Sections
Part 1 Short Title, General Construction and Subject Matter 2-101 – 2-107
Part 2 Form, Formation and Readjustment of Contract 2-201 – 2-210
Part 3 General Obligation and Construction of Contract 2-301 – 2-328
Part 4 Title, Creditors and Good Faith Purchasers 2-401 – 2-403
Part 5 Performance 2-501 – 2-515
Part 6 Breach, Repudiation and Excuse 2-601 – 2-616
Part 7 Remedies 2-701 – 2-725

Terms Used In New York Laws > Uniform Commercial Code > Article 2 - Sales

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agency: means any state or municipal department, board, bureau, division, commission, committee, public authority, public corporation, council, office or other governmental entity performing a governmental or proprietary function for the state or any one or more municipalities thereof, except the judiciary or the state legislature. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 86
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Buyer: means a person who buys or contracts to buy goods. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-103
  • Coal: shall include bituminous coal, anthracite coal and lignite. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of labor;

    (b) "Department" shall mean the department of labor; and

    (c) "Task force" shall mean the fair wages task force within the department. See N.Y. Labor Law 330

  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of labor;

    (b) "Department" shall mean the department of labor;

    (c) "Apparel industry" shall mean the making, cutting, sewing, finishing, assembling, pressing or otherwise producing, by any of the foregoing apparel industry services, any men's, women's, children's or infants' apparel, or a section or component of apparel, designed or intended to be worn by any individual which is to be sold or offered for sale, provided, however, that the apparel industry shall not include cleaning or tailoring after the apparel has been sold at retail;

    (d) "Manufacturer" shall mean any person who (i) in fulfillment or anticipation of a wholesale purchase contract, contracts with a contractor to perform in New York state the cutting, sewing, finishing, assembling, pressing or otherwise producing any men's, women's, children's or infants' apparel, or a section or component of apparel, designed or intended to be worn by any individual which, pursuant to such contract, is to be sold or offered for sale to a retailer or other entity, or (ii) cuts, sews, finishes, assembles, presses or otherwise produces in New York state any men's, women's, children's or infants' apparel, or a section or component, designed or intended to be worn by any individual which is to be sold or offered for sale; provided, however, that "manufacturer" shall not mean a production employee employed for wages who does not employ others;

    (e) "Contractor" shall mean any person who, in fulfillment of a contract with a manufacturer, performs in New York state the cutting, sewing, finishing, assembling, pressing or otherwise producing any men's, women's, children's or infants' apparel, or a section or component of apparel, designed or intended to be worn by any individual which is to be sold or offered for sale. See N.Y. Labor Law 340

  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • contract: as used in this article also shall include reconstruction and repair of any such public work, and any public work performed under a lease, permit or other agreement pursuant to which the department of jurisdiction grants the responsibility of contracting for such public work to any third party proposing to perform such work to which the provisions of this article would apply had the department of jurisdiction contracted directly for its performance, or where there is no lease, permit or other agreement and ownership of a public work is

    intended to be assumed by such public entity at any time subsequent to completion of the public work. See N.Y. Labor Law 220

  • Contract for sale: includes both a present sale of goods and a contract to sell goods at a future time. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-106
  • Contractor: means any employer who employs employees to perform building service work under a contract with a public agency and shall include any of the contractor's subcontractors. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Contractor: shall include , but not be limited to, a subcontractor, jobber, or wholesaler, but shall not include a production employee who is employed for wages but does not employ others;

    (f) "Production employees" shall mean persons who are employed by a contractor or a manufacturer directly to perform the cutting, sewing, finishing, assembling, pressing or otherwise producing of any men's, women's, children's or infants' apparel, or a section or component of apparel, designed or intended to be worn by any individual which is to be sold or offered for sale;

    (g) "Special task force" shall mean the special task force on the apparel industry within the department; and

    (h) "Labor law" shall mean the labor law of New York state. See N.Y. Labor Law 340

  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • employee: includes , but is not limited, to, watchman, guard, doorman, building cleaner, porter, handyman, janitor, gardener, groundskeeper, stationary fireman, elevator operator and starter, window cleaner, and occupations relating to the collection of garbage or refuse, and to the transportation of office furniture and equipment, and to the transportation and delivery of fossil fuel but does not include clerical, sales, professional, technician and related occupations. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Employer: means any person who either directly or through an employee, agent, independent contractor, or any other person, delivers or causes to be delivered to another person, any materials to be manufactured in a home, and which are thereafter to be returned to him, not for the personal use of himself or of a member of his family, or to be delivered, mailed, or shipped to others. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Entity: shall mean a partnership, association, joint venture, company, sole proprietorship, corporation or any other form of doing business. See N.Y. Labor Law 220
  • Entity: shall mean a partnership, association, joint venture, company, sole proprietorship, corporation or any other form of doing business. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Executive session: means that portion of a meeting not open to the general public. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 102
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiscal officer: means the industrial commissioner, except for building service work performed by or on behalf of a city, in which case

    "fiscal officer" means the comptroller or other analogous officer of such city. See N.Y. Labor Law 230

  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fossil fuel: shall mean coal, petroleum products and fuel gases. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Fuel gases: shall include but not be limited to methane, natural gas, liquefied natural gas and manufactured fuel gases. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Home: means a room or an apartment in any house. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • House: means any building in which one or more persons regularly sleep, and shall include outbuildings upon premises which include such building; but where only a person or persons or the family of a person or persons engaged in the service of the building, sleep in such building, the term "house" shall apply only to the separate room or rooms or to the apartment or apartments in which one or more of such persons sleep. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Industrial homework: means the manufacturing in a home, in whole or in part, with or of material which has been furnished by an employer, of any article or articles to be returned to the said employer, or to be delivered, mailed, or shipped to others. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Industrial homeworker: means any person who manufactures in a home, in whole or in part, with or out of material furnished by an employer for industrial homework, any article or articles to be returned to such employer directly or indirectly, or to be delivered, mailed or shipped to others. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Judiciary: means the courts of the state, including any municipal or district court, whether or not of record. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 86
  • Law enforcement agency: means a police agency or department of the state or any political subdivision thereof, including authorities or agencies maintaining police forces of individuals defined as police officers in § 1. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 86
  • Law enforcement disciplinary proceeding: means the commencement of any investigation and any subsequent hearing or disciplinary action conducted by a law enforcement agency. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 86
  • Law enforcement disciplinary records: means any record created in furtherance of a law enforcement disciplinary proceeding, including, but not limited to:

    (a) the complaints, allegations, and charges against an employee;

    (b) the name of the employee complained of or charged;

    (c) the transcript of any disciplinary trial or hearing, including any exhibits introduced at such trial or hearing;

    (d) the disposition of any disciplinary proceeding; and

    (e) the final written opinion or memorandum supporting the disposition and discipline imposed including the agency's complete factual findings and its analysis of the conduct and appropriate discipline of the covered employee. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 86

  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Locality: means such areas of the state described and defined for a trade or occupation in the current collective bargaining agreements between bona fide labor organizations and employers of the private sector, performing public and private work. See N.Y. Labor Law 220
  • Locality: means the state, a town, city, village or other civil division or area of the state as determined by the fiscal officer. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Meeting: means the official convening of a public body for the purpose of conducting public business, including the use of videoconferencing for attendance and participation by the members of the public body. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 102
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Parent company: shall mean an entity that directly controls the contractor or subcontractor. See N.Y. Labor Law 220
  • Parent company: shall mean an entity that directly controls the contractor or subcontractor. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Person: shall mean a human being and shall also include an "entity" as defined in this article, including, but not limited to, a contractor or subcontractor. See N.Y. Labor Law 220
  • Person: includes a corporation, a copartnership or a joint stock association. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Petroleum products: shall include all products refined or rerefined from synthetic or crude oil or oil extracted from other sources, including natural gas liquids. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • present sale: means a sale which is accomplished by the making of the contract. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-106
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Production employees: shall mean persons who are employed by a contractor or a manufacturer directly to perform the cutting, sewing, finishing, assembling, pressing or otherwise producing of any men's, women's, children's or infants' apparel, or a section or component of apparel, designed or intended to be worn by any individual which is to be sold or offered for sale;

    (g) "Special task force" shall mean the special task force on the apparel industry within the department; and

    (h) "Labor law" shall mean the labor law of New York state. See N.Y. Labor Law 340

  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public agency: means the state, any of its political subdivisions, a public benefit corporation, a public authority or commission or special purpose district board appointed pursuant to law, and a board of education. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Public body: means any entity, for which a quorum is required in order to conduct public business and which consists of two or more members, performing a governmental function for the state or for an agency or department thereof, or for a public corporation as defined in section sixty-six of the general construction law, or committee or subcommittee or other similar body consisting of members of such public body or an entity created or appointed to perform a necessary function in the decision-making process. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 102
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Record: means any information kept, held, filed, produced or reproduced by, with or for an agency or the state legislature, in any physical form whatsoever including, but not limited to, reports, statements, examinations, memoranda, opinions, folders, files, books, manuals, pamphlets, forms, papers, designs, drawings, maps, photos, letters, microfilms, computer tapes or discs, rules, regulations or codes. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 86
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Retailer: shall mean any mercantile enterprise which sells to consumers or offers to sell to consumers any men's, women's, children's or infants' apparel, or a section or component of apparel, designed or intended to be worn by any individual consumer. See N.Y. Labor Law 340
  • Seller: means a person who sells or contracts to sell goods. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-103
  • service work: means work performed by a building service employee, but does not include work performed for a contractor under a contract for the furnishing of services by radio, telephone, telegraph or cable companies; and any contract for public utility services, including electric light and power, water, steam and gas. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State legislature: means the legislature of the state of New York, including any committee, subcommittee, joint committee, select committee, or commission thereof. See N.Y. Public Officers Law 86
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Subsidiary: shall mean an entity that is controlled directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, by a contractor or subcontractor or by the contractor's parent company. See N.Y. Labor Law 220
  • Subsidiary: shall mean an entity that is controlled directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, by a contractor or subcontractor or the contractor's parent company. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Substantially owned-affiliated entity: shall mean the parent company of the contractor or subcontractor, any subsidiary of the contractor or subcontractor, or any entity in which the parent of the contractor or subcontractor owns more than fifty percent of the voting stock, or an entity in which one or more of the top five shareholders of the contractor or subcontractor individually or collectively also owns a controlling share of the voting stock, or an entity which exhibits any other indicia of control over the contractor or subcontractor or over which the contractor or subcontractor exhibits control, regardless of whether or not the controlling party or parties have any identifiable or documented ownership interest. See N.Y. Labor Law 220
  • Substantially-owned affiliated entity: shall mean the parent company of the contractor or subcontractor, any subsidiary of the contractor or subcontractor, or any entity in which the parent of the contractor or subcontractor owns more than fifty percent of the voting stock, or an entity in which one or more of the top five shareholders of the contractor or subcontractor individually or collectively also owns a controlling share of the voting stock, or an entity which exhibits any other indicia of control over the contractor or subcontractor or over which the contractor or subcontractor exhibits control, regardless of whether or not the controlling party or parties have any identifiable or documented ownership interest. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Successor: shall mean an entity engaged in work substantially similar to that of the predecessor, where there is substantial continuity of operation with that of the predecessor. See N.Y. Labor Law 220
  • Successor: shall mean an entity engaged in work substantially similar to that of the predecessor, where there is substantial continuity of operation with that of the predecessor. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • supplements: means fringe benefits including medical or hospital care, pensions on retirement or death, compensation for injuries or illness resulting from occupational activity, or insurance to provide any of the foregoing, unemployment benefits, life insurance, disability and sickness insurance, accident insurance, vacation and holiday pay, costs of apprenticeship or other similar programs and other bona fide fringe benefits not otherwise required by federal, state or local law to be provided by the contractor or subcontractor. See N.Y. Labor Law 230
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Wage: includes : (a) basic hourly cash rate of pay; and (b) supplements. See N.Y. Labor Law 230