§ 201 Application of Article
§ 202 Cause of Action Accruing Without the State
§ 203 Method of Computing Periods of Limitation Generally
§ 204 Stay of Commencement of Action; Demand for Arbitration
§ 205 Termination of Action
§ 206 Computing Periods of Limitation in Particular Actions
§ 207 Defendant’s Absence From State or Residence Under False Name
§ 208 Infancy, Insanity
§ 209 War
§ 210 Death of Claimant or Person Liable; Cause of Action Accruing After Death and Before Grant of Letters
§ 211 Actions to Be Commenced Within Twenty Years
§ 212 Actions to Be Commenced Within Ten Years
§ 213 Actions to Be Commenced Within Six Years: Where Not Otherwise Provided For; On Contract; On Sealed Instrument; On Bond or Note, and Mortgage Upon Real
§ 213-A Residential Rent Overcharge
§ 213-B Action by a Victim of a Criminal Offense
§ 213-C Action by Victim of Conduct Constituting Certain Sexual Offenses
§ 213-D Actions to Be Commenced Within Three Years; Medical Debt
§ 214 Actions to Be Commenced Within Three Years: for Non-Payment of Money Collected On Execution; for Penalty Created by Statute; to Recover Chattel; for I
§ 214-A Action for Medical, Dental or Podiatric Malpractice to Be Commenced Within Two Years and Six Months; Exceptions
§ 214-B Action to Recover Damages for Personal Injury Caused by Contact With or Exposure to Phenoxy Herbicides
§ 214-C Certain Actions to Be Commenced Within Three Years of Discovery
§ 214-D Limitations On Certain Actions Against Licensed Engineers and Architects
§ 214-E Action to Recover Damages for Personal Injury Caused by the Infusion of Such Blood Products Which Result in the Contraction of the Human Immunodeficie
§ 214-F Action to Recover Damages for Personal Injury Caused by Contact With or Exposure to Any Substance or Combination of Substances Found Within an Area Designated as a Superfund Site
§ 214-G Certain Child Sexual Abuse Cases
§ 214-H Certain Actions by Public Water Suppliers to Recover Damages for Injury to Property
§ 215 Actions to Be Commenced Within One Year: Against Sheriff, Coroner or Constable; for Escape of Prisoner; for Assault, Battery, False Imprisonment, Malicious Prosecution, Libel or Slander; for Violation of Right of Privacy; for Penalty Given to Informer; O
§ 216 Abbreviation of Period to One Year After Notice
§ 217 Proceeding Against Body or Officer; Actions Complaining About Conduct That Would Constitute a Union’s Breach of Its Duty of Fair Representation; Four
§ 217-A Actions to Be Commenced Within One Year and Ninety Days
§ 218 Transitional Provisions

Terms Used In New York Laws > Civil Practice Law and Rules > Article 2

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bonds: shall mean general obligation bonds issued pursuant to the environmental bond act of 2020 "restore mother nature" in accordance with article VII of the New York state constitution and article five of the state finance law. See
  • Central Pine Barrens area: shall mean the contiguous area as described and bounded as follows:

    Beginning at a point where the southerly side of Route 25A intersects the easterly side of Miller Place Road; thence southward along the easterly boundary of Miller Place Road to Helme Avenue; thence southward along the easterly boundary of Helme Avenue to Miller Place-Middle Island Road; thence southward along the easterly boundary of Miller Place-Middle Island Road to Whiskey Road; thence westward along the southerly boundary of Whiskey Road to Mount Sinai-Coram Road; thence southward along the easterly boundary of Mount Sinai-Coram Road to Middle Country Road (Route 25); thence westward along the southerly boundary of Route 25 to Patchogue-Mount Sinai Road (County Route 83); thence southward along the easterly boundary of County Route 83 to Bicycle Path Drive; thence southeastward along the easterly side of Bicycle Path Drive to Mt. See

  • Commission: shall mean the Central Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission established pursuant to section 57-0119 of this title. See
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Cost: means the expense of an approved project, which shall include but not be limited to appraisal, surveying, planning, engineering and architectural services, plans and specifications, consultant and legal services, site preparation, demolition, construction and other direct expenses incident to such project. See
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Development: shall mean the performance of any building activity or mining operation, the making of any material change in the use or intensity of use of any structure or land and the creation or termination of rights of access or riparian rights. See
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Environmental justice community: means a minority or low-income community that may bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, municipal, and commercial operations or the execution of federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies. See
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Land use plan: shall mean the comprehensive Central Pine Barrens land use plan pursuant to section 57-0121 of this title, including the generic environmental impact statement thereon. See
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Municipality: means a local public authority or public benefit corporation, a county, city, town, village, school district, supervisory district, district corporation, improvement district within a county, city, town or village, or Indian nation or tribe recognized by the state or the United States with a reservation wholly or partly within the boundaries of New York state, or any combination thereof. See
  • Open space land conservation project: means purchase of fee title or conservation easements for the purpose of protecting lands or waters and/or providing recreational opportunities for the public that (i) possess ecological, habitat, recreational or scenic values; (ii) protect the quality of a drinking water supply; (iii) provide flood control or flood mitigation values; (iv) constitute a floodplain; (v) provide or have the potential to provide important habitat connectivity; (vi) provide open space for the use and enjoyment of the public; or (vii) provide community gardens in urban areas. See
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plan: shall mean the comprehensive management plan created pursuant to section 57-0115 of this title. See
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Sequester: To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC