recording. The date of such recording is the "date of evaluation" and also the "date of taking".
(d) On or before said date of taking, a check, naming the parties in interest as payees, for the amount of the award less outstanding delinquent tax liens, proportionately allocated as in division in redemption under §§ 74.51 and 75.01 when necessary and less prorated taxes of the same year, if any, likewise proportionately allocated when necessary against the property taken, shall at the option of the condemnor be mailed by certified mail to the owner or one of the owners of record or be deposited with the clerk of the circuit court of the county for the benefit of the persons named in the award. The clerk shall give notice thereof by certified mail to such parties. The persons entitled thereto may receive their proper share of the award by petition to and order of the circuit court of the county. The petition shall be filed with the clerk of the court without fee.
(a) In this subsection, "condemnor" has the meaning given in § 32.185.
(b) No person occupying real property may be required to move from a dwelling or move his or her business or farm without at least 90 days' written notice of the intended vacation date from the condemnor. The displaced person shall have rent-free occupancy of the acquired property for a period of 30 days, commencing with the next 1st or 15th day of the month after title vests in the condemnor, whichever is sooner. Any person occupying the property after the date that title vests in the condemnor is liable to the condemnor for all waste committed or allowed by the occupant on the lands condemned during the occupancy. The condemnor has the right to possession when the persons who occupied the acquired property vacate, or hold over beyond the vacation date established by the condemnor, whichever is sooner, except as provided under para. (c). If the condemnor is denied the right of possession, the condemnor may, upon 48 hours' notice to the occupant, apply to the circuit court where the property is located for a writ of assistance to be put in possession. The circuit court shall grant the writ of assistance if all jurisdictional requirements have been complied with, if the award has been paid or tendered as required and if the condemnor has made a comparable replacement property available to the occupants, except as provided under para. (c).
(c) The condemnor may not require the persons who occupied the premises on the date that title vested in the condemnor to vacate until a comparable replacement property is made available. This paragraph does not apply to any person who waives his or her right to receive relocation benefits or services under § 32.197 or who is not a displaced person, as defined under § 32.19 (2)(e), unless the acquired property is part of a program or project receiving federal financial assistance.
1. Where all parties having an interest in the property taken do not join in an appeal, such fact shall not change the requirement that a finding of fair market value of the entire property taken and damages, if any, to the entire property taken, shall be made in determining compensation. Determination of the separate interests of parties having an interest in property taken shall, in cases of dispute, be resolved by a separate partition action as set forth herein.
(a) Any party having an interest in the property condemned may, within 2 years after the date of taking, appeal from the award, except as limited by this subsection by applying to the judge of the circuit court for the county wherein the property is located for assignment to a commission of county condemnation commissioners as provided in § 32.08, except that if the condemning authority is a housing authority organized under §§ 66.1201 to 66.1211, a redevelopment authority organized under § 66.1333 or a community development authority organized under § 66.1335, the appeals may be initiated by filing with the condemning authority a letter requesting that the issue of the amount of the compensation be determined by the condemnation commission. The condemning authority shall, upon receipt of the letter, apply to the judge of the circuit court for the county wherein the property is located for assignment to a commission of county condemnation commissioners as provided in § 32.08. This application shall contain a description of the property condemned and the names and last-known addresses of all parties in interest but shall not disclose the amount of the jurisdictional offer nor the amount of the basic award. Violation of this prohibition shall nullify the application. Notice of the application shall be given to the clerk of the court and to all other persons other than the applicant who were parties to the award. The notice may be given by certified mail or personal service. Upon proof of the service the judge shall forthwith make assignment. Where one party in interest has appealed from the award, no other party in interest who has been served with a notice of the appeal may take a separate appeal, but may join in the appeal by serving notice upon the condemnor and the appellant of the party's election to do so. The notice shall be given by certified mail or personal service within 10 days after receipt of notice of the appeal and shall be filed with the clerk of the court. Upon failure to give and file the notice all other parties of interest shall be deemed not to have appealed. The result of the appeal shall not affect parties who have not joined in the appeal as provided in this paragraph. In cases involving more than one party in interest with a right to appeal, the first of the parties filing an appeal under this subsection or under sub. (11) shall determine whether the appeal shall be under this subsection or under sub. (11). No party in interest may file an appeal under this subsection if another party in interest in the same lands has filed a prior appeal complying with the requirements of sub. (11). Thereafter the procedure shall be as prescribed in § 32.08. In cases involving multiple ownership or interests in lands taken the following rules shall also apply:
2. In cases where the amount of the award appealed from is increased on appeal, such amount shall be paid by the condemnor making tender of the amount to one of the appellant owners or appellant parties of interest in the same manner governing the tender of a basic award. In the event that a determination on appeal reduces the amount of the appealed award, those parties who joined in the appeal shall be liable, jointly and severally, to the condemning authority.
3. When the owners or parties having an interest in land taken cannot agree on the division of an award, any of such owners or parties of interest may petition the circuit court for the county wherein the property is located for partition of the award moneys as provided in § 820.01. When the tender of an award is refused, the condemning authority may pay the award to the clerk of the circuit court for the county wherein the property is located and no interest shall accrue against the condemning authority for moneys so paid.
(b) If the commission's award exceeds the basic award the owner shall recover the excess plus interest thereon until payment from the date of taking less a period which is 14 days after the date of filing the commission's award. If the commission's award is less than the basic award, the condemnor shall recover the difference with interest until payment from the date of taking.
(c) All sums due under this subsection shall be paid within 70 days after date of filing of the commission's award unless within such time an appeal is taken to the circuit court. In the event such appeal is later dismissed before trial such payment shall be made within 60 days after the dismissal date.
(d) In the event the award of the county condemnation commissioners is lower than the basic award and tender of the basic award has been accepted by an owner, the condemnor shall have a lien against such owner for the amount of the difference. The lien shall give the name and address of the owner or owners, refer to the basic award and the award on appeal and state the difference in amounts. The lien may be recorded in the office of the register of deeds and when so recorded shall attach to all property of the owner presently owned or subsequently acquired in any county where such lien is recorded. Such lien shall remain in force with interest until satisfied or until it is set aside by a judgment of the circuit court in an action pursuant to sub. (10).
(a) Within 60 days after the date of filing of the commission's award, any party to the proceeding before the commission may appeal to the circuit court of the county wherein the property is located. Notice of such appeal shall be given to the clerk of the circuit court and to all persons other than the appellant who were parties to the proceeding before the commissioners. Notice of appeal may be given by certified mail or by personal service. The clerk shall thereupon enter the appeal as an action pending in said court with the condemnee as plaintiff and the condemnor as defendant. It shall thereupon proceed as an action in said court subject to all the provisions of law relating to actions brought therein and shall have precedence over all actions not then on trial. The sole issues to be tried shall be questions of title, if any, under §§ 32.11 and 32.12 and the amount of just compensation to be paid by condemnor. It shall be tried by jury unless waived by both plaintiff and defendant. Neither the amount of the jurisdictional offer, the basic award, nor the award made by the commission shall be disclosed to the jury during such trial.
(b) The court shall enter judgment for the amount found to be due after giving effect to any amount paid by reason of a prior award. The judgment shall include legal interest on the amount so found due from the date of taking if judgment is for the condemnor, and from 14 days after the date of taking if judgment is for the condemnee.
(c) All moneys due under this subsection shall be paid within 60 days after entry of judgment unless within such period an appeal is taken by any party to the court of appeals.
(a) If the jury verdict as approved by the court does not exceed the basic award, the condemnor shall have judgment against the appellant for the difference between the jury verdict and the amount of the basic award, plus interest on the amount of such difference from the date of taking.
(b) If the jury verdict as approved by the court exceeds the basic award, the appellant shall have judgment for the amount of such excess plus legal interest thereon to date of payment in full from that date which is 14 days after the date of taking.
(c) All moneys payable under this subsection shall be paid within 60 days after entry of judgment unless within such period an appeal is taken to the court of appeals.
(12) Effect of determination of compensation by the court where jury waived. If the action is tried by the court upon waiver of a jury the determination of the amount of damages by the court shall be considered in lieu of the words "jury verdict as approved by the court" where such language occurs in this section.
(11) Waiver of hearing before commission; appeal to circuit court and jury. The owner of any interest in the property condemned named in the basic award may elect to waive the appeal procedure specified in sub. (9) and instead, within 2 years