Whenever used in this article the following terms shall have the following meanings:

Terms Used In N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2

  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Lead-based paint: means paint or other similar surface coating material containing 1. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2
  • Lead-based paint hazard: shall mean any condition in a dwelling or dwelling unit that causes exposure to lead from lead-contaminated dust, from lead-based paint that is peeling, or from lead-based paint that is present on chewable surfaces, deteriorated subsurfaces, friction surfaces, or impact surfaces that would result in adverse human health effects. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2
  • Lead-contaminated dust: shall mean dust containing lead at a mass per area concentration of 10 or more micrograms per square foot on a floor, 50 or more micrograms per square foot on window sills, and 100 or more micrograms per square foot on window wells, or such more stringent standards as may be adopted by rule of the department of health and mental hygiene, provided that, if the federal environmental protection agency or a successor agency, or the federal department of housing and urban development or a successor agency, adopts lower definitions of lead-contaminated dust, the board of health shall define

    in the health code such lower levels for the purposes of this subchapter. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2

  • owner: shall be deemed to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all the officers, directors and persons having an interest in more than ten per cent of the issued and outstanding stock of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial owner thereof, if such owner be a corporation other than a banking organization as defined in section two of the banking law, a national banking association, a federal savings and loan association, the mortgage facilities corporation, savings banks life insurance fund, the savings banks retirement system, an authorized insurer as defined in section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust company or other corporation organized under the laws of this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at least twenty savings banks or by at least twenty savings and loan associations or a subsidiary corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company or other corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004
  • Peeling: shall mean that the paint or other surface-coating material is curling, cracking, scaling, flaking, blistering, chipping, chalking or loose in any manner, such that a space or pocket of air is behind a portion thereof or such that the paint is not completely adhered to the underlying surface. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2
  • Resides: shall mean to routinely spend 10 or more hours per week within a dwelling unit. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2
  • rules: shall mean a rule or rules promulgated pursuant to section 1043 of the New York city charter. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2
  • Window: shall mean the non-glass parts of a window, including but not limited to any window sash, window well, window jamb, window sill, or window molding. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2056.2

(1) “Chewable surface” shall mean a protruding interior window sill in a dwelling unit in a multiple dwelling where a child of applicable age resides and which is readily accessible to such child. “Chewable surface” shall also mean any other type of interior edge or protrusion in a dwelling unit in a multiple dwelling, such as a rail or stair, where there is evidence that such other edge or protrusion has been chewed or where an occupant has notified the owner that a child of applicable age who resides in that multiple dwelling has mouthed or chewed such edge or protrusion.

(2) “Common area” shall mean a portion of a multiple dwelling that is not within a dwelling unit and is regularly used by occupants for access to and egress from any dwelling unit within such multiple dwelling.

(3) “Deteriorated subsurface” shall mean an unstable or unsound painted subsurface, an indication of which can be observed through a visual inspection, including, but not limited to, rotted or decayed wood, or wood or plaster that has been subject to moisture or disturbance.

(4) “Friction Surface” shall mean any painted surface that touches or is in contact with another surface, such that the two surfaces are capable of relative motion and abrade, scrape, or bind when in relative motion. Friction surfaces shall include, but not be limited to, window frames and jambs, doors, and hinges.

(5) “Impact Surface” shall mean any interior painted surface that shows evidence, such as marking, denting, or chipping, that it is subject to damage by repeated sudden force, such as certain parts of door frames, moldings, or baseboards.

(6) “Lead-based paint hazard” shall mean any condition in a dwelling or dwelling unit that causes exposure to lead from lead-contaminated dust, from lead-based paint that is peeling, or from lead-based paint that is present on chewable surfaces, deteriorated subsurfaces, friction surfaces, or impact surfaces that would result in adverse human health effects.

(7)(a) “Lead-based paint” means paint or other similar surface coating material containing 1.0 milligrams of lead per square centimeter or greater, as determined by laboratory analysis, or by an x-ray fluorescence analyzer. If an x-ray fluorescence analyzer is used, readings shall be corrected for substrate bias when necessary as specified by the performance characteristic sheets released by the United States environmental protection agency and the United States department of housing and urban development for the specific x-ray fluorescence analyzer used. X-ray fluorescence readings shall be classified as positive, negative or inconclusive in accordance with the United States department of housing and urban development “Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing” (July 2012) and the performance characteristic sheets released by the United States environmental protection agency and the United States department of housing and urban development for the specific x-ray fluorescence analyzer used. X-ray fluorescence readings that fall within the inconclusive zone, as determined by the performance characteristic sheets, shall be confirmed by laboratory analysis of paint chips, results shall be reported in milligrams of lead per square centimeter and the measure of such laboratory analysis shall be definitive. If laboratory analysis is used to determine lead content, results shall be reported in milligrams of lead per square centimeter. Where the surface area of a paint chip sample cannot be accurately measured or if an accurately measured paint chip sample cannot be removed, a laboratory

analysis may be reported in percent by weight. In such case, lead-based paint shall mean any paint or other similar surface-coating material containing more than 0.5 percent of metallic lead, based on the non-volatile content of the paint or other similar surface-coating material.

(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this subdivision, no less than 10 months after the effective date of this section and upon the promulgation of a rule by the department stating that the federal department of housing and urban development has provided at least one performance characteristic sheet or other sufficient written technical guidance approving a commercially available x-ray fluorescence analyzer tested at the level of 0.5 milligrams of lead per square centimeter, “lead-based paint” shall mean paint or other similar surface coating material containing 0.5 milligrams of lead per square centimeter or greater, as determined by laboratory analysis, or by an x-ray fluorescence analyzer. X-ray fluorescence readings shall be classified as positive or negative in accordance with such performance characteristic sheet or other guidance. If laboratory analysis is used to determine lead content, results shall be reported in milligrams of lead per square centimeter. Where the surface area of a paint chip sample cannot be accurately measured or if an accurately measured paint chip sample cannot be removed, a laboratory analysis may be reported in percent by weight. In such case, lead-based paint shall mean any paint or other similar surface-coating material containing more than 0.25 percent of metallic lead, based on the non-volatile content of the paint or other similar surface-coating material.

(c) Before and until the effective date of the rule described in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, for the purposes of the department of health and mental hygiene finding unsafe lead paint in a dwelling unit and issuing an order to abate a condition in a dwelling unit where a child of applicable age with an elevated blood lead level resides, pursuant to section 173.13 of the health code, nothing in this article shall prevent the board of health from determining that unsafe lead paint may include paint with a concentration of lead content that is less than the concentration of lead content in paint set forth in paragraph (a) of this subdivision. Such a determination of unsafe lead paint may include paint with a concentration of lead content no less than 0.5 milligrams of lead per square centimeter, as determined by laboratory analysis, or by an x-ray fluorescence analyzer. X-ray fluorescence readings shall be classified as positive or negative in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. If laboratory analysis is used to determine lead content, results shall be reported in milligrams of lead per square centimeter. Where the surface area of a paint chip sample cannot be accurately measured or if an accurately measured paint chip sample cannot be removed, a laboratory analysis may be reported in percent by weight. For such purposes, such concentration determined by the board of health pursuant to this paragraph shall be no less than 0.25 percent of metallic lead, based on the non-volatile content of the paint or other similar surface-coating material.

(8)(a) “Lead-contaminated dust” shall mean dust containing lead at a mass per area concentration of 10 or more micrograms per square foot on a floor, 50 or more micrograms per square foot on window sills, and 100 or more micrograms per square foot on window wells, or such more stringent standards as may be adopted by rule of the department of health and mental hygiene, provided that, if the federal environmental protection agency or a successor agency, or the federal department of housing and urban development or a successor agency, adopts lower definitions of lead-contaminated dust, the board of health shall define

in the health code such lower levels for the purposes of this subchapter.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of this section, on and after June 1, 2021, “lead-contaminated dust” shall mean dust containing lead at a mass per area concentration of 5 or more micrograms per square foot on a floor, 40 or more micrograms per square foot on window sills, and 100 or more micrograms per square foot on window wells, or such more stringent standards as may be adopted by the board of health, provided that, if the federal environmental protection agency or a successor agency, or the federal department of housing and urban development or a successor agency, adopts lower definitions of lead-contaminated dust, the board of health shall define in the health code such lower levels for the purposes of this subchapter.

(9) “Lead-contaminated dust clearance test” shall mean a test for lead-contaminated dust on floors, window wells, and window sills in a dwelling, that is made in accordance with section 27-2056.11 of this article.

(10) “Peeling” shall mean that the paint or other surface-coating material is curling, cracking, scaling, flaking, blistering, chipping, chalking or loose in any manner, such that a space or pocket of air is behind a portion thereof or such that the paint is not completely adhered to the underlying surface.

(11) “Remediation” or “Remediate” shall mean the reduction or elimination of a lead-based paint hazard through the wet scraping and repainting, removal, encapsulation, enclosure, or replacement of lead-based paint, or other method approved by the commissioner of health and mental hygiene.

* (12) “Rule” or “rules” shall mean a rule or rules promulgated pursuant to section 1043 of the New York city charter.

* NB Effective until January 1, 2020

* (12) “Resides” shall mean to routinely spend 10 or more hours per week within a dwelling unit.

* NB Effective January 1, 2020

* (13) “Turnover” shall mean the occupancy of a dwelling unit subsequent to the termination of a tenancy and the vacatur by a prior tenant of such dwelling unit.

* NB Effective until January 1, 2020

* (13) “Rule” or “rules” shall mean a rule or rules promulgated pursuant to section 1043 of the New York city charter.

* NB Effective January 1, 2020

* (14) “Underlying defect” shall mean a physical condition in a dwelling or dwelling unit that is causing or has caused paint to peel or a painted surface to deteriorate or fail, such as a structural or plumbing failure that allows water to intrude into a dwelling or dwelling unit.

* NB Effective until January 1, 2020

* (14) “Turnover” shall mean the occupancy of a dwelling unit subsequent to the termination of a tenancy and the vacatur by a prior tenant of such dwelling unit.

* NB Effective January 1, 2020

* (15) “Window” shall mean the non-glass parts of a window, including but not limited to any window sash, window well, window jamb, window sill, or window molding.

* NB Effective until January 1, 2020

* (15) “Underlying defect” shall mean a physical condition in a dwelling or dwelling unit that is causing or has caused paint to peel or a painted surface to deteriorate or fail, such as a structural or

plumbing failure that allows water to intrude into a dwelling or dwelling unit.

* NB Effective January 1, 2020

* (16) “Window” shall mean the non-glass parts of a window, including but not limited to any window sash, window well, window jamb, window sill, or window molding.

* NB Effective January 1, 2020