Chapter 1 Rules of Construction

Terms Used In New York Laws > New York City Administrative Code > Title 1

  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Landowner: means the holder of any right, title, or interest in real property subject to a proposed site or right of way as identified from the most recent tax roll of the appropriate city or county. See N.Y. Public Service Law 120
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Major utility transmission facility: means : (a) an electric transmission line of a design capacity of one hundred twenty-five kilovolts or more extending a distance of one mile or more, or of one hundred kilovolts or more and less than one hundred twenty-five kilovolts, extending a distance of ten miles or more, including associated equipment, but shall not include any such transmission line located wholly underground in a city with a population in excess of one hundred twenty-five thousand or a primary transmission line approved by the federal energy regulatory commission in connection with a hydro-electric facility; and (b) a fuel gas transmission line extending a distance of one thousand feet or more to be used to transport fuel gas at pressures of one hundred twenty-five pounds per square inch or more, excluding appurtenant facilities, but shall not include any such transmission line which is located wholly underground in a city or wholly within the right of way of a state, county or town highway or village street as those terms are defined in article one of the highway law and article six of the village law, or which replaces an existing transmission line, including appurtenant facilities, and extends a distance of less than one mile. See N.Y. Public Service Law 120
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Municipality: means a county, city, town or village in the state. See N.Y. Public Service Law 120
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means any individual, corporation, public benefit corporation, political subdivision, governmental agency, municipality, partnership, co-operative association, trust or estate. See N.Y. Public Service Law 120
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.