Part 1 General Provisions
Part 2 Effectiveness of Security Agreement; Attachment of Security Interest; Rights of Parties to Security Agreement
Part 3 Perfection and Priority
Part 4 Rights of Third Parties
Part 5 Filing
Part 6 Default
Part 7 Transition

Terms Used In New York Laws > Uniform Commercial Code > Article 9

  • ABA: means the design, implementation, and evaluation of environmental modifications, using behavioral stimuli and consequences, to produce socially significant improvement in human behavior, including the use of direct observation, measurement, and functional analysis of the relationship between environment and behavior. See N.Y. Education Law 8801
  • Accumulated contributions: shall mean the sum of all the amounts deducted from the compensation of a contributor, and credited to his individual account in the annuity savings fund together with regular interest thereon. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Adoption: means the delivery to any natural person eighteen years of age or older, for the limited purpose of harboring a pet, of any dog or cat, seized or surrendered. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agricultural and farmland protection: means the preservation, conservation, management or improvement of lands which are part of viable farming operations, for the purpose of encouraging such lands to remain in agricultural production. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Agricultural assessment value: means the value per acre assigned to land for assessment purposes determined pursuant to the capitalized value of production procedure prescribed by section three hundred four-a of this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Agricultural data statement: means an identification of farm operations within an agricultural district located within five hundred feet of the boundary of property upon which an action requiring municipal review and approval by the planning board, zoning board of appeals, town board, or village board of trustees pursuant to article sixteen of the town law or article seven of the village law is proposed, as provided in section three hundred five-b of this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Agricultural use value: means the fair market value of a property that is restricted by an easement to its productive commercial agricultural use value rather than the highest and/or best potential use value for residential or other non-agricultural purposes. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Animal: as used in this article , includes every living creature except a human being;

    2. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350

  • Animal: means a dog or a cat. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 400
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Annuity: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from contributions made by contributor as provided in this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Annuity reserve: shall mean the present value of all payments to be made on account of any annuity, or benefit in lieu of any annuity, computed upon the basis of such mortality tables as shall be adopted by the retirement board with regular interest. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Apiary products operation: means an agricultural enterprise, consisting of land owned by the operation, upon which bee hives are located and maintained for the purpose of producing, harvesting and storing apiary products for sale. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • athletic trainer: means any person who is duly certified in accordance with this article to perform athletic training under the supervision of a physician and limits his or her practice to secondary schools, institutions of postsecondary education, professional athletic organizations, or a person who, under the supervision of a physician, carries out comparable functions on orthopedic athletic injuries, excluding spinal cord injuries, in a health care organization. See N.Y. Education Law 8351
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Beneficiary: shall mean any person in receipt of a retirement allowance or other benefit as provided by this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • Clinical: shall mean activities directly relating to the treatment or diagnosis of human ailments. See N.Y. Education Law 8701
  • Commercial equine operation: means an agricultural enterprise, consisting of at least seven acres and stabling at least ten horses, regardless of ownership, that receives ten thousand dollars or more in gross receipts annually from fees generated through the provision of commercial equine activities including, but not limited to riding lessons, trail riding activities or training of horses or through the production for sale of crops, livestock, and livestock products, or through both the provision of such commercial equine activities and such production. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Commercial horse boarding operation: means an agricultural enterprise, consisting of at least seven acres and boarding at least ten horses, regardless of ownership, that receives ten thousand dollars or more in gross receipts annually from fees generated either through the boarding of horses or through the production for sale of crops, livestock, and livestock products, or through both such boarding and such production. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Consumer: means any individual purchasing an animal from a pet dealer. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 400
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contributor: shall mean any member of the retirement system who has an account in the annuity savings fund as provided by this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Conversion: means an outward or affirmative act changing the use of agricultural land and shall not mean the nonuse or idling of such land. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • cruelty: includes every act, omission, or neglect, whereby unjustifiable physical pain, suffering or death is caused or permitted. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Direct marketing: means the sale of farm and food products directly from producers to consumers and food buyers. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 282
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donated farm salvage: shall mean an agricultural crop that is unharvested, surplus or unmarketable but otherwise nutritious and edible. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 217
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Employer: shall mean the state of New York, the city, the village, school district board or trustee, or other agency of and within the state by which a teacher is paid. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Farm animal: as used in this article , means any ungulate, poultry, species of cattle, sheep, swine, goats, llamas, horses or fur-bearing animals, as defined in section 11-1907 of the environmental conservation law, which are raised for commercial or subsistence purposes. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Farm operation: means the land and on-farm buildings, equipment, manure processing and handling facilities, and practices which contribute to the production, preparation and marketing of crops, livestock and livestock products as a commercial enterprise, including a "commercial horse boarding operation" as defined in subdivision thirteen of this section, a "timber operation" as defined in subdivision fourteen of this section, "compost, mulch or other biomass crops" as defined in subdivision seventeen of this section and "commercial equine operation" as defined in subdivision eighteen of this section. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Farm woodland: means land used for the production of woodland products intended for sale, including but not limited to logs, lumber, posts and firewood. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Final average salary: shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during the five years of service immediately preceding his date of retirement, or it shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during any five consecutive years of state service, said five years to be selected by the applicant prior to date of retirement. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • food salvager: as used in this article , means a person engaged in the business of reconditioning, labeling, relabeling, packing, repacking, sorting, cleaning, culling, or by other means salvaging food or food products, single service food containers and utensils, soda straws, paper napkins or any product of a similar nature that may have become damaged, contaminated, adulterated or misbranded as a result of fire, flood, transit wreck, accident or other cause, or by water, smoke, chemicals, or any other adulterating agents. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 217
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross sales value: means the proceeds from the sale of:

    a. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301

  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • harassment: shall mean any act or omission by or on behalf of an owner that (i) causes or is intended to cause any person lawfully entitled to occupancy of a dwelling unit to vacate such dwelling unit or to surrender or waive any rights in relation to such occupancy, and (ii) includes one or more of the following acts or omissions, provided that there shall be a rebuttable presumption that such acts or omissions were intended to cause such person to vacate such dwelling unit or to surrender or waive any rights in relation to such occupancy, except that such presumption shall not apply to such acts or omissions with respect to a private dwelling, as defined in paragraph six of subdivision a of section 27-2004:

    a. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004

  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Industrial hemp: means the plant Cannabis sativa L. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 505
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Land used in agricultural production: means not less than seven acres of land used as a single operation in the preceding two years for the production for sale of crops, livestock or livestock products of an average gross sales value of ten thousand dollars or more; or, not less than seven acres of land used in the preceding two years to support a commercial horse boarding operation or a commercial equine operation with annual gross receipts of ten thousand dollars or more. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • locker plant: shall mean any building, or portion thereof, under such chemical refrigeration, in which individual compartments or lockers, each of not more than one hundred cubic feet capacity, are rented for the purpose of freezer storage of articles of food. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 230
  • Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
  • Medical physics: shall mean the branch of physics limited to the field of radiological physics. See N.Y. Education Law 8701
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • New entrant: shall mean any teacher who is a member of the retirement system except a present teacher. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Not-for-profit conservation organization: means an organization as defined in subdivision two of section 49-0303 of the environmental conservation law. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • nucs: shall mean small honey bee colonies created from larger colonies including the nuc box, which is a smaller version of a beehive, designed to hold up to five frames from an existing colony. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: shall be deemed to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all the officers, directors and persons having an interest in more than ten per cent of the issued and outstanding stock of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial owner thereof, if such owner be a corporation other than a banking organization as defined in section two of the banking law, a national banking association, a federal savings and loan association, the mortgage facilities corporation, savings banks life insurance fund, the savings banks retirement system, an authorized insurer as defined in section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust company or other corporation organized under the laws of this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at least twenty savings banks or by at least twenty savings and loan associations or a subsidiary corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company or other corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Pension: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from payments made by an employer as provided in this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Pension reserve: shall mean the present value of all payments to be made on account of any pension, or benefit in lieu of any pension, computed upon the basis of such mortality tables as shall be adopted by the retirement board with regular interest. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • person: shall be deemed to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all the officers, directors and persons having an interest in more than ten percent of the issued and outstanding stock of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial owner thereof, if such person be a corporation other than a banking organization as defined in section two of the banking law, a national banking association, a federal savings and loan association, the mortgage facilities corporation, savings banks life insurance fund, the savings banks retirement system, an authorized insurer as defined in section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust company or other corporation organized under the laws of this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at least twenty savings banks or by at least twenty savings and loan associations or a subsidiary corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company or other corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • pet: means any dog or cat, and shall also mean any other domesticated animal normally maintained in or near the household of the owner or person who cares for such other domesticated animal. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Pet Dealer: means any person who engages in the sale or offering for sale of more than nine animals per year for profit to the public. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 400
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plan: means the county and municipal agricultural and farmland protection plan as provided for in this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Present teacher: shall mean any teacher who was a teacher on or before the first day of August, nineteen hundred twenty-one, whose membership in the retirement system created by this article has been continuous and

    a. See N.Y. Education Law 501

  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Producer: means any person who grows, produces, or causes to be grown or produced any farm and food products in New York state. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 282
  • Program: means the state agricultural and farmland protection program created pursuant to the provisions of this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • pure honey: as used in this article , shall mean the nectar of flowers that has been transformed by, and is the natural product of the honey-bee, taken from the honeycomb and marketed in a liquid, candied or granulated condition. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 205
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Radiation: shall mean all ionizing radiation above background levels or any non-ionizing radiation used in diagnostic imaging or in radiation oncology. See N.Y. Education Law 8701
  • Radiological physics: shall mean diagnostic radiological physics, therapeutic radiological physics or radiation oncology physics, medical nuclear physics and medical health physics. See N.Y. Education Law 8701
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • refrigerated warehouse: shall mean any establishment or structure, or portion thereof, where space is rented or hired for the storage of food at or below the temperature of forty-five degrees Fahrenheit for more than thirty days. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 230
  • refrigeration: shall mean the storage or keeping of articles of food in a refrigerated warehouse at or below a temperature above zero of forty-five degrees Fahrenheit. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 230
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Retirement allowance: shall mean the pension plus the annuity. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Retirement board: shall mean the retirement board provided by section five hundred four of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Retirement fund: shall mean the state teachers' retirement fund for public school teachers of the state of New York as created by chapter one hundred forty of the laws of nineteen hundred ten, chapter four hundred forty-nine of the laws of nineteen hundred eleven, chapter forty-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fourteen, chapter one hundred three of the laws of nineteen hundred nineteen and chapter one hundred sixty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred twenty-three. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Retirement system: shall mean the New York state teachers' retirement system provided for in section five hundred two of this article. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Service: shall mean actual teaching or supervision by the teacher during regular school hours of the day, and shall mean governmental service in the state of New York in another capacity where the teacher was a member of the New York state employees retirement system, and where such service was credited to the teacher in the said New York state employees retirement system. See N.Y. Education Law 501
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • silvopasturing: shall mean the intentional combination of trees, forages and livestock managed as a single integrated practice for the collective benefit of each, including the planting of appropriate grasses and legume forages among trees for sound grazing and livestock husbandry. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Soil and water conservation district: means an entity as defined in subdivision one of section three of the soil and water conservation districts law. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Storage: shall mean a facility or equipment with a refrigerated, controlled atmosphere, or other enclosed unit used for the purpose of long-term storage of farm and food products in connection with a farmers' market. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 260
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Teacher: shall mean any regular teacher, special teacher, including any school librarian or physical training teacher, principal, vice-principal,

    supervisor,

    supervisory

    principal,

    director, superintendent, city superintendent, assistant city superintendent, district superintendent and other member of the teaching or professional staff of any class, public school, vocational school, truant reformatory school or parental school, and of any or all classes of schools within the state of New York, including schools on the Indian reservation, conducted under the order and superintendence of and wholly or partly at the expense of the New York state education department or of a duly elected board of education, board of school directors or board of trustees of the state or of any city or school district thereof, provided that no person shall be deemed a teacher within the meaning of this article who is not so employed for full time outside vacation periods. See N.Y. Education Law 501

  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Viable agricultural land: means land highly suitable for a farm operation as defined in this section. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301