Chapter 1 Police Department
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Terms Used In New York Laws > New York City Administrative Code > Title 14

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Basic cost of cigarettes: shall mean the invoice cost of cigarettes to the agent who purchases from the manufacturer, or the replacement cost of cigarettes to the agent, in the quantity last purchased, whichever is lower, less all trade discounts, except discounts for cash, to which shall be added the full face value of any stamps which may be required by law. See N.Y. Tax Law 483
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Chain store: shall mean any person or persons who owns or maintains fifteen or more retail outlets in New York state, having one hundred percent common ownership, through which cigarettes are sold at retail. See N.Y. Tax Law 483
  • Cigar: shall include , except where expressly excluded, any little cigar. See N.Y. Tax Law 470
  • city: shall mean a city (a) which is co-terminous with a city school district or (b) in which a city school district is wholly or partly located. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 1300
  • city school district: shall mean a school district to which article fifty-one of the education law is applicable. See N.Y. Real Property Tax Law 1300
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • conservatee: means a person who has suffered substantial impairment of his ability to care for his property or has become unable to provide for himself or others dependent upon him for support for whom a conservator of his property has been appointed, pursuant to section 77. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Cooperative member: shall mean any member of a "cooperative" as defined in subdivision (c) of section three of the cooperative corporations law, which operates a distribution center from which members purchase grocery products, including prepackaged food and non-food products such as paper products, soaps and detergents for resale and whose members sell cigarettes at retail through fifteen or more separate establishments in New York state. See N.Y. Tax Law 483
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • cost of the agent: shall mean the basic cost of cigarettes plus the cost of doing business by the agent as evidenced by the accounting standards and methods regularly employed by said agent in his determination of costs for the purpose of federal income tax reporting for the total operation of his establishment, and must include, without limitation, labor, including salaries of executives and officers, rent, depreciation, selling costs, maintenance of equipment, delivery costs, interest payable, all types of licenses, taxes, insurance and advertising expressed as a percentage and applied to the basic cost of cigarettes. See N.Y. Tax Law 483
  • cost of the wholesale dealer: shall mean the basic cost of cigarettes plus the cost of doing business by the wholesale dealer as evidenced by the accounting standards and methods regularly employed by said wholesale dealer in his determination of costs for the purpose of federal income tax reporting for the total operation of his establishment, and must include, without limitation, labor, including salaries of executives and officers, rent, depreciation, selling costs, maintenance of equipment, delivery costs, interest payable, all types of licenses, taxes, insurance and advertising expressed as a percentage and applied to the basic cost of cigarettes, plus the cost of doing business by the agent with respect to sales of cigarettes to wholesale dealers. See N.Y. Tax Law 483
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • dispose of: means to sell, convey, exchange, mortgage, release or lease. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Dower: A widow
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • incompetent person: means a person incompetent to manage his affairs of whose property a committee has been appointed pursuant to section 78. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • interest in real property: includes any term, estate or other interest in real property, vested or contingent, of an infant in being, an incompetent person, or a conservatee including an inchoate right of dower and a possibility of reverter, and also the contingent interest of an infant not in being. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: includes an individual, copartnership, limited liability company, society, association, corporation, joint stock company, and any combination of individuals and also an executor, administrator, receiver, trustee or other fiduciary. See N.Y. Tax Law 470
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • possibility of reverter: means the possibility that upon breach of a condition or termination of an estate by limitation the right of re-entry will vest in, or real property will revert to, an infant, incompetent person or conservatee or his heirs solely or in common with others. See N.Y. Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law 1701
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Retail dealer: means any person engaged in selling cigarettes at retail, and shall include a chain store, a wholesale dealer or an agent for purposes of its sales of cigarettes to consumers. See N.Y. Tax Law 483
  • Sale: means any transfer of title or possession or both, exchange or barter, conditional or otherwise, in any manner or by any means whatever or any agreement therefor. See N.Y. Tax Law 470
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Wholesale dealer: shall mean any person, other than an agent, who sells cigarettes to retail dealers or other persons for purposes of resale only and who maintains a separate warehousing facility for the purpose of receiving and distributing cigarettes and conducting its wholesale business. See N.Y. Tax Law 483