(a) Statutory penalty or forfeiture. Where property has been forfeited or a penalty incurred to the state or to an officer, for its use, pursuant to statute, the attorney-general, or the district attorney of the county in which the action is triable, if such an action has not already been brought by the attorney-general, shall commence an action to recover the property or penalty. A recovery in such an action bars the recovery in any other action brought for the same cause.

(b) Forfeiture on conviction for treason. Where personal property is forfeited to the state upon a conviction of outlawry for treason, the attorney-general shall commence an action to recover the property or its value.

(c) Forfeiture of recognizance. Where the condition of a recognizance is broken, the recognizance is wholly forfeited by an order of the court directing its prosecution.

Where a recognizance to the state is forfeited, it is not necessary to allege or prove any damages.