Part 1 Jurisdiction
Part 2 Temporary Removal and Preliminary Orders
Part 3 Preliminary Procedure
Part 4 Hearings
Part 5 Orders
Part 6 New Hearing and Reconsideration of Orders
Part 7 Compliance With Orders
Part 8 Visitation of Minors in Foster Care

Terms Used In New York Laws > Family Court > Article 10 - Child Protective Proceedings

  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Applicant: shall mean any entity eligible to receive grants or loans under the HOME program. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1171
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • chancellor: shall mean the chancellor of the city district. See
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • CHAS: shall mean the New York state comprehensive housing affordability strategy prepared in accordance with the requirements of the national affordable housing act of 1990. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1171
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Child: means any person or persons alleged to have been abused or neglected, whichever the case may be;

    (c) "A case involving abuse" means any proceeding under this article in which there are allegations that one or more of the children of, or the legal responsibility of, the respondent are abused children;

    (d) "Drug" means any substance defined as a controlled substance in section thirty-three hundred six of the public health law;

    (e) "Abused child" means a child less than eighteen years of age whose parent or other person legally responsible for his care

    (i) inflicts or allows to be inflicted upon such child physical injury by other than accidental means which causes or creates a substantial risk of death, or serious or protracted disfigurement, or protracted impairment of physical or emotional health or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ, or

    (ii) creates or allows to be created a substantial risk of physical injury to such child by other than accidental means which would be likely to cause death or serious or protracted disfigurement, or protracted impairment of physical or emotional health or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ, or

    (iii) (A) commits, or allows to be committed an offense against such child defined in article one hundred thirty of the penal law; (B) allows, permits or encourages such child to engage in any act described in sections 230. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012

  • Child protective agency: means the child protective service of the appropriate local department of social services or such other agencies with whom the local department has arranged for the provision of child protective services under the local plan for child protective services or an Indian tribe that has entered into an agreement with the state department of social services pursuant to section thirty-nine of the social services law to provide child protective services. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012
  • city board: shall mean the board of education of the city district. See
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of the state division of housing and community renewal. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 902
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of the state division of housing and community renewal. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 921
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of the state division of housing and community renewal. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • community board: shall mean the board of education of a community district. See
  • community council: shall mean the community district education council of a community district established pursuant to section twenty-five hundred ninety-c of this article. See
  • community district: shall mean a community school district created or to be created within the city district under the provisions of this article. See
  • community superintendent: shall mean the superintendent of schools of a community district. See
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: shall mean the housing trust fund corporation established in section forty-five-a of this chapter. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 921
  • Corporation: means the housing trust fund corporation established in section forty-five-a of this chapter. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1052
  • Corporation: shall mean the housing trust fund corporation established in section forty-five-a of this chapter. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1201
  • Corporation: shall mean the housing trust fund corporation established in section forty-five-a of this chapter. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1221
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Disabled veteran: shall mean a veteran who is certified by the United States department of veterans affairs or the department of defense as entitled to receive disability payments upon the certification of such department for a disability incurred by him or her in time of war. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1201
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • dispositional hearing: means a hearing to determine what order of disposition should be made. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1045
  • Division: shall mean the state division of housing and community renewal. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 902
  • Division: shall mean the division of housing and community renewal. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 921
  • Division: shall mean the state division of housing and community renewal. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • Division: shall mean the division of housing and community renewal. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1171
  • Division urban initiatives program: shall mean the program heretofore administered by the division pursuant to appropriations and reappropriations for the purposes of urban initiatives programs. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 921
  • educational facilities: shall mean land and the improvements thereon for use in connection with any educational activity to be undertaken or provided by the city board or any community council or any facility attendant thereto or any facility necessary, useful or desirable in connection with such activity. See
  • Eligible applicant: shall mean a city, town, village or not-for-profit corporation in existence for a period of one or more years prior to application, which is, or will be at the time of award, incorporated under the not-for-profit corporation law and has substantial experience in adapting or retrofitting homes for persons with disabilities. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1201
  • Eligible area: shall mean an area: (i) that has experienced sustained physical deterioration, decay, neglect, or disinvestment; (ii) has a number of substandard buildings or vacant residential or commercial units; and (iii) in which more than fifty percent of the residents are persons of low income, or which is designated by a state or federal agency to be eligible for a community or economic development program. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1221
  • Eligible project: means a housing project located in a rural area which is to be owned or operated by an eligible sponsor and which has received (or which the sponsor has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the commissioner will receive) federal assistance. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1021
  • Eligible sponsor: means either a corporation organized pursuant to the not-for-profit corporation law, a public housing authority as defined pursuant to subdivision two of section three of the public housing law, or an eligible borrower as defined in Title V of the United States Housing Act of 1949. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1021
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • fact-finding hearing: means a hearing to determine whether the child is an abused or neglected child as defined by this article. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1044
  • Federal assistance: means assistance from the Farmer's Home Administration pursuant to title five of the United States Housing Act of 1949. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1021
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • HOME program: shall mean subtitle A of title II of the national affordable housing act. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1171
  • HOME regulations: shall mean HUD regulations created pursuant to the national affordable housing act of 1990 as amended. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1171
  • Housing preservation and community renewal activities: include (a) the new construction or the acquisition, maintenance, preservation, repair, rehabilitation or other improvement of vacant or occupied housing accommodations; demolition or sealing of vacant structures where necessary or appropriate; disposition of housing accommodations to present or potential occupants or co-operative organizations; training or other forms of assistance to occupants of housing accommodations; and management of housing accommodations as agent for the owners, receivers, administrators or municipalities; (b) activities, similar to those specified in paragraph (a) of this subdivision, aimed at accomplishing similar purposes and meeting similar needs with respect to retail and service establishments within a region when carried out in connection with and incidental to a program of housing related activities. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • HUD: shall mean the federal department of housing and urban development. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1171
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Merged company: shall mean a neighborhood preservation company maintaining a contract pursuant to section nine hundred three of this article that has undergone a merger with one or more other neighborhood preservation companies, which is also maintaining a contract pursuant to section nine hundred three of this article, that has led the merged companies to reduce the number of contracts being maintained with the division pursuant to section nine hundred three of this article to a total of one. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 902
  • Merged corporation: shall mean a not-for-profit corporation maintaining a contract pursuant to section one thousand three of this article that has undergone a merger with one or more other not-for-profit corporation, which is also maintaining a contract pursuant to section one thousand three of this article, that has led the merged corporations to reduce the number of contracts being maintained with the division pursuant to section one thousand three of this article to a total of one. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Municipality: shall mean any city, town or village within the state. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 902
  • Municipality: shall mean any unit of local government within the state with a population of more than twenty thousand persons. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 921
  • NAHA: shall mean the national affordable housing act, 42 U. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1171
  • Neglected child: means a child less than eighteen years of age

    (i) whose physical, mental or emotional condition has been impaired or is in imminent danger of becoming impaired as a result of the failure of his parent or other person legally responsible for his care to exercise a minimum degree of care

    (A) in supplying the child with adequate food, clothing, shelter or education in accordance with the provisions of part one of article sixty-five of the education law, or medical, dental, optometrical or surgical care, though financially able to do so or offered financial or other reasonable means to do so, or, in the case of an alleged failure of the respondent to provide education to the child, notwithstanding the efforts of the school district or local educational agency and child protective agency to ameliorate such alleged failure prior to the filing of the petition; or

    (B) in providing the child with proper supervision or guardianship, by unreasonably inflicting or allowing to be inflicted harm, or a substantial risk thereof, including the infliction of excessive corporal punishment; or by misusing a drug or drugs; or by misusing alcoholic

    beverages to the extent that he loses self-control of his actions; or by any other acts of a similarly serious nature requiring the aid of the court; provided, however, that where the respondent is voluntarily and regularly participating in a rehabilitative program, evidence that the respondent has repeatedly misused a drug or drugs or alcoholic beverages to the extent that he loses self-control of his actions shall not establish that the child is a neglected child in the absence of evidence establishing that the child's physical, mental or emotional condition has been impaired or is in imminent danger of becoming impaired as set forth in paragraph (i) of this subdivision; or

    (ii) who has been abandoned, in accordance with the definition and other criteria set forth in subdivision five of section three hundred eighty-four-b of the social services law, by his parents or other person legally responsible for his care. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012

  • Neighborhood preservation activities: shall mean activities engaged in by a neighborhood preservation company within a geographically defined neighborhood of a municipality, provided, however, that the division may fund a neighborhood preservation company to engage in such activities in unserved and underserved areas of the municipality lying outside of its initially designated neighborhood area, that are designed (a) to construct, maintain, preserve, repair, renovate, upgrade, improve, modernize, rehabilitate or otherwise prolong the useful life and to manage and coordinate the rehabilitation of residential dwelling accommodations within such neighborhood, to restore abandoned and vacant as well as occupied housing accommodations to habitable condition; to demolish structurally unsound or unsafe or otherwise unsightly or unhealthy structures which no longer serve or can economically be made to serve a useful purpose consistent with stabilizing or improving a neighborhood; to seal and maintain vacant but structurally sound structures which are capable of being rehabilitated at a future time and used for housing purposes; to acquire, where appropriate, buildings which contain housing accommodations; to facilitate

    the

    disposition of buildings containing housing accommodations to individual occupants thereof or to cooperative groups whose members shall be occupants thereof; to assist owners, occupants and tenants of housing accommodations to obtain improvements in the physical conditions thereof and in the maintenance and management thereof; and to manage housing accommodations as agents for the owners thereof or administrators or receivers appointed or designated pursuant to any law of the state; and (b) to accomplish similar purposes and meet similar needs with respect to retail and service establishments within such neighborhoods when carried out in connection with and incidental to a program of housing related activities. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 902

  • Neighborhood preservation company: shall mean a corporation organized under the provisions of the not-for-profit corporation law which has been engaged primarily in one or more of the neighborhood preservation activities specified in subdivision five of this section. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 902
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Parent: means a person who is recognized under the laws of the state of New York to be the child's legal parent. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012
  • parent: shall mean a person in parental relation to a child, as that phrase is defined in subdivision ten of section two of this chapter. See
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Permanency hearing: means a hearing held in accordance with section one thousand eighty-nine of this act for the purpose of reviewing the foster care status of the child and the appropriateness of the permanency plan developed by the social services district or agency. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012
  • Person legally responsible: includes the child's custodian, guardian, any other person responsible for the child's care at the relevant time. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Persons of low income: shall mean individuals and families whose annual incomes do not exceed ninety per cent of the median annual income for all residents of the region within which they reside or a larger area encompassing such region for which median annual income can be determined. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • Persons of low income: shall mean those persons and families whose incomes do not exceed ninety percent of the area median income for the county in which a project is located as calculated by the United States department of housing and urban development. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1221
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • program: shall mean a proposal by an eligible applicant for a specific work or series of works for the revitalization and improvement of an eligible area through the creation, preservation or improvement of residential housing units; local commercial facilities; public facilities or other aspects of the area environment. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1221
  • programs: shall mean a series of activities by an eligible applicant to administer funds to provide either loans or grants to homeowners and renters and to oversee the adaptation or retrofitting of eligible properties. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1201
  • projects: shall mean a specific work or series of works for the revitalization and improvement of a neighborhood through creation, preservation or improvement of residential housing units; preservation or improvement of local commercial facilities and public facilities or other aspects of the area environment which include as part of its project the creation, preservation or improvement of residential housing units. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 921
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • qualified applicant: means a not-for-profit corporation under contract pursuant to article seventeen of this chapter or any other locally based organization which is either incorporated under the not-for-profit corporation law (or such law together with any other applicable law) or, if unincorporated, is not organized for the private profit or benefit of its members. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1052
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Region: shall mean those portions of the rural area of the state, as specified in the contract entered into pursuant to this article, within which housing and community renewal activities funded in part pursuant to this article are to be carried out. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • Relative: means any person who is related to the child by blood, marriage or adoption and who is not a parent, putative parent or relative of a putative parent of the child. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rural area of the state: shall mean cities, towns and villages having a population of less than twenty-five thousand. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Suitable person: means any person who plays or has played a significant positive role in the child's life or in the life of the child's family. See N.Y. Family Court Law 1012
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Unmerged company: shall mean a neighborhood preservation company that is not a merged company. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 902
  • Unmerged corporation: shall mean a not-for-profit corporation that is not a merged corporation. See N.Y. Private Housing Finance Law 1002
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.