§ 12210 A corporation may be sued as provided in the Code of Civil Procedure.
§ 12211 Any corporation shall, as a condition of its existence as a …
§ 12212 The fees of the Secretary of State for filing instruments by or on …
§ 12213 Any agreement, certificate, or other instrument filed pursuant to the …
§ 12214 (a) Upon receipt of any instrument by the Secretary of State for …
§ 12214.5 The Secretary of State may cancel the filing of articles if a check …
§ 12214.6 (a) A corporation that (1) fails to file a statement pursuant to …
§ 12215 Except as otherwise permitted, any reference in this part to mailing …
§ 12216 If the articles provide for more than one vote for any member on any …
§ 12217 All references in this part to financial statements of a corporation …
§ 12218 As used in this part, “independent accountant” means a certified …
§ 12219 Any reference in this part to the time a notice is given or sent …
§ 12220 A notice or report mailed or delivered as part of a newsletter, …
§ 12221 “Acknowledged” means that an instrument is either:(a) Formally …
§ 12222 “Approved by (or approval of) the board” means approved or ratified …
§ 12223 “Approval by (or approval of) a majority of all members” means …
§ 12224 “Approval by (or approval of) the members” means approved or ratified …
§ 12225 “Articles” includes the articles of incorporation, amendments …
§ 12226 “Bylaws” includes amendments thereto and amended bylaws.
§ 12227 “Board” means the board of directors of the corporation.
§ 12228 “Business corporation” means a corporation as defined in Section 162 …
§ 12228.3 “Capital account cooperative” is a worker cooperative in which the …
§ 12228.5 For the purposes of this part, all references to “chairman of the …
§ 12229 “Chapter” refers to a chapter of this part unless otherwise expressly …
§ 12230 “Class” refers to those memberships which: (a) are identified in the …
§ 12230.5 “Collective board worker cooperative” means a worker cooperative in …
§ 12231 “Constituent corporation” means a corporation which is merged with …
§ 12232 “Corporation” as used in this part means a corporation which is …
§ 12233 “Directors” means natural persons, designated in the articles or …
§ 12234 “Disappearing corporation” means a constituent corporation which is …
§ 12235 “Distribution” means the distribution of any gains, profits or …
§ 12236 “Domestic corporation” means a corporation formed under the laws of …
§ 12237 “Foreign corporation” means a foreign corporation as defined in …
§ 12238 (a) “Member” means any person who, pursuant to a specific …
§ 12239 A “membership” refers to the rights a member has pursuant to a …
§ 12240 “Membership certificate,” as used in this part, means a document …
§ 12241 “Officers’ certificate” means a certificate signed and verified by …
§ 12242 “On the certificate,” as used in this part means that a statement …
§ 12242.5 “Other business entity” means a domestic or foreign limited liability …
§ 12242.6 “Parent party” means the corporation in control of any constituent …
§ 12243 (a) (1) If the corporation is organized to provide goods or …
§ 12244 “Patronage distribution” means any transfer made to a patron of the …
§ 12245 “Person,” unless otherwise expressly provided, includes any …
§ 12245.2 “Preferred memberships” means memberships that have a preference over …
§ 12246 “Proper county” means the county where the corporation’s principal …
§ 12246.2 “Series” of memberships means memberships within a class of …
§ 12247 “Shareholder” shall have the same meaning as “member” as defined in …
§ 12248 “Share certificate” shall have the same meaning as “membership …
§ 12249 “Surviving corporation” means a corporation into which one or more …
§ 12250 “Vacancy” when used with respect to the board means any authorized …
§ 12251 “Verified” means that the statements contained in a certificate or …
§ 12252 “Vote” includes, but is not limited to, authorization by written …
§ 12253 (a) “Voting power” means the power to vote for the election of …
§ 12253.5 “Worker cooperative” or “employment cooperative” means a corporation …
§ 12254 “Written” or “in writing” includes facsimile, telegraphic, and other …
§ 12255 “Written ballot” does not include a ballot distributed at a special …
§ 12256 A central organization is a corporation whose membership is composed, …

Terms Used In California Codes > Corporations Code > Title 1 > Division 3 > Part 2 > Chapter 1 > Article 2

  • Account: when used to mean a contract of deposit of funds between a depositor and a financial institution, includes a checking account, savings account, certificate of deposit, share account, mutual capital certificate, and other like arrangements. See California Government Code 21254
  • Administrative officer: means the chief administrative officer, county administrator, county executive, county manager, or other officials employed in the several counties under various titles whose duties and responsibilities are comparable to the officials named herein. See California Government Code 21419
  • Adopted budget: means the budget document formally approved by the board of supervisors after the required public hearings and deliberations on the recommended budget. See California Government Code 21419
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Aquaculture: means that form of agriculture devoted to the propagation, cultivation, maintenance, and harvesting of aquatic plants and animals in marine, brackish, and fresh water. See California Government Code 51917
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • assessed value: means 25 percent of full value to, and including, the 1980-81 fiscal year, and 100 percent of full value for the 1981-82 fiscal year and fiscal years thereafter. See California Education Code 19460.5
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • attorney: means a licensee or former licensee of the State Bar. See California Government Code 25350.60 v2
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Auditor: means the county auditor or that officer whose responsibilities include those designated in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 26900) of Division 2. See California Government Code 21419
  • Authority: means the High-Speed Rail Authority. See California Government Code 22751
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Beneficiary: means a person to whom a donative transfer of property is made or that person's successor in interest, and:

    California Government Code 21257

  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Bird: means a wild bird or part of a wild bird. See California Government Code 51920
  • Board: means the county board of supervisors acting as the governing authority of a county service area. See California Government Code 25210.2
  • board: means the Livestock Identification Advisory Board. See California Government Code 21574.5
  • board: means any entity listed in Section 101, the entities referred to in Sections 1000 and 3600, the State Bar, the Bureau of Real Estate, and any other state agency that issues a license, certificate, or registration authorizing a person to engage in a business or profession. See California Education Code 17352
  • Board: means the board of supervisors of the county, or the same body acting as the governing board of a special district whose affairs and finances are under its supervision and control. See California Government Code 21419
  • board of governors: shall be deemed to refer to the board of trustees. See California Government Code 25549.2
  • building: includes onsite and offsite facilities, utilities, and improvements, including permanent improvement of the grounds of a building, which, as agreed upon by the parties, are appropriate for the proper operation or function of the building to be occupied jointly by the county or city and county and the private person, firm, or corporation. See California Government Code 25549.1
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charitable purpose: means the relief of poverty, the advancement of education or religion, the promotion of health, the promotion of a governmental purpose, or any other purpose the achievement of which is beneficial to the community. See California Government Code 21580
  • City: includes city and county. See California Education Code 17322
  • City: includes city and county and "incorporated town" but does not include "unincorporated town" or "village. See California Education Code 5092
  • City: includes incorporated city, city and county, municipal corporation, municipality, town and incorporated town. See California Education Code 18555
  • City: includes "city and county" and "incorporated town" but does not include "unincorporated town" or "village. See California Education Code 19429
  • Claim: means a demand for payment for any of the following, whether due, not due, accrued or not accrued, or contingent, and whether liquidated or unliquidated:

    California Water Code 36455.3

  • Client: means a person who has, within the three years preceding the sale of financial products by a lawyer to that person, employed that lawyer for legal services. See California Government Code 25216.3
  • commission: means the California Transportation Commission. See California Government Code 20772.6
  • Commission: means the Public Utilities Commission created by Section 1 of Article XII of the California Constitution, and "commissioner" means a member of the commission. See California Education Code 5093
  • Commission: means the Fish and Game Commission, and "commissioner" means a member of the Fish and Game Commission. See California Government Code 51924
  • Commission: means the Public Utilities Commission. See California Government Code 22796
  • Commissioner: means any county agricultural commissioner. See California Education Code 19957.5
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Community property: means :

    California Government Code 21259

  • compensation: means the remuneration paid out of funds controlled by the employer in payment for the member's services performed during normal working hours or for time during which the member is excused from work because of any of the following:

    California Government Code 20630

  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conservator: includes a limited conservator. See California Government Code 21261
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Controller: means the State Controller. See California Government Code 21419
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: as used in this part means a corporation which is organized under, or subject to this part, including a central organization. See California Corporations Code 12232
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 17321
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Education Code 17491
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 5091
  • County: includes city and county. See California Government Code 51925
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 18556
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 19958
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 19428
  • County service area: means a county service area formed pursuant to this chapter or any of its statutory predecessors. See California Government Code 25210.2
  • Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means the Department of Transportation. See California Government Code 20773
  • Department: means the Department of Transportation. See California Government Code 22751
  • Department: means the Department of Fish and Wildlife. See California Government Code 51928
  • Department: means the Department of Food and Agriculture. See California Education Code 19959
  • Department: means the Department of Housing and Community Development. See California Government Code 22777
  • Department: means the Department of Housing and Community Development. See California Government Code 22796
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Digital signature: means an electronic identifier, created by computer, intended by the party using it to have the same force and effect as the use of a manual signature. See California Education Code 19425
  • Directors: means natural persons, designated in the articles or bylaws or elected by the incorporators, and their successors and natural persons designated, elected, or appointed by any other name or title to act as members of the governing body of the corporation. See California Corporations Code 12233
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Distribution system: means a system of pipes within a mobilehome park operated by a person or corporation, other than a public utility, which is connected to a meter or other measuring device under the control of a privately owned or publicly owned public utility, for purposes of distribution of gas by the operator of a mobilehome park to the tenants of the mobilehome park who are the actual users of the gas furnished through the meter or device to the operator by the public utility. See California Government Code 22777
  • Distribution system: means a system of pipes, operated by a person or corporation other than a public utility, serving 10 or more customers, within a citywide area, an apartment house, a condominium, a cluster of homes, a shopping center, a combination of any of the above, a mobilehome park with two or more customers, or any system if a portion of the system is located in a public place, which is connected to a tank or tanks, for the purpose of distribution of propane to the end customers. See California Government Code 22796
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Eligible institution: means either of the following:

    California Government Code 25352

  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • emergency standard: means any emergency standard for honey, standard units of weight, type of container, color classifications, or markings required upon containers which is established by the director pursuant to Section 29552. See California Government Code 22156
  • Endowment fund: means an institutional fund or part thereof that, under the terms of a gift instrument, is not wholly expendable by the institution on a current basis. See California Government Code 21580
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executed: when used with respect to the documents filed pursuant to this code or pursuant to regulations adopted under this code, and presented to the Secretary of State, include a document bearing a signature under subdivision (a). See California Education Code 17495
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • federal pipeline standards: means the federal Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (49 U. See California Government Code 22777
  • federal pipeline standards: means the Federal Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (49 U. See California Government Code 22796
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee generating case: means a case or matter that, if undertaken on behalf of an indigent person by an attorney in private practice, reasonably may be expected to result in payment of a fee for legal services from an award to a client, from public funds, or from the opposing party. See California Government Code 25352
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiduciary: means personal representative, trustee, guardian, conservator, attorney-in-fact under a power of attorney, custodian under the California Uniform Transfer To Minors Act (Part 9 (commencing with Section 3900) of Division 4), or other legal representative subject to this code. See California Government Code 21268
  • Final budget: means the adopted budget adjusted by all revisions throughout the fiscal year as of June 30. See California Government Code 21419
  • Financial institution: means a state or national bank, state or federal savings and loan association or credit union, or like organization. See California Government Code 21269
  • Financial products: means long-term care insurance, life insurance, and annuities governed by the Insurance Code, or its successors. See California Government Code 25216.3
  • fireman: as used in this part , also includes persons employed in positions set forth in Sections 20414, 20423. See California Government Code 22013.7
  • Fiscal year: means the current 12-month period to which the annual operating budget applies and at the end of which a government determines its financial position and the results of its operations. See California Government Code 21419
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fish: means a wild fish, mollusk, crustacean, invertebrate, amphibian, or part, spawn, or ovum of any of those animals. See California Government Code 51930
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gas: means natural or manufactured gas, except propane, used for light, heat, or power. See California Government Code 22777
  • gift: means a transfer of personal property made voluntarily and without consideration. See California Government Code 21540
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Gift instrument: means a record or records, including an institutional solicitation, under which property is granted to, transferred to, or held by an institution as an institutional fund. See California Government Code 21580
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Greenhouse: means a structure covered with transparent or translucent materials for the purpose of admitting natural light and controlling the atmosphere for growing plants, including floricultural, ornamental, or other nursery and agricultural products. See California Education Code 19960
  • Gross operating revenue: as used in this chapter includes all revenue derived from the transportation of property having origin and destination within this state, where the revenue is derived from transportation performed under a permit issued by the commission. See California Government Code 22819
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • health care provider: includes , but is not limited to, the following:

    California Government Code 21493

  • High-speed rail: means intercity passenger rail service that utilizes an alignment and technology that makes it capable of sustained speeds of 200 miles per hour or greater. See California Government Code 22751
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Inhabited territory: means territory within which there reside 12 or more registered voters. See California Government Code 25210.2
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Institution: means any of the following:

    California Government Code 21580

  • Institutional fund: means a fund held by an institution exclusively for charitable purposes. See California Government Code 21580
  • Instrument: means a will, trust, deed, or other writing that designates a beneficiary or makes a donative transfer of property. See California Government Code 21291.5
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • interested person: includes any of the following:

    California Government Code 21293

  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • IOLTA account: means an account or investment product established and maintained pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 6211 that is any of the following:

    California Government Code 25352

  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Landscape architect: means a person who holds a license to practice landscape architecture in this state under the authority of this chapter. See California Government Code 26421
  • Latent power: means any service or facility authorized by Article 4 (commencing with Section 25213) that the local agency formation commission has determined, pursuant to subdivision (i) of Section 56425, that the county service area was not authorized to provide prior to January 1, 2009. See California Government Code 25210.2
  • law practice: means (a) a law practice conducted by an individual. See California Government Code 25350.60 v2
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lawyer: means a licensee of the State Bar or a person who is admitted and in good standing and eligible to practice before the bar of any United States court or the highest court of the District of Columbia or any state, territory, or insular possession of the United States, or licensed to practice law in, or is admitted in good standing and eligible to practice before the bar of the highest court of, a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, and includes any agent of the lawyer or law firm or law corporation doing business in the state. See California Government Code 25216.3
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • license: means license, certificate, registration, or other means to engage in a business or profession regulated by this code or referred to in Section 1000 or 3600. See California Education Code 17330
  • Licensee: means a person or entity, other than a corporation, authorized by a license, certificate, registration, or other means to engage in a business or profession regulated by this code or referred to in Section 1000 or 3600. See California Education Code 17351
  • Licensing board: means any board, as defined in Section 22, the State Bar of California, and the Department of Real Estate. See California Education Code 17351
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local agency formation commission: means a local agency formation commission that operates in the county pursuant to the Cortese-Knox-Hertzberg Local Government Reorganization Act of 2000, Division 3 (commencing with Section 56000) of Title 5. See California Government Code 25210.2
  • Local enforcement agency: means the city, county, or city and county which has assumed the responsibility for the enforcement of Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 18300) of Part 2. See California Government Code 22777
  • Local enforcement agency: means the city, county, or city and county that has assumed the responsibility for the enforcement of Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 18300) of Part 2. See California Government Code 22796
  • Mammal: means a wild or feral mammal or part of a wild or feral animal, but not a wild, feral, or undomesticated burro. See California Government Code 51934
  • Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • missing person: means a person who is presumed to be dead under Section 12401. See California Government Code 21552
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Notice: includes all papers and orders required to be served in any proceedings before any court, board, or officer, or when required by law to be served independently of such proceeding. See California Government Code 26660
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Education Code 17324
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Education Code 17493
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Education Code 18558
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Education Code 19423
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer of the county: includes any elective or appointive officer of a county and any person in charge of any office, department, service, or institution of the county, or a division or branch thereof. See California Government Code 21538
  • Operator: is a mobilehome park owner or operator who maintains and operates a master-metered natural gas distribution system. See California Government Code 22777
  • Operator: means the owner of the mobilehome park or the distribution system, or the designated responsible employee, manager, or legal representative. See California Government Code 22796
  • Original bill: A bill which is drafted by a committee. It is introduced by the committee or subcommittee chairman after the committee votes to report it.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Parent: means any individual entitled to take as a parent under this code by intestate succession from the child whose relationship is involved. See California Government Code 21296
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. See California Government Code 21580
  • Person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Education Code 17496
  • Person: includes any person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, company, limited liability company, syndicate, estate, trust, business trust, or organization of any kind. See California Education Code 18561
  • Person: means any natural person or any partnership, corporation, limited liability company, trust, or other type of association. See California Government Code 51941
  • Person: means any individual, partnership, association, corporation, limited liability company, or any organized group of persons whether incorporated or not. See California Education Code 19963
  • Person: includes any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, or company. See California Education Code 19426
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, or other entity. See California Government Code 21298
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Personal representative: means executor, administrator, administrator with the will annexed, special administrator, successor personal representative, public administrator acting pursuant to Section 7660, or a person who performs substantially the same function under the law of another jurisdiction governing the person's status. See California Government Code 21310
  • Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment form: means a request regarding resuscitative measures that directs a health care provider regarding resuscitative and life-sustaining measures. See California Government Code 21492
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Policeman: as used in this part includes members of the California Highway Patrol, state safety members of the Public Employees' Retirement System employed by the Department of Justice, sheriffs, undersheriffs, deputy sheriffs, marshals and deputy marshals, and any other employee of a public agency other than the state or University of California in a position designated as a policeman's position by the board for the purposes of Section 218(d)(5)(A) of the Social Security Act. See California Government Code 22013
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Process: includes all writs, warrants, summons, and orders of courts of justice, or judicial officers. See California Government Code 26660
  • Process: includes a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings of either a civil or criminal nature. See California Education Code 19431
  • Propane: means propane gas, also known as liquid petroleum gas or LPG. See California Government Code 22796
  • Property: means anything that may be the subject of ownership and includes both real and personal property and any interest therein. See California Government Code 21313
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Public place: means any system supplying two or more customers where any portion is under a public right of way. See California Government Code 22796
  • Qualified legal services project: means either of the following:

    California Government Code 25352

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Real property: includes a leasehold interest in real property. See California Government Code 21318
  • Recipient: means a qualified legal services project or support center receiving financial assistance under this article. See California Government Code 25352
  • Recommended budget: means the budget document recommended to the board of supervisors by the designated county official. See California Government Code 21419
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See California Government Code 21580
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Request regarding resuscitative measures: includes one, or both of, the following:

    California Government Code 21492

  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
  • secretary: means the Secretary of Transportation. See California Government Code 20774
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Food and Agriculture. See California Education Code 19961
  • Security: includes any note, stock, treasury stock, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in an oil, gas, or mining title or lease or in payments out of production under such a title or lease, collateral trust certificate, transferable share, voting trust certificate or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a security, or any certificate of interest or participation, any temporary or interim certificate, receipt, or certificate of deposit for, or any warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing. See California Government Code 21320
  • Sell: means to act as a broker for a commission. See California Government Code 25216.3
  • Sell: includes offer for sale, expose for sale, possess for sale, exchange, barter, or trade. See California Education Code 19966
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sole ownership: The type of property ownership in which one individual holds legal title to the property and has full control of it.
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 17317
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 19407
  • Spouse: includes domestic partner, as defined in Section 37 of this code, as required by Section 297. See California Government Code 21322
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 77
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 17325
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 5090
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Government Code 51950
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 19427
  • State: includes any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession subject to the legislative authority of the United States. See California Government Code 21325
  • state agency: includes every state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, and commission. See California Government Code 11000
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs, unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 17319
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term appears unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 17486
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 5028
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Government Code 51944
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 19970
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 19404
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: includes mark when the signer or subscriber can not write, such signer's or subscriber's name being written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the signer's or subscriber's name. See California Education Code 19424
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplier: means a person or corporation, other than a public utility, who sells propane and arranges for its delivery to the operator's tank. See California Government Code 22796
  • Take: means hunt, pursue, catch, capture, or kill, or attempt to hunt, pursue, catch, capture, or kill. See California Government Code 51951
  • Tank: means a vessel for the storage and distribution of propane. See California Government Code 22796
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Transferor: means the testator, settlor, grantor, owner, or other person who executes an instrument. See California Government Code 21329
  • transportation corridor: means an area or one or more parcels of land that meets any of the following requirements:

    California Government Code 20775

  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust: includes the following:

    California Government Code 21331

  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trust company: means an entity that has qualified to engage in and conduct a trust business in this state. See California Government Code 21335
  • Trust fund: means the propane safety inspection and enforcement trust fund established pursuant to Section 4462. See California Government Code 22796
  • Trustee: includes an original, additional, or successor trustee, whether or not appointed or confirmed by a court. See California Government Code 21337
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
  • Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writing: includes any form of recorded message capable of comprehension by ordinary visual means. See California Education Code 18535
  • Zone: means a zone formed pursuant to Article 8 (commencing with Section 25217). See California Government Code 25210.2