Article 301 General 28-301.1 – 28-301.2
Article 302 Maintenance of Exterior Walls 28-302.1 – 28-302.6
Article 303 Periodic Boiler Inspections 28-303.1 – 28-303.11
Article 304 Elevators and Conveying Systems 28-304.1 – 28-304.10.2
Article 305 Retaining Walls, Partition Fences and Other Site Structures. 28-305.1 – 28-305.5
Article 306 Party Walls 28-306.1 – 28-306.2
Article 307 Workplace Exits 28-307.1 – 28-307.3
Article 308 Energy Audits and Retro-Commissioning of Base Building Systems 28-308.1 – 28-308.9
Article 309 Benchmarking Energy and Water Use and Disclosure of Energy Efficiency Scores and Grades 28-309.1 – 28-309.13
Article 310 Required Upgrade of Lighting Systems 28-310.1 – 28-310.3
Article 311 Installation of Electrical Sub-Meters in Tenant Spaces 28-311.1 – 28-311.5
Article 312 Carbon Monoxide, Smoke and Natural Gas Alarms 28-312.1 – 28-312.8
Article 313 Accessibility 28-313.1 – 28-313.3.3
Article 314 Reserved 28-314.1 – 28-314.3.6
Article 315 Retroactive Requirements 28-315.1 – 28-315.11
Article 316 Insulation of Concealed Pipes Exposed During Alteration or Repair 28-316.1
Article 317 Cooling Towers 28-317.1 – 28-317.7
Article 318 Periodic Inspection of Gas Piping Systems 28-318.1 – 28-318.5
Article 319 Maintenance and Removal of Small Wind Turbines 28-319.1 – 28-319.2
Article 320 Building Energy and Emissions Limits 28-320.1 – 28-320.11
Article 321 Energy Conservation Measure Requirements for Certain Buildings 28-321.1 – 28-321.3.2
Article 322 Maintenance and Removal of Large Wind Turbines 28-322.1 – 28-322.4
Article 323 Periodic Inspection of Parking Structures 28-323.1 – 28-323.9.2
Article 324 Periodic Inspections of Dry Floodproofing 28-324.1 – 28-324.3.5
Article 325 Annual Inspections to Prevent Contamination of Mechanical Systems 28-325.1 – 28-325.2.2

Terms Used In New York Laws > New York City Administrative Code > Title 28 > Chapter 3 - Maintenance of Buildings

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agency shop fee deduction: means the obligation or practice of a government to deduct from the salary of a public employee who is not a member of the certified or recognized employee organization which represents such employee for the purpose of collective negotiations conducted pursuant to this article, an amount equivalent to the amount of dues payable by a member. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Agent: means a person granted authority to act as attorney-in-fact for the principal under a power of attorney, and includes the original agent and any co-agent or successor agent. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • agreement: means the result of the exchange of mutual promises between the chief executive officer of a public employer and an employee organization which becomes a binding contract, for the period set forth therein, except as to any provisions therein which require approval by a legislative body, and as to those provisions, shall become binding when the appropriate legislative body gives its approval. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Alternate correctional facility: shall mean a correctional facility designed to house medium security incarcerated individuals as defined by department rules and regulations, which is owned by the city of New York, operated by the department pursuant to the rules and regulations promulgated by the commissioner and in accordance with the operation agreement as defined in subdivision five of this section, and used for the confinement of eligible incarcerated individuals, as defined by subdivision four of this section. See N.Y. Correction Law 87
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • board: means the public employment relations board created by section two hundred five of this article. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Board: means the correction medical review board. See N.Y. Correction Law 40
  • building emissions: means greenhouse gas emissions as expressed in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted as a result of operating a covered building and calculated in accordance with rules promulgated by the department in consultation with the mayor's office of long term planning and sustainability. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • building emissions intensity: means , for a covered building, the number obtained by dividing the building emissions by the gross floor area for such building, expressed in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per square foot per year. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Capacity: means ability to comprehend the nature and consequences of the act of executing and granting, revoking, amending or modifying a power of attorney, any provision in a power of attorney, or the authority of any person to act as agent under a power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • capacity resource: means a facility that has the capability to generate and transmit electrical power and sell capacity (i) by bilateral contracts, (ii) in the wholesale capacity market, or (iii) by indirect sales of capacity in the wholesale market in accordance with the schedules of rates and charges of a utility in effect pursuant to § 66 of the public service law. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • carbon dioxide equivalent: means the metric used to compare the emissions of various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential as defined in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (2014). See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • chief legal officer: means (a) in the case of the state of New York or a state public authority, the attorney general of the state of New York, (b) in the case of a county, city, town, village or school district, the county attorney, corporation counsel, town attorney, village attorney or school district attorney, as the case may be, and (c) in the case of any such government not having its own attorney, or any other government or public employer, the corporation counsel of the city in which such government or public employer has its principal office, and if such principal office is not located in a city, the county attorney of the county in which such government or public employer has its principal office. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • city building: means a building that is owned by the city or for which the city regularly pays all of the annual energy bills, or a cultural institution that is in the Cultural Institutions Group as determined by the department of cultural affairs for which the city regularly pays all or part of the annual energy bills. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • clean distributed energy resource: means a distributed energy resource that (i) uses any of the following sources to generate electricity: hydropower, solar photovoltaics, geothermal wells or loops, tidal action, waves or water currents, or wind; or (ii) is designed and operated to store energy, including but not limited to batteries, thermal systems, mechanical systems, compressed air, and superconducting equipment. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Commission: means the state commission of correction. See N.Y. Correction Law 40
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Compensation: means reasonable compensation authorized to be paid to the agent from assets of the principal for services actually rendered by the agent pursuant to the authority granted in a power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Construction agreement: shall mean an agreement entered into pursuant to section eighty-eight of this article by the commissioner and the city of New York which governs the construction of two alternate correctional facilities of approximately seven hundred beds each, one at Ogdensburg and one at Cape Vincent, New York. See N.Y. Correction Law 87
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooling tower: means a cooling tower, evaporative condenser or fluid cooler that is part of a recirculated water system incorporated into a building's cooling, industrial process, refrigeration, or energy production system. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-317.2
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Correctional facility: means any institution operated by the state department of corrections and community supervision, any local correctional facility, or any place used, pursuant to a contract with the state or a municipality, for the detention of persons charged with or convicted of a crime, or, for the purpose of this article only, a secure facility operated by the office of children and family services. See N.Y. Correction Law 40
  • Council: means the citizen's policy and complaint review council. See N.Y. Correction Law 40
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • covered building: means , as it appears in the records of the department of finance, (i) a building that exceeds 25,000 gross square feet (2322. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • covered building: means a building that is (i) a rent regulated accommodation, (ii) a building whose main use or dominant occupancy is classified as occupancy group A-3 religious house of worship, (iii) owned by a housing development fund company organized pursuant to the business corporation law and article 11 of the private housing finance law, or (iv) a building that participates in a project-based federal housing program and, as it appears in the records of the department of finance, such building (i) exceeds 25,000 (2322. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-321.1
  • Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • distributed energy resource: means a resource comprised of one or multiple units capable of generating or storing electricity, all at a single location that is directly or indirectly connected to an electric utility transmission and distribution system. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • Eligible incarcerated individuals: shall mean incarcerated individuals of a New York city correctional facility who are at least nineteen years of age, who are serving a definite, but not an intermittent, sentence of imprisonment, and who do not have criminal charges pending against them. See N.Y. Correction Law 87
  • employee organization: means an organization of any kind having as its primary purpose the improvement of terms and conditions of employment of public employees, except that such term shall not include an organization (a) membership in which is prohibited by section one hundred five of this chapter, (b) which discriminates with regard to the terms or conditions of membership because of race, color, creed or national origin, or (c) which, in the case of public employees who hold positions by appointment or employment in the service of the board and who are excluded from the application of this article by rules and regulations of the board, admits to membership or is affiliated directly or indirectly with an organization which admits to membership persons not in the service of the board, for purposes of any provision of this article other than sections two hundred ten and two hundred eleven of this article. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Euro: shall mean the currency of participating member states of the European Union that adopt a single currency in accordance with the treaty on European Union signed February seventh, nineteen hundred ninety-two. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1601
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Financial institution: means a financial entity, including, but not limited to: a bank, trust company, national bank, savings bank, federal mutual savings bank, savings and loan association, federal savings and loan association, federal mutual savings and loan association, credit union, federal credit union, branch of a foreign banking corporation, public pension fund, retirement system, securities broker, securities dealer, securities firm, and insurance company. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • greenhouse gas: means a unit of greenhouse gas, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Incapacitated: means to be without capacity. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Internal Revenue Code: means the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Law of descent: The State statutes that specify how a deceased person
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local correctional facility: means any jail, penitentiary, state, county or municipal lockup, court detention pen, hospital prison ward or specialized secure juvenile detention facility for older youth. See N.Y. Correction Law 40
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • membership dues deduction: means the obligation or practice of a government to deduct from the salary of a public employee with his consent an amount for the payment of his membership dues in an employee organization. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Monitor: means a person appointed in the power of attorney who has the authority to request, receive, and seek to compel the agent to provide a record of all receipts, disbursements, and transactions entered into by the agent on behalf of the principal. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • Non-statutory power of attorney: means a power of attorney that is not a statutory short form power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Operation agreement: shall mean an agreement entered into pursuant to section eighty-eight of this article by the commissioner and the city of New York which governs the operation of one or both alternate correctional facilities and addresses all related issues, including, but not limited to, general staffing levels and nature of staffing positions; composition of medical staff; availability of outside medical services; procedures and criteria for selecting eligible incarcerated individuals; availability and frequency of transportation of incarcerated individuals and visitors of incarcerated individuals to such facility; availability, content and frequency of programming for incarcerated individuals; mechanisms to establish, monitor and review operating and capital expenditures; and legal representation of both incarcerated individuals and employees of such facilities. See N.Y. Correction Law 87
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: shall be deemed to include: (i) the net lessee in the case of a building subject to a net lease with a term of at least forty-nine years, inclusive of all renewal options, (ii) the board of managers in the case of a condominium, and (iii) the board of directors in the case of a cooperative apartment corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-309.2
  • Owner: means the owner of the premises, or the lessee of the whole thereof, or the agent in charge of the property. See N.Y. Labor Law 315
  • Panel: shall mean the alternate correctional facility review panel established pursuant to section eighty-nine-e of this article. See N.Y. Correction Law 87
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • patronage: means the amount of work performed as a member of a worker cooperative, measured in accordance with the certificate of incorporation and by-laws. See N.Y. Cooperative Corporations Law 90
  • Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
  • Person: means an individual, whether acting for himself or herself, or as a fiduciary or as an official of any legal, governmental or commercial entity (including, but not limited to, any such entity identified in this subdivision), corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, government agency, government entity, government instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: means a written document, other than a document referred to in section 5-1501C of this title, by which a principal with capacity designates an agent to act on his or her behalf and includes both a statutory short form power of attorney and a non-statutory power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Principal: means an individual who is eighteen years of age or older, acting for himself or herself and not as a fiduciary or as an official of any legal, governmental or commercial entity, who executes a power of attorney. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • public employee: means any person holding a position by appointment or employment in the service of a public employer, except that such term shall not include for the purposes of any provision of this article other than sections two hundred ten and two hundred eleven of this article, judges and justices of the unified court system, persons holding positions by appointment or employment in the organized militia of the state and persons who may reasonably be designated from time to time as managerial or confidential upon application of the public employer to the appropriate board in accordance with procedures established pursuant to section two hundred five or two hundred twelve of this article, which procedures shall provide that any such designations made during a period of unchallenged representation pursuant to subdivision two of section two hundred eight of this chapter shall only become effective upon the termination of such period of unchallenged representation. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • public employer: means (i) the state of New York, (ii) a county, city, town, village or any other political subdivision or civil division of the state, (iii) a school district or any governmental entity operating a public school, college or university, (iv) a public improvement or special district, (v) a public authority, commission, or public benefit corporation, (vi) any other public corporation, agency or instrumentality or unit of government which exercises governmental powers under the laws of the state, or (vii) in the case of a county sheriff's office in those counties where

    the office of sheriff is an elected position, both the county and the sheriff, shall be designated as a joint public employer for all purposes of this article. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • rent regulated accommodation: means a building in which more than 35% of dwelling units are required by law or by an agreement with a governmental entity to be regulated in accordance with the emergency tenant protection act of 1974, the rent stabilization law of 1969, or the local emergency housing rent control act of 1962. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-320.1
  • rent regulated accommodation: means a building in which more than 35% of dwelling units are required by law or by an agreement with a governmental entity to be regulated in accordance with the emergency tenant protection act of 1974, the rent stabilization law of 1969, or the local emergency housing rent control act of 1962. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 28-321.1
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
  • Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sign: means to place any memorandum, mark or sign, written, printed, stamped, photographed, engraved or otherwise upon an instrument or writing, or to use an electronic signature as that term is defined in subdivision three of § 302 of the state technology law, with the intent to execute the instrument, writing or electronic record. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • state public authority: means a public benefit corporation or public corporation, a majority of the members of which are (i) appointed by the governor or by another state officer or body, (ii) designated as members by virtue of their state office, or (iii) appointed or designated by any combination of the foregoing. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Statutory short form power of attorney: means a power of attorney that meets the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of subdivision one of section 5-1501B of this title, and that substantially conforms to the wording of the form set forth in section 5-1513 of this title; provided however, that any section indicated as "Optional" that is not used may be omitted and replaced by the words "Intentionally Omitted". See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • strike: means any strike or other concerted stoppage of work or slowdown by public employees. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Tenancy by the entirety: A type of joint tenancy between husband and wife that is recognized in some States. Neither party can sever the joint tenancy relationship; when a spouse dies, the survivor acquires full title to the property.
  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • Tenant-factory building: means a building, separate parts of which are occupied and used by different persons and one or more of which parts is used as a factory. See N.Y. Labor Law 315
  • terms and conditions of employment: means salaries, wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment provided, however, that such term shall not include any benefits provided by or to be provided by a public retirement system, or payments to a fund or insurer to provide an income for retirees, or payment to retirees or their beneficiaries. See N.Y. Civil Service Law 201
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Third party: means a financial institution or person other than a principal or an agent. See N.Y. General Obligations Law 5-1501
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.