Article 1 Title and Purposes
Article 2 Formation
Article 3 Articles of Incorporation
Article 4 Powers
Article 5 Bylaws
Article 6 Location and Inspection of Articles and Bylaws

Terms Used In California Codes > Corporations Code > Title 1 > Division 2 > Part 4 > Chapter 1

  • Abstract of judgment: In a federal criminal proceeding, A certification from a U.S. District Court clerk that a judgment of restitution was entered against the defendant owing to the victim. If the defendant inherits, owns, or sells real property or holdings, these assets can then be attached at the state and local levels as well.
  • Acquire: includes purchase, condemnation, lease, and gift. See California Government Code 19243.2
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Age: refers to the chronological age of any individual who has reached a 40th birthday. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Agency head: means the individual responsible for the overall operations of a state agency. See California Government Code 19889.3
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • ballot: means any of the following:

    California Education Code 88078

  • Ballot label: means that portion of the ballot containing the names of the candidates or a statement of a measure. See California Education Code 88080
  • Ballot title and summary: means the summary of the chief purpose and points including the fiscal impact summary of any measure that appears in the state voter information guide. See California Education Code 88083
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the State Board of Forestry and Fire Protection. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • board: means the California Victim Compensation Board. See California Government Code 19996
  • Board: means the State Public Works Board. See California Government Code 19243.2
  • Bylaws: as used in this part means the code or codes of rules used, adopted, or recognized for the regulation or management of the affairs of the corporation irrespective of the name or names by which such rules are designated. See California Corporations Code 9150
  • candidate: includes any officeholder who is subject to a recall election. See California Education Code 88085
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Circulating title and summary: means the text that is required to be placed on a petition for signatures that is either one of the following:

    California Education Code 88083

  • City: includes "city and county" and "incorporated town" but does not include "unincorporated town" or "village. See California Education Code 19429
  • Clerk: means the county elections official, registrar of voters, city clerk, or other officer or board charged with the duty of conducting any election. See California Education Code 88087
  • Coastal recreational resources: means those land and water areas adjacent to or in close proximity to the Pacific Ocean which are suitable for public park, beach, or recreational purposes, including, but not limited to, areas of historical significance and areas of open space that complement park, beach, or recreational areas. See California Government Code 19886.2
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Construction: includes the extension, enlargement, repair, renovation, restoration, improvement, furnishing, and equipping of any public building. See California Government Code 19243.2
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Council: means the Fair Employment and Housing Council and "council member" means a member of the council. See California Government Code 19878
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Education Code 17491
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Education Code 1915
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 19428
  • County Tribal Casino Account: means an account consisting of all moneys paid by tribes of that county into the Indian Gaming Special Distribution Fund after deduction of the amounts appropriated pursuant to the priorities specified in Section 12012. See California Government Code 19856
  • creditor: means the state or the department or agency of the state seeking to collect the liability. See California Code of Civil Procedure 688.040
  • creed: include all aspects of religious belief, observance, and practice, including religious dress and grooming practices. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • debtor: means the debtor from whom the liability is sought to be collected. See California Code of Civil Procedure 688.040
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: refer to the Director and Department of Finance, respectively, unless the context otherwise requires. See California Government Code 13001
  • Department: means the Department of Human Resources. See California Government Code 19815
  • Department: means the Department of Parks and Recreation. See California Government Code 19851.1
  • department: means the Department of Parks and Recreation and "director" means the Director of Parks and Recreation. See California Unemployment Insurance Code 134
  • Department: means the Department of Parks and Recreation. See California Government Code 19871.2
  • Department: means the Department of Fair Employment and Housing. See California Government Code 19878
  • Department: means the Department of Parks and Recreation. See California Government Code 18903
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Director: means the Director of the Department of Human Resources. See California Government Code 19815
  • Director: means the Director of Fish and Game. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Director: means the Director of Parks and Recreation. See California Government Code 19871.2
  • Director: means the Director of Fair Employment and Housing. See California Government Code 19878
  • directors: means natural persons, designated in the articles or bylaws or elected by the incorporators, and their successors and natural persons designated, elected, or appointed by any other name or title to act as members of the governing body of the corporation. See California Government Code 31831.2
  • disabled: includes mental or physical illness and mental or physical injury, including any illness or injury resulting from pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical condition. See California Government Code 19878
  • Disadvantaged community: means a community with a median household income less than 80 percent of the statewide average. See California Government Code 18903
  • disaster: means a war or enemy-caused calamity, such as an attack by nuclear weapons, which renders unavailable the Lieutenant Governor, or the Attorney General, or the Secretary of State, or the Treasurer, or the Controller. See California Government Code 19991.7
  • Discrimination: includes refusal to sell, rent, or lease housing accommodations. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • District: means any district authorized to provide park and recreation services, except a school district. See California Government Code 19886.2
  • Division: means the Division of Labor Relations. See California Government Code 19815
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Election: means any election including a primary that is provided for under this code. See California Education Code 88097
  • Elections official: means any of the following:

    California Education Code 88100

  • Elector: means a person who is a United States citizen 18 years of age or older and, except as specified in subdivision (b), is a resident of an election precinct in this state on or before the day of an election. See California Education Code 88101
  • Employee: means any of the following:

    California Government Code 19878

  • Employer: includes any person regularly employing five or more persons, or any person acting as an agent of an employer, directly or indirectly, the state or any political or civil subdivision of the state, and cities, except as follows:

    California Government Code 19878.5

  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executed: when used with respect to the documents filed pursuant to this code or pursuant to regulations adopted under this code, and presented to the Secretary of State, include a document bearing a signature under subdivision (a). See California Education Code 17495
  • Facility: includes a place for organized team sports, outdoor recreation, permanent play structures, and multipurpose structures designed to meet the special recreational, educational, vocational, and social needs of youth. See California Government Code 19871.2
  • Family Care Leave benefits: means benefits authorized by Section 19878. See California Government Code 19878
  • Federal election: means any presidential election, general election, primary election, or special election held solely or in part for the purpose of selecting, nominating, or electing any candidate for the office of President, Vice President, presidential elector, Member of the United States Senate, or Member of the United States House of Representatives. See California Education Code 88103
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • firefighter: shall be deemed to include a member of a fire department or fire service of the state, including the University of California, whether these members are volunteer, partly paid, or fully paid, excepting those whose principal duties are clerical, such as stenographers, telephone operators and other workers not engaged in fire-suppression or rescue operations or the protection or preservation of life or property. See California Government Code 19886
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Free-flowing: means existing or flowing without artificial impoundment, diversion, or other modification of the river. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Full pay: means the gross base salary earnable by the employee and subject to retirement contribution if he had not vacated his position. See California Government Code 19870
  • Full pay: means the gross base salary earnable by the employee, and subject to retirement contribution on the date of the commencement of the employee's disability. See California Government Code 19878
  • Fund: means the Heritage Network Decal Fund created pursuant to Section 5066 of the Vehicle Code. See California Government Code 19851.1
  • Fund: means the State Urban Parks and Healthy Communities Fund. See California Government Code 19871.2
  • Fund: means the California Drought, Water, Parks, Climate, Coastal Protection, and Outdoor Access For All Fund, created by Section 80032. See California Government Code 18903
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gender: means sex, and includes a person's gender identity and gender expression. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Gender expression: means a person's gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person's assigned sex at birth. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • General election: means either of the following:

    California Education Code 88104

  • Genetic information: includes any request for, or receipt of, genetic services, or participation in clinical research that includes genetic services, by an individual or any family member of the individual. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Governing board: means board of school trustees, community college board of trustees, and city, and city and county board of education. See California Education Code 78
  • Green Party: means the Green Party of California. See California Government Code 19833
  • Housing accommodation: means any building, structure, or portion thereof that is occupied as, or intended for occupancy as, a residence by one or more families and any vacant land that is offered for sale or lease for the construction thereon of any building, structure, or portion thereof intended to be so occupied. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • Immediate environments: means the land immediately adjacent to the segments of the rivers designated in Section 5093. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Individual Tribal Casino Accounts: means an account for each individual tribe that has paid money into the Indian Gaming Special Distribution Fund. See California Government Code 19856
  • Industrial disability leave: means temporary disability as defined in Divisions 4 (commencing with Section 3201) and 4. See California Government Code 19870
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • internal control: means a process, including a continuous built-in component of operations, effected by a state agency's oversight body, management, and other personnel that provide reasonable assurance that the state agency's objectives will be achieved. See California Government Code 19889.2
  • Judicial office: means the office filled by any judicial officer. See California Education Code 88105
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Land use regulation: means the regulation by any state or local governmental entity, agency, or official of any activities that take place other than directly on the waters of the segments of the rivers designated in Section 5093. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local jurisdiction: means any city, county, or special district. See California Government Code 19856
  • Measure: means any constitutional amendment or other proposition submitted to a popular vote at any election. See California Education Code 88108
  • Medical condition: means either of the following:

    California Government Code 19878.5

  • Mental disability: includes , but is not limited to, all of the following:

    California Government Code 19878.5

  • Military and veteran status: means a member or veteran of the United States Armed Forces, United States Armed Forces Reserve, the United States National Guard, and the California National Guard. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Minimum management requirements: means the minimum wilderness management actions that are necessary to administer a wilderness area for the purpose of this chapter. See California Government Code 19991.1
  • Minimum tool: means the least intrusive tool, equipment, device, regulation, action, or practice that will achieve the minimum management requirements. See California Government Code 19991.1
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Monitoring: means the activities management establishes and operates to assess the quality of performance over time and promptly resolve the findings of audits and other reviews. See California Government Code 19889.2
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Nominate: means the selection, at a state-conducted primary election, of candidates who are entitled by law to participate in the general election for that office, but does not mean any other lawful mechanism that a political party may adopt for the purposes of choosing the candidate who is preferred by the party for a nonpartisan or voter-nominated office. See California Education Code 88112
  • Nomination documents: means declaration of candidacy and nomination papers. See California Education Code 88113
  • Nonpartisan office: means an office, except for a voter-nominated office, for which no party may nominate a candidate. See California Education Code 88114
  • Oath: includes an affirmation or declaration. See California Education Code 17389
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Education Code 19423
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • On the bases enumerated in this part: means or refers to discrimination on the basis of one or more of the following: race, religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry, physical disability, mental disability, medical condition, genetic information, marital status, sex, age, sexual orientation, or military and veteran status. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Party: means a political party or organization that has qualified for participation in any primary or presidential general election. See California Education Code 88122
  • Person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Education Code 17496
  • Person: includes one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, and receivers or other fiduciaries. See California Government Code 19878
  • Person: includes any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, or company. See California Education Code 19426
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Physical disability: includes , but is not limited to, all of the following:

    California Government Code 19878.5

  • Police protective equipment: means equipment or attire worn by law enforcement personnel for the purpose of protecting themselves or the public from overt actions of others or to assist in the carrying out of related duties, for example, handgun, baton, billy, handcuffs, flashlight, whistle, leather belt, holster and cases or attachments. See California Government Code 19850
  • Polling place: means a location where a voter casts a ballot and includes the following terms, as applicable: poll, polling location, and vote center. See California Education Code 88123
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Precinct: means a geographical area within a county that is made up of voters and is formed pursuant to Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 12200) of Division 12. See California Education Code 88124
  • Preservation: means rehabilitation, stabilization, restoration, conservation, development, and reconstruction, or any combination of those activities. See California Government Code 18903
  • presidential elector: as used in this chapter means an elector of President and Vice President of the United States, and not an elector as defined in Section 321. See California Government Code 19828
  • Primary election: includes all primary nominating elections provided for by this code. See California Education Code 88127
  • Process: includes a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings of either a civil or criminal nature. See California Education Code 19431
  • Program: means the State Heritage Network Plan and Grants Program. See California Government Code 19851.1
  • Property: includes both personal and real property. See California Education Code 17389
  • Property: includes all property, real, personal or mixed, tangible or intangible, or any interest therein necessary or desirable for carrying out the purposes of this part. See California Government Code 19243.2
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Protection: means those actions necessary to prevent harm or damage to persons, property, or natural, cultural, and historic resources, actions to improve access to public open-space areas, or actions to allow the continued use and enjoyment of property or natural, cultural, and historic resources, and includes site monitoring, acquisition, development, restoration, preservation, and interpretation. See California Government Code 18903
  • Public building: includes any structure, building, facility, or work that a state agency has jurisdiction of, or is authorized to design or construct, including, but not limited to, infrastructure, parking lots, landscaping, and other ancillary facilities, including furnishings and equipment, incidental to the use of any building, and also includes the site thereof, and any easements or rights of way appurtenant thereto or necessary for its full use. See California Government Code 19243.2
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Religious duties: means duties of employment connected with carrying on the religious activities of a religious corporation or association. See California Government Code 19880
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Resources Agency: means the Secretary of the Resources Agency and any constituent units of the Resources Agency that the secretary determines to be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Restoration: means the improvement of physical structures or facilities and, in the case of natural systems and landscape features, includes, but is not limited to, projects for the control of erosion, stormwater capture and storage or to otherwise reduce stormwater pollution, the control and elimination of invasive species, the planting of native species, the removal of waste and debris, prescribed burning, fuel hazard reduction, fencing out threats to existing or restored natural resources, road elimination, improving instream, riparian, or managed wetland habitat conditions, and other plant and wildlife habitat improvement to increase the natural system value of the property or coastal or ocean resource. See California Government Code 18903
  • River: means the water, bed, and shoreline of rivers, streams, channels, lakes, bays, estuaries, marshes, wetlands, and lagoons, up to the first line of permanently established riparian vegetation. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Safety equipment: means equipment or attire worn over, in place of, or in addition to, regular clothing, which is necessary to protect the employees' health and welfare, for example, helmets, goggles, safety harnesses, and fireman "turnout gear. See California Government Code 19850
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Resources Agency. See California Government Code 19991.1
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Resources Agency. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Sex: includes , but is not limited to, the following:

    California Government Code 19878.5

  • Sexual orientation: means heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality. See California Government Code 19878.5
  • Signature: includes either of the following:

    California Education Code 88166

  • Source of income: means lawful, verifiable income paid directly to a tenant or paid to a representative of a tenant. See California Government Code 19880.1
  • Special election: is a n election, the specific time for the holding of which is not prescribed by law. See California Education Code 88167.5
  • Special treatment areas: means , for purposes of this chapter, those areas defined as special treatment areas in Section 895. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 17389
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 19407
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 77
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 19427
  • state agency: includes every state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, and commission. See California Government Code 11000
  • State agency: means every entity included in subdivision (a) of Section 11000 and the California State University. See California Government Code 19889.3
  • State agency: includes any state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, commission, organization, or agency including, without limitation, the University of California, the California State University, the California Community Colleges, and the Judicial Council. See California Government Code 19243.2
  • State employees: means employees of the state and its agencies, but does not include employees of the University of California or the California State University. See California Government Code 19850
  • Statewide election: is a n election held throughout the state. See California Education Code 88180
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term appears unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 17486
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 19404
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • System: means the California wilderness preservation system. See California Government Code 19991.1
  • System: means the California Wild and Scenic Rivers System. See California Government Code 19991.14
  • Testify: includes any mode of oral statement made under oath or affirmation. See California Education Code 17389
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust: means a State Heritage Network Trust organized pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 5078. See California Government Code 19851.1
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Unavailable: means that any such officer is either killed, missing or so seriously injured as to be unable to perform his duties. See California Government Code 19991.7
  • Uniform: means outer garments, excluding shoes, which are required to be worn exclusively while carrying out the duties and responsibilities of the position and which are different from the design or fashion of the general population. See California Government Code 19850
  • Urbanized or heavily urbanized local agencies: include cities, counties, or a city and county, or special districts as determined by the Department of Finance according to the latest verifiable census data pursuant to subdivisions (c) and (d) of Section 5621. See California Government Code 19871.2
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Voter: means any elector who is registered under this code. See California Education Code 88183
  • Voter-nominated office: means a congressional or state elective office for which a candidate may choose to have his or her party preference or lack of party preference indicated upon the ballot. See California Education Code 88185
  • Wilderness areas: means component areas of the system as described in Section 5093. See California Government Code 19991.1
  • Work clothes: means attire that is worn over, or in place of, regular clothing and is necessary to protect the employee's clothing from damage or stains which would be present in the normal performance of his or her duties, for example, aprons, lab smocks, shop coats, or coveralls. See California Government Code 19850
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writing: includes printing and typewriting. See California Education Code 17389