(a) Definitions

As used in this chapter–

Terms Used In 42 USC 3791

  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1

(1) “criminal justice” means activities pertaining to crime prevention, control, or reduction, or the enforcement of the criminal law, including, but not limited to, police efforts to prevent, control, or reduce crime or to apprehend criminals, including juveniles, activities of courts having criminal jurisdiction, and related agencies (including but not limited to prosecutorial and defender services, juvenile delinquency agencies and pretrial service or release agencies), activities of corrections, probation, or parole authorities and related agencies assisting in the rehabilitation, supervision, and care of criminal offenders, and programs relating to the prevention, control, or reduction of narcotic addiction and juvenile delinquency;(2) “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands: Provided, That for the purposes of section 3755(a) of this title, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be considered as one state 1 and that for these purposes 67 per centum of the amounts allocated shall be allocated to American Samoa, and 33 per centum to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.2(3) “unit of local government” means–(A) any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State;(B) any law enforcement district or judicial enforcement district that–(i) is established under applicable State law; and(ii) has the authority to, in a manner independent of other State entities, establish a budget and impose taxes;(C) an Indian Tribe that performs law enforcement functions, as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or(D) for the purposes of assistance eligibility, any agency of the government of the District of Columbia or the Federal Government that performs law enforcement functions in and for–(i) the District of Columbia; or(ii) any Trust Territory of the United States;(4) “construction” means the erection, acquisition, renovation, repairs, remodeling, or expansion of new or existing buildings or other physical facilities, and the acquisition or installation of initial equipment therefor;(5) “combination” as applied to States or units of local government means any grouping or joining together of such States or units for the purpose of preparing, developing, or implementing a criminal justice program, plan, or project;(6) “public agency” means any State, unit of local government, combination of such States or units, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of any of the foregoing;(7) “correctional facility” means any place for the confinement or rehabilitation of offenders or individuals charged with or convicted of criminal offenses;(8) “correctional facility project” means a project for the construction, replacement, alteration or expansion of a prison or jail for the purpose of relieving overcrowding or substandard conditions;(9) “criminal history information” includes records and related data, contained in an automated or manual criminal justice informational system, compiled by law enforcement agencies for the purpose of identifying criminal offenders and alleged offenders and maintaining as to such persons records of arrests, the nature and disposition of criminal charges, sentencing, confinement, rehabilitation, and release;(10) “evaluation” means the administration and conduct of studies and analyses to determine the impact and value of a project or program in accomplishing the statutory objectives of this chapter;(11) “neighborhood or community-based organizations” means organizations, including faith-based, that are representative of communities or significant segments of communities;(12) “chief executive” means the highest official of a State or local jurisdiction;(13) “cost of construction” means all expenses found by the Director to be necessary for the construction of the project, including architect and engineering fees, but excluding land acquisition costs;(14) “population” means total resident population based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time;(15) “Attorney General” means the Attorney General of the United States or his designee;(16) “court of last resort” means that State court having the highest and final appellate authority of the State. In States having two or more such courts, court of last resort shall mean that State court, if any, having highest and final appellate authority, as well as both administrative responsibility for the State’s judicial system and the institutions of the State judicial branch and rulemaking authority. In other States having two or more courts with highest and final appellate authority, court of last resort shall mean the highest appellate court which also has either rulemaking authority or administrative responsibility for the State’s judicial system and the institutions of the State judicial branch. Except as used in the definition of the term “court of last resort” the term “court” means a tribunal recognized as a part of the judicial branch of a State or of its local government units;(17) “institution of higher education” means any such institution as defined by section 1001 of title 20, subject, however, to such modifications and extensions as the Office may determine to be appropriate;(18) “white-collar crime” means an illegal act or series of illegal acts committed by nonphysical means and by concealment or guile, to obtain money or property, to avoid the payment or loss of money or property, or to obtain business or personal advantage;(19) “proven effectiveness” means that a program, project, approach, or practice has been shown by analysis of performance and results to make a significant contribution to the accomplishment of the objectives for which it was undertaken or to have a significant effect in improving the condition or problem it was undertaken to address;(20) “record of proven success” means that a program, project, approach, or practice has been demonstrated by evaluation or by analysis of performance data and information to be successful in a number of jurisdictions or over a period of time in contributing to the accomplishment of objectives or to improving conditions identified with the problem, to which it is addressed;(21) “high probability of improving the criminal justice system” means that a prudent assessment of the concepts and implementation plans included in a proposed program, project, approach, or practice, together with an assessment of the problem to which it is addressed and of data and information bearing on the problem, concept, and implementation plan, provides strong evidence that the proposed activities would result in identifiable improvements in the criminal justice system if implemented as proposed;(22) “correctional option” includes community-based incarceration, weekend incarceration, boot camp prison, electronic monitoring of offenders, intensive probation, and any other innovative punishment designed to have the greatest impact on offenders who can be punished more effectively in an environment other than a traditional correctional facility;(23) “boot camp prison” includes a correctional facility in which inmates are required to participate in a highly regimented program that provides strict discipline, physical training, and hard labor, together with extensive rehabilitative activities and with educational, job training, and drug treatment support;(24) the term “young offender” means a non-violent first-time offender or a non-violent offender with a minor criminal record who is 22 years of age or younger (including juveniles);(25) the term “residential substance abuse treatment program” means a course of individual and group activities, lasting between 6 and 12 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population–(A) directed at the substance abuse problems of the prisoner; and(B) intended to develop the prisoner’s cognitive, behavioral, social, vocational, and other skills so as to solve the prisoner’s substance abuse and related problems;(26) the term “Indian Tribe” has the meaning given the term “Indian tribe” in section 450b(e) of title 25;(27) the term “private person” means any individual (including an individual acting in his official capacity) and any private partnership, corporation, association, organization, or entity (or any combination thereof); and(28) the term “hearing examiner” includes any medical or claims examiner.(b) Data basis for definitions; reflection of technical changes or modificationsWhere appropriate, the definitions in subsection (a) of this section shall be based, with respect to any fiscal year, on the most recent data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and the latest published reports of the Office of Management and Budget available ninety days prior to the beginning of such fiscal year. The Office may by regulation change or otherwise modify the meaning of the terms defined in subsection (a) of this section in order to reflect any technical change or modification thereof made subsequent to such date by the United States Bureau of the Census or the Office of Management and Budget.

(c) Designation of public agencies for undertaking a program or project

One or more public agencies, including existing local public agencies, may be designated by the chief executive officer of a State or a unit of local government to undertake a program or project in whole or in part.