Article 301 General
Article 302 Maintenance of Exterior Walls
Article 303 Periodic Boiler Inspections
Article 304 Elevators and Conveying Systems
Article 305 Retaining Walls, Partition Fences and Other Site Structures.
Article 306 Party Walls
Article 307 Workplace Exits
Article 308 Energy Audits and Retro-Commissioning of Base Building Systems
Article 309 Benchmarking Energy and Water Use and Disclosure of Energy Efficiency Scores and Grades
Article 310 Required Upgrade of Lighting Systems
Article 311 Installation of Electrical Sub-Meters in Tenant Spaces
Article 312 Carbon Monoxide, Smoke and Natural Gas Alarms
Article 313 Accessibility
Article 314 Periodic Wastewater Recycling System Inspection and Testing
Article 315 Retroactive Requirements
Article 316 Insulation of Concealed Pipes Exposed During Alteration or Repair
Article 317 Cooling Towers
Article 318 Periodic Inspection of Gas Piping Systems
Article 319 Maintenance and Removal of Small Wind Turbines
Article 320 Building Energy and Emissions Limits
Article 321 Energy Conservation Measure Requirements for Certain Buildings
Article 322 Maintenance and Removal of Large Wind Turbines

Terms Used In New York Laws > New York City Administrative Code > Title 28 > Chapter 3

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • administrative head or body: means the chief official or board of a county hurricane protection, flood and shoreline erosion control district. See N.Y. County Law 280-A
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agency: means a county hurricane protection, flood and shoreline erosion control agency. See N.Y. County Law 280-A
  • Agent: means a person granted authority to act as attorney-in-fact for the principal under a power of attorney, and includes the original agent and any co-agent or successor agent. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arbitration administrator: means an entity designated by the superintendent of financial services to administer the arbitration of disputes pursuant to this article. See N.Y. Civil Practice Law and Rules 7550
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the board of supervisors of a county or an elected county legislative body or city legislative body by whatsoever name designated. See N.Y. County Law 301
  • building emissions: means greenhouse gas emissions as expressed in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted as a result of operating a covered building and calculated in accordance with rules promulgated by the department in consultation with the mayor's office of long term planning and sustainability. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • building emissions intensity: means , for a covered building, the number obtained by dividing the building emissions by the gross floor area for such building, expressed in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per square foot per year. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Capacity: means ability to comprehend the nature and consequences of the act of executing and granting, revoking, amending or modifying a power of attorney, any provision in a power of attorney, or the authority of any person to act as agent under a power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • capacity resource: means a facility that has the capability to generate and transmit electrical power and sell capacity (i) by bilateral contracts, (ii) in the wholesale capacity market, or (iii) by indirect sales of capacity in the wholesale market in accordance with the schedules of rates and charges of a utility in effect pursuant to section 66 of the public service law. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • carbon dioxide equivalent: means the metric used to compare the emissions of various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential as defined in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (2014). See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charge to the jury: The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • city building: means a building that is owned by the city or for which the city regularly pays all of the annual energy bills, or a cultural institution that is in the Cultural Institutions Group as determined by the department of cultural affairs for which the city regularly pays all or part of the annual energy bills. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • clean distributed energy resource: means a distributed energy resource that (i) uses any of the following sources to generate electricity: hydropower, solar photovoltaics, geothermal wells or loops, tidal action, waves or water currents, or wind; or (ii) is designed and operated to store energy, including but not limited to batteries, thermal systems, mechanical systems, compressed air, and superconducting equipment. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of correction in a city having a population of one million or more or that official having similar duties in any county which elects to have this article apply thereto, by whatever title he may be known. See N.Y. Correction Law 631
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Community services program: means a program under which eligible inmates may be granted the privilege of leaving the premises of an institution for a period not exceeding fourteen hours in any day for the purpose of participation in religious services, volunteer work, or athletic events, or for any matter necessary to the furtherance of any such purposes. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Compensation: means reasonable compensation authorized to be paid to the agent from assets of the principal for services actually rendered by the agent pursuant to the authority granted in a power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooling tower: means a cooling tower, evaporative condenser or fluid cooler that is part of a recirculated water system incorporated into a building's cooling, industrial process, refrigeration, or energy production system. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-317.2
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
  • covered building: means , as it appears in the records of the department of finance, (i) a building that exceeds 25,000 gross square feet (2322. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • covered building: means a building that is (i) a rent regulated accommodation, (ii) a building whose main use or dominant occupancy is classified as occupancy group A-3 religious house of worship, (iii) owned by a housing development fund company organized pursuant to the business corporation law and article 11 of the private housing finance law, or (iv) a building that participates in a project-based federal housing program and, as it appears in the records of the department of finance, such building (i) exceeds 25,000 (2322. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-321.1
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the applicable department of correction or, where no such department exists, the office of the commissioner. See N.Y. Correction Law 631
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • distributed energy resource: means a resource comprised of one or multiple units capable of generating or storing electricity, all at a single location that is directly or indirectly connected to an electric utility transmission and distribution system. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • district: means a county hurricane proection, flood and shoreline erosion control district except where otherwise stated. See N.Y. County Law 280-A
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • Educational leave: means a privilege granted to an eligible inmate to leave the premises of an institution for a period not exceeding fourteen hours in any day for the purpose of education or vocational training, or for any matter necessary to the furtherance of any such purposes. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Eligible inmate: means a person confined in a city prison or reformatory in a city having a population of one million or more or in a county jail and penitentiaries of a county which elects to have this article apply thereto where a furlough program has been established who is sentenced to a definite period of six months or more or to a reformatory sentence of imprisonment and has served a minimum of six months of any such sentence. See N.Y. Correction Law 631
  • Eligible inmate: means : a person confined in an institution who is eligible for release on parole or who will become eligible for release on parole or conditional release within two years. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Eligible offender: shall mean a person who has been convicted of a crime or of an offense, but who has not been convicted more than once of a felony. See N.Y. Correction Law 700
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Euro: shall mean the currency of participating member states of the European Union that adopt a single currency in accordance with the treaty on European Union signed February seventh, nineteen hundred ninety-two. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1601
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extended bounds of confinement: means the area in which an inmate participating in a temporary release program may travel, the routes he or she is permitted to use, the places he or she is authorized to visit, and the hours, days, or specially defined period during which he or she is permitted to be absent from the premises of the institution. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Felony: means a conviction of a felony in this state, or of an offense in any other jurisdiction for which a sentence to a term of imprisonment in excess of one year, or a sentence of death, was authorized. See N.Y. Correction Law 700
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Financial institution: means a financial entity, including, but not limited to: a bank, trust company, national bank, savings bank, federal mutual savings bank, savings and loan association, federal savings and loan association, federal mutual savings and loan association, credit union, federal credit union, branch of a foreign banking corporation, public pension fund, retirement system, securities broker, securities dealer, securities firm, and insurance company. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Furlough committee: means the body of persons which may include members of the public, appointed pursuant to regulations promulgated by the commissioner for the purposes of formulating, modifying and revoking furlough programs at an institution. See N.Y. Correction Law 631
  • Furlough program: means a program under which eligible inmates may be granted the privilege of leaving the premises of a prison for a period not exceeding seventy-two hours for the purpose of seeking employment, maintaining family ties, solving family problems, to undergo surgery or to receive medical treatment or dental treatment not available in the correctional institution, or for any matter necessary to the furtherance of any such purposes. See N.Y. Correction Law 631
  • Furlough program: means a program under which eligible inmates may be granted the privilege of leaving the premises of an institution for a period not exceeding seven days for the purpose of seeking employment, maintaining family ties, solving family problems, seeking post-release housing, attending a short-term educational or vocational training course, or for any matter necessary to the furtherance of any such purposes. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • governing body: means the elected legislative body of the county. See N.Y. County Law 280-A
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • greenhouse gas: means a unit of greenhouse gas, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Health care provider: includes any person or entity employed or otherwise involved in the provision of health care or treatment. See N.Y. Civil Practice Law and Rules 7550
  • Incapacitated: means to be without capacity. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Industrial training leave: means a privilege granted to an eligible inmate to leave the premises of an institution for a period not exceeding fourteen hours in any day for the purpose of participating in an industrial training program, or for any matter necessary to the furtherance of any such purpose. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Institution: means any institution under the jurisdiction of the commissioner of correction in any city having a population of one million or more or of a county which elects to have this article apply thereto. See N.Y. Correction Law 631
  • Institution: means any institution under the jurisdiction of the state department of corrections and community supervision or an institution designated by the commissioner pursuant to section seventy-two-a of this chapter. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Internal Revenue Code: means the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Law of descent: The State statutes that specify how a deceased person
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Leave of absence: means a privilege granted to an inmate, who need not be an "eligible inmate" to leave the premises of an institution for the period of time necessary:

    (a) to visit his or her spouse, child, brother, sister, grandchild, parent, grandparent or ancestral aunt or uncle during his or her last illness if death appears to be imminent;

    (b) to attend the funeral of such individual;

    (c) to undergo surgery or to receive medical or dental treatment not available in the correctional institution only if deemed absolutely necessary to the health and well-being of the inmate and whose approval is granted by the commissioner or his designated representative. See N.Y. Correction Law 851

  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
  • metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent: means the global standard unit in carbon accounting to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, also expressed as tCO2e. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Monitor: means a person appointed in the power of attorney who has the authority to request, receive, and seek to compel the agent to provide a record of all receipts, disbursements, and transactions entered into by the agent on behalf of the principal. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Municipality: means any county except a county wholly contained within a city and any city having a population of one million or more persons. See N.Y. County Law 301
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • Non-statutory power of attorney: means a power of attorney that is not a statutory short form power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means the owner of the premises, or the lessee of the whole thereof, or the agent in charge of the property. See N.Y. Labor Law 315
  • owner: shall be deemed to include: (i) the net lessee in the case of a building subject to a net lease with a term of at least forty-nine years, inclusive of all renewal options, (ii) the board of managers in the case of a condominium, and (iii) the board of directors in the case of a cooperative apartment corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-309.2
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
  • Person: means an individual, whether acting for himself or herself, or as a fiduciary or as an official of any legal, governmental or commercial entity (including, but not limited to, any such entity identified in this subdivision), corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, government agency, government entity, government instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: means a written document, other than a document referred to in section 5-1501C of this title, by which a principal with capacity designates an agent to act on his or her behalf. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Principal: means an individual who is eighteen years of age or older, acting for himself or herself and not as a fiduciary or as an official of any legal, governmental or commercial entity, who executes a power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Public safety agency: means a functional division of a public agency which provides or has the authority to provide police, firefighting, emergency medical or ambulance services or other emergency services or a private entity which provides emergency medical or ambulance services. See N.Y. County Law 301
  • Public service answering point: means a communications facility which first receives 911 calls from persons within a 911 service area and which may, as appropriate, directly dispatch the services of a public safety agency or extend, transfer, relay or otherwise route 911 calls to the appropriate public safety agency. See N.Y. County Law 301
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • rent regulated accommodation: means a building containing one or more dwelling units required by law or by an agreement with a governmental entity to be regulated in accordance with the emergency tenant protection act of 1974, the rent stabilization law of 1969, or the local emergency housing rent control act of 1962. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Service supplier: means (i) a telephone corporation which provides local exchange access service within a 911 service area, or (ii) a provider of "voice over internet protocol service" or "VOIP service" that provides such service within a 911 service area. See N.Y. County Law 301
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Shock incarceration program: means a program pursuant to which eligible inmates are selected to participate in the program and serve a period of six months in a shock incarceration facility, which shall provide rigorous physical activity, intensive regimentation and discipline and rehabilitation therapy and programming. See N.Y. Correction Law 865
  • shoreline: means the lands between high and low water mark, the lands contiguous or adjacent to the high water mark, beaches, dunes and bluffs. See N.Y. County Law 280-A
  • Sign: means to place any memorandum, mark or sign, written, printed, stamped, photographed, engraved or otherwise upon an instrument or writing, or to use an electronic signature as that term is defined in subdivision three of section three hundred two of the state technology law, with the intent to execute the instrument, writing or electronic record. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Statutory short form power of attorney: means a power of attorney that meets the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of subdivision one of section 5-1501B of this title, and that contains the exact wording of the form set forth in section 5-1513 of this title. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Superintendent: means the person in charge of an institution, by whatever title he or she may be known. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Temporary release committee: means the body of persons, which may include members of the public, appointed pursuant to regulations promulgated by the commissioner to serve at the pleasure of the commissioner for the purpose of formulating, modifying and revoking temporary release programs at an institution. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Temporary release program: means a "work release program" a "furlough program" a "community services program" an "industrial training leave" an "educational leave" or a "leave of absence. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Tenant-factory building: means a building, separate parts of which are occupied and used by different persons and one or more of which parts is used as a factory. See N.Y. Labor Law 315
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Third party: means a financial institution or person other than a principal or an agent. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Warden: means the person in charge of an institution by whatever title he may be known. See N.Y. Correction Law 631
  • Wireless communications service: means all commercial mobile services, as that term is defined in section 332(d) of title 47, United States Code, as amended from time to time, including, but not limited to, all broadband personal communications services, wireless radio telephone services, geographic area specialized and enhanced specialized mobile radio services, and incumbent-wide area specialized mobile radio licensees, which offer real time, two-way voice or data service that is interconnected with the public switched telephone network or otherwise provides access to emergency communications services. See N.Y. County Law 301
  • Work release program: means a program under which eligible inmates may be granted the privilege of leaving the premises of an institution for a period not exceeding fourteen hours in any day for the purpose of on-the-job training or employment, or for any matter necessary to the furtherance of any such purposes. See N.Y. Correction Law 851
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.