Sections
Part 1 Short Title and General Matters 8-101 – 8-116
Part 2 Issue and Issuer 8-201 – 8-210
Part 3 Transfer of Certificated and Uncertificated Securities 8-301 – 8-307
Part 4 Registration 8-401 – 8-602

Terms Used In New York Laws > Uniform Commercial Code > Article 8 - Investment Securities

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Alteration: means any change to any conveyance or component other than maintenance, repair, or replacement, but shall not include the professional services of engineering or architecture as defined in sections seventy-two hundred one and seventy-three hundred one of the education law. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • article of procurement: shall mean a commodity, service, technology, public work, construction, revenue contract, the purchase, sale or lease of real property or an acquisition or granting of other interest in real property, that is the subject of a governmental procurement. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Board: means the New York state elevator safety and standards advisory board established by section nine hundred fifty-six of this article. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • client: shall mean every person or organization who retains, employs or designates any person or organization to carry on lobbying activities on behalf of such client. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • commission: shall mean the commission on public integrity created by § 94 of the executive law. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • commission salesperson: shall mean any person the primary purpose of whose employment is to cause or promote the sale of, or to influence or induce another to make a purchase of an article of procurement, whether such person is an employee (as that term is defined for tax purposes) of or an independent contractor for a vendor, provided that an independent contractor shall have a written contract for a term of not less than six months or for an indefinite term, and which person shall be compensated, in whole or in part, by the payment of a percentage amount of all or a substantial part of the sales which such person has caused, promoted, influenced or induced, provided, however, that no person shall be considered a commission salesperson with respect to any sale to or purchase by a state agency, either house of the state legislature, the unified court system, a municipal agency or local legislative body if the percentage amount of any commission payable with respect to such sale or purchase is substantially in excess of any commission payable with respect to any comparable sale to a purchaser that is not a state agency, either house of the state legislature, the

    unified court system, a municipal agency or local legislative body; further, provided, however, that any person that is required to file a statement or report pursuant to this article by virtue of engaging in lobbying activities as defined in paragraphs (i) through (iv) and (vi) through (x) of subdivision (c) of this section shall not be deemed to be a "commission salesperson" for purposes of this article. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C

  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of parks and recreation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 18-101
  • compensation: shall mean any salary, fee, gift, payment, benefit, loan, advance or any other thing of value paid, owed, given or promised to the lobbyist by the client for lobbying but shall not include contributions reportable pursuant to Article 14 of the election law. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Construction: means the act or process of constructing any conveyance, and includes vertically constructing or connecting any conveyance or part or system thereof. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the department of parks and recreation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 18-101
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Elevator: means a hoisting and lowering mechanism, equipped with a car, that moves within guides and serves two or more landings. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • expenses: shall mean any expenditures incurred by or reimbursed to the lobbyist for lobbying but shall not include contributions reportable pursuant to article fourteen of the election law. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • gift: shall mean anything of more than nominal value given to a public official in any form including, but not limited to money, service, loan, travel, lodging, meals,

    refreshments, entertainment, discount, forbearance, or promise, having a monetary value. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C

  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • governmental procurement: shall mean : (i) the public announcement, public notice, or public communication to any potential vendor of a determination of need for a procurement, which shall include, but not be limited to, the public notification of the specifications, bid documents, request for proposals, or evaluation criteria for a procurement contract, (ii) solicitation for a procurement contract, (iii) evaluation of a procurement contract, (iv) award, approval, denial or disapproval of a procurement contract, or (v) approval or denial of an assignment, amendment (other than amendments that are authorized and payable under the terms of the procurement

    contract as it was finally awarded or approved by the comptroller, as applicable), renewal or extension of a procurement contract, or any other material change in the procurement contract resulting in a financial benefit to the offerer. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C

  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inspection: means a critical examination, observation, or evaluation of quality and code compliance of any conveyance. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Installation: means to place or fix any conveyance or component in position for operation. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: means a credential duly issued by the commissioner authorizing the holder to engage a business or an occupation whose scope

    includes accessibility lift work, or elevator and conveyance work, or elevator and conveyance inspections. See N.Y. Labor Law 951

  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • lobbying activities: shall mean and include any attempt to influence:

    (i) the passage or defeat of any legislation or resolution by either house of the state legislature including but not limited to the introduction or intended introduction of such legislation or resolution or approval or disapproval of any legislation by the governor;

    (ii) the adoption, issuance, rescission, modification or terms of a gubernatorial executive order;

    (iii) the adoption or rejection of any rule or regulation having the force and effect of law by a state agency;

    (iv) the outcome of any rate making proceeding by a state agency;

    (v) any determination: (A) by a public official, or by a person or entity working in cooperation with a public official related to a governmental procurement, or (B) by an officer or employee of the unified court system, or by a person or entity working in cooperation with an officer or employee of the unified court system related to a governmental procurement;

    (vi) the approval, disapproval, implementation or administration of tribal-state compacts, memoranda of understanding, or any other tribal-state agreements and any other state actions related to Class III gaming as provided in 25 U. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C

  • lobbyist: shall mean every person or organization retained, employed or designated by any client to engage in lobbying. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • local legislative body: shall mean the board of supervisors, board of aldermen, common council, council, commission, town board, board of trustees or other elective governing board or body of a municipality now or hereafter vested by state statute, charter or other law with jurisdiction to initiate and adopt local laws, ordinances and budgets, whether or not such local laws, ordinances or budgets require approval of the elective chief executive officer or other official or body to become effective. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Maintenance: means a process of routine examination, lubrication, cleaning, and adjustment of any conveyance or components for the purpose of ensuring performance in accordance with any applicable code requirements. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Majority whip: See Whips.
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Minority whip: See Whips.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • municipal agency: shall mean : (i) any department, board, bureau, commission, division, office, council, committee or officer of a municipality, whether permanent or temporary; or (ii) an industrial development agency, located in a jurisdictional subdivision of the state with a population of more than fifty thousand, or local public benefit corporation, as that term is defined in § 66 of the general construction law. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • municipality: shall mean any jurisdictional subdivision of the state, including but not limited to counties, cities, towns, villages, improvement districts and special districts, with a population

    of more than five thousand, and industrial development agencies in jurisdictional subdivisions with a population of more than five thousand; and public authorities, and public corporations. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C

  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • offerer: shall mean the individual or entity, or any employee, agent or consultant of such individual or entity, that contacts a state agency, either house of the state legislature, the unified court system, a municipal agency or local legislative body about a governmental procurement provided, however, that a governmental agency or its employees that communicate with the procuring agency regarding a governmental procurement in the exercise of its oversight duties shall not be considered an offerer. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • operator: means any person, corporation, firm, agency, association or organization that uses or operates a motor vehicle with or without the permission of the owner, and an owner who operates his or her own motor vehicle. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 19-205
  • organization: shall mean any corporation, company, foundation, association, college as defined by § 2 of the education law, labor organization, firm, partnership, society, joint stock company, state agency or public corporation. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: shall include : (A) the registered owner of a motor vehicle used or operated in the city of New York, and (B) any person, corporation, firm, agency, association or organization that is the renter or lessor of a motor vehicle used or operated in the city of New York. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 19-205
  • Person: means any natural person. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private residence: means a separate dwelling or a separate apartment in a multiple dwelling, which is occupied by members of a single family unit. See N.Y. Labor Law 951
  • procurement contract: shall mean any contract or other agreement, including an amendment, extension, renewal, or change order to an existing contract (other than amendments, extensions, renewals, or change orders that are authorized and payable under the terms of the contract as it was finally awarded or approved by the comptroller, as applicable), for an article of procurement involving an estimated annualized expenditure in excess of fifteen thousand dollars. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • public corporation: shall mean a municipal corporation, a district corporation, or a public benefit corporation as defined in § 66 of the general construction law. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • public official: shall mean :

    (i) the governor, lieutenant governor, comptroller or attorney general;

    (ii) members of the state legislature;

    (iii) state officers and employees including:

    (A) heads of state departments and their deputies and assistants other than members of the board of regents of the university of the state of New York who receive no compensation or are compensated on a per diem basis,

    (B) officers and employees of statewide elected officials,

    (C) officers and employees of state departments, boards, bureaus, divisions, commissions, councils or other state agencies,

    (D) members or directors of public authorities, other than multi-state authorities, public benefit corporations and commissions at least one of whose members is appointed by the governor, and employees of such authorities, corporations and commissions;

    (iv) officers and employees of the legislature; and

    (v) municipal officers and employees including an officer or employee of a municipality, whether paid or unpaid, including members of any administrative board, commission or other agency thereof and in the case of a county, shall be deemed to also include any officer or employee paid from county funds. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C

  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • restricted period: shall mean the period of time commencing with the earliest written notice, advertisement or solicitation of a request for proposal, invitation for bids, or solicitation of proposals, or any other method for soliciting a response from offerers intending to result in a procurement contract with a state agency, either house of the state legislature, the unified court system, or a municipal agency, as that term is defined by paragraph (ii) of subdivision (s) of this section, and ending with the final contract award and approval by the state agency, either house of the state legislature, the unified court system, or a municipal agency, as that term is defined by paragraph (ii) of subdivision (s) of this section, and, where applicable, the state comptroller. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • revenue contract: shall mean any written agreement between a state or municipal agency or a local legislative body and an offerer whereby the state or municipal agency or local legislative body gives or grants a concession or a franchise. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • state agency: shall mean any department, board, bureau, commission, division, office, council, committee or officer of the state, whether permanent or temporary, or a public benefit corporation or public authority at least one of whose members is appointed by the governor, authorized by law to make rules or to make final decisions in adjudicatory proceedings but shall not include the judicial branch or agencies created by interstate compact or international agreement. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • this Act: means that chapter of the laws of 1997 which repealed former Article 8 of this code, added this article to this code, and made conforming amendments to provisions of other articles of this code. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 8-601
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • widely attended event: shall mean an event: (A) which at least twenty-five individuals other than members, officers, or employees from the governmental entity in which the public official serves attend or were, in good faith, invited to attend, and (B) which is related to the attendee's duties or responsibilities or which allows the public official to perform a ceremonial function appropriate to his or her position. See N.Y. Legislative Law 1-C