1. Criminal penalties. (a) Driving while ability impaired. A violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a traffic infraction and shall be punishable by a fine of not less than three hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or by imprisonment in a penitentiary or county jail for not more than fifteen days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of such subdivision after having been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than seven hundred fifty dollars, or by imprisonment of not more than thirty days in a penitentiary or county jail or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of such subdivision after having been convicted two or more times of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding ten years shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than seven hundred fifty dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not more than one hundred eighty days in a penitentiary or county jail or by both such fine and imprisonment.

Terms Used In N.Y. Vehicle & Traffic Law 1193

  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.

(b) Driving while intoxicated or while ability impaired by drugs or while ability impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs; aggravated driving while intoxicated; misdemeanor offenses. (i) A violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a misdemeanor and shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment in a penitentiary or county jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of paragraph (a) of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a misdemeanor and shall be punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars or by imprisonment in a penitentiary or county jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(ii) In addition to the imposition of any fine or period of imprisonment set forth in this paragraph, the court shall also sentence such person convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, a violation of subdivision two, two-a or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article to a term of probation or conditional discharge, as a condition of which it shall order such person to install and maintain, in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article, an ignition interlock device in any motor vehicle owned or operated by such person during the term of such probation or conditional discharge imposed for such violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and in no event for a period of less than twelve months; provided, however, that such period of interlock restriction shall terminate upon submission of proof that such person installed and maintained an ignition interlock device for at least six months, unless the court ordered such person to install and maintain an ignition interlock device for a longer period as authorized by this subparagraph and specified in such order. The period of interlock restriction shall commence from the earlier of the date of sentencing, or the date that an ignition interlock device was installed in advance of sentencing. Provided, however, the court may not authorize the operation of a motor vehicle by any person whose license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section.

(c) Felony offenses. (i) A person who operates a vehicle (A) in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of such section or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 and aggravated vehicular assault as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 and aggravated vehicular homicide as defined in section 125.14 of such law, within the preceding ten years, or (B) in violation of paragraph (b) of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be guilty of a class E felony, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(ii) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of such section or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 and aggravated vehicular assault as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 and aggravated vehicular homicide as defined in section 125.14 of such law, twice within the preceding ten years, shall be guilty of a class D felony, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(ii-a) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of such section or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 and aggravated vehicular assault as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 and aggravated vehicular homicide as defined in section 125.14 of such law, three or more times within the preceding fifteen years, shall be guilty of a class D felony, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(iii) In addition to the imposition of any fine or period of imprisonment set forth in this paragraph, the court shall also sentence such person convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, a violation of subdivision two, two-a or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article to a period of probation or conditional discharge, as a condition of which it shall order such person to install and maintain, in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article, an ignition interlock device in any motor vehicle owned or operated by such person during the term of such probation or conditional discharge imposed for such violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and in no event for a period of less than twelve months; provided, however, that such period of interlock restriction shall terminate upon submission of proof that such person installed and maintained an ignition interlock device for at

least six months, unless the court ordered such person to install and maintain a ignition interlock device for a longer period as authorized by this subparagraph and specified in such order. The period of interlock restriction shall commence from the earlier of the date of sentencing, or the date that an ignition interlock device was installed in advance of sentencing. Provided, however, the court may not authorize the operation of a motor vehicle by any person whose license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section.

(d) Alcohol or drug related offenses; special vehicles. (1) Except as provided in subparagraph four of this paragraph, a violation of subdivision one, two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a taxicab as defined in section one hundred forty-eight-a of this chapter, or livery as defined in section one hundred twenty-one-e of this chapter, and such taxicab or livery is carrying a passenger for compensation, or a truck with a GVWR of more than eighteen thousand pounds but not more than twenty-six thousand pounds and which is not a commercial motor vehicle shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a taxicab as defined in section one hundred forty-eight-a of this chapter, or livery as defined in section one hundred twenty-one-e of this chapter, and such taxicab or livery is carrying a passenger for compensation, or a truck with a GVWR of more than eighteen thousand pounds but not more than twenty-six thousand pounds and which is not a commercial motor vehicle shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(1-a) A violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a school bus as defined in section one hundred forty-two of this chapter and such school bus is carrying at least one student passenger shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(2) A violation of subdivision five of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a traffic infraction punishable as provided in paragraph (a) of this subdivision. Except as provided in subparagraph three or five of this paragraph, a violation of subdivision one, two, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a commercial motor vehicle, or any motor vehicle registered or registerable under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter shall be a misdemeanor. A violation of subdivision one, two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment not to exceed one hundred eighty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates any such vehicle in violation of such subdivision six after having been convicted of a

violation of subdivision one, two, two-a, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a commercial motor vehicle, or any motor vehicle registered or registerable under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(3) A violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than eighteen thousand pounds which contains flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(4) (i) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision one, two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and which is punishable as provided in subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph after having been convicted of a violation of any such subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and penalized under subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph within the preceding ten years, shall be guilty of a class E felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of two or more violations of subdivisions one, two, two-a, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years, any one of which was a misdemeanor, shall be guilty of a class E felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. In addition, any person sentenced pursuant to this subparagraph shall be subject to the disqualification provided in subparagraph three of paragraph (e) of subdivision two of this section.

(ii) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision one, two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and which is punishable as provided in subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph after having been convicted of a violation of any such subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and penalized under subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph twice within the preceding ten years, shall be guilty of a class D felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of three or more violations of subdivisions one, two, two-a, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years, any one of

which was a misdemeanor, shall be guilty of a class D felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. In addition, any person sentenced pursuant to this subparagraph shall be subject to the disqualification provided in subparagraph three of paragraph (e) of subdivision two of this section.

(4-a) A violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a school bus as defined in section one hundred forty-two of this chapter and such school bus is carrying at least one student passenger shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a school bus as defined in section one hundred forty-two of this chapter and such school bus is carrying at least one student passenger shall be a class D felony punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(5) A violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than eighteen thousand pounds which contains flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives, shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars and such other penalties as provided for in the penal law; provided, however, that a conviction for such violation shall not be considered a predicate felony pursuant to section 70.06 of such law, or a previous felony conviction pursuant to section 70.10 of such law. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than eighteen thousand pounds which contains flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives, shall be a class D felony punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand nor more than ten thousand dollars and such other penalties as provided for in the penal law; provided, however, that a conviction for such violation shall not be considered a predicate felony pursuant to section 70.06 of such law, or a previous felony conviction pursuant to section 70.10 of such law.

(6) The sentences required to be imposed by subparagraph one, one-a, two, three, four, four-a or five of this paragraph shall be imposed notwithstanding any contrary provision of this chapter or the penal law.

(7) Nothing contained in this paragraph shall prohibit the imposition of a charge of any other felony set forth in this or any other provision of law for any acts arising out of the same incident.

(e) Certain sentences prohibited. Notwithstanding any provisions of the penal law, no judge or magistrate shall impose a sentence of unconditional discharge for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article nor shall a judge or magistrate impose a sentence of conditional discharge or probation unless such conditional discharge or probation is accompanied by a sentence of a fine as provided in this subdivision.

(f) Where the court imposes a sentence for a violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, the court may require the defendant, as a part of or as a condition of such sentence, to attend a single session conducted by a victims impact program. For purposes of

this section, “victims impact program” means a program operated by a county, a city with a population of one million or more, by a not-for-profit organization authorized by any such county or city, or a combination thereof, in which presentations are made concerning the impact of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs to one or more persons who have been convicted of such offenses. A description of any such program shall be filed with the commissioner and with the coordinator of the special traffic options program for driving while intoxicated established pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-seven of this article, and shall be made available to the court upon request. Nothing contained herein shall be construed to require any governmental entity to create such a victim impact program.

(g) The office of probation and correctional alternatives shall recommend to the commissioner of the division of criminal justice services regulations governing the monitoring of compliance by persons ordered to install and maintain ignition interlock devices to provide standards for monitoring by departments of probation, and options for monitoring of compliance by such persons, that counties may adopt as an alternative to monitoring by a department of probation.

1-a. Additional penalties. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, a person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two or three of such section within the preceding five years shall, in addition to any other penalties which may be imposed pursuant to subdivision one of this section, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of five days or, as an alternative to such imprisonment, be required to perform thirty days of service for a public or not-for-profit corporation, association, institution or agency as set forth in paragraph (h) of subdivision two of section 65.10 of the penal law as a condition of sentencing for such violation. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, a sentence of a term of imprisonment of five days or more pursuant to the provisions of subdivision one of this section shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subdivision.

(b) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted on two or more occasions of a violation of any of such subdivisions within the preceding five years shall, in addition to any other penalties which may be imposed pursuant to subdivision one of this section, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of ten days or, as an alternative to such imprisonment, be required to perform sixty days of service for a public or not-for-profit corporation, association, institution or agency as set forth in paragraph (h) of subdivision two of section 65.10 of the penal law as a condition of sentencing for such violation. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, a sentence of a term of imprisonment of ten days or more pursuant to the provisions of subdivision one of this section shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subdivision.

(c) A court sentencing a person pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) of this subdivision shall: (i) order the installation of an ignition interlock device approved pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article in any motor vehicle owned or operated by the person so sentenced. Such devices shall remain installed during any period of license revocation required to be imposed pursuant to paragraph (b) of subdivision two of this section, and, upon the termination of such revocation period, for an additional period as determined by the court; and (ii) order that such person receive an

assessment of the degree of their alcohol or substance abuse and dependency pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article. Where such assessment indicates the need for treatment, such court is authorized to impose treatment as a condition of such sentence except that such court shall impose treatment as a condition of a sentence of probation or conditional discharge pursuant to the provisions of subdivision three of section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article. Any person ordered to install an ignition interlock device pursuant to this paragraph shall be subject to the provisions of subdivisions four, five, seven, eight and nine of section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article.

(d) Confidentiality of records. The provisions of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article shall apply to the records and content of all assessments and treatment conducted pursuant to this subdivision.

2. License sanctions. (a) Suspensions. Except as otherwise provided in this subdivision, a license shall be suspended and a registration may be suspended for the following periods:

(1) Driving while ability impaired. Ninety days, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article;

(2) Persons under the age of twenty-one; driving after having consumed alcohol. Six months, where the holder has been found to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article where such person was under the age of twenty-one at the time of commission of such violation.

(b) Revocations. A license shall be revoked and a registration may be revoked for the following minimum periods:

(1) Driving while ability impaired; prior offense. Six months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within five years of a conviction for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.

(1-a) Driving while ability impaired; misdemeanor offense. Six months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of two previous convictions for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.

(2) Driving while intoxicated or while ability impaired by drugs or while ability impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs; aggravated driving while intoxicated. Six months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. One year where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.

(3) Driving while intoxicated or while ability impaired by drugs or while ability impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs; aggravated driving while intoxicated; prior offense. One year, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of a conviction for a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. Eighteen months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of a conviction for a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; or where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two, three, four

or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of a conviction for a violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.

(4) Special vehicles other than school buses. One year, where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and is sentenced pursuant to subparagraph one of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section.

(4-a) School buses. (A) One year, where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such violation was committed while the holder was driving a school bus, and the holder is sentenced pursuant to subparagraph one, one-a or four-a of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section.

(B) Three years where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such violation was committed while the holder was driving a school bus, and the holder is sentenced pursuant to subparagraph four of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section.

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of the opening paragraph of this paragraph (b), the commissioner shall not revoke the registration of a school bus driven in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.

(5) Holder of a commercial driver’s license. (i) Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, one year where the holder of a commercial driver’s license is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or if such holder is convicted of an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol or drugs where such conviction was had outside of this state.

(ii) Three years, where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such violation was committed while the holder was operating a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials or if such holder is convicted of an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol or drugs where such conviction was had outside of this state.

(6) Persons under the age of twenty-one. One year, where the holder is convicted of or adjudicated a youthful offender for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, or is convicted of or receives a youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication for an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor where the conviction, or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state, where such person was under the age of twenty-one at the time of commission of such violation.

(7) Persons under the age of twenty-one; prior offense or finding. One year or until the holder reaches the age of twenty-one, whichever is the greater period of time, where the holder has been found to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, or is convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, or is convicted of or receives a youthful offender or juvenile adjudication for an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor where the conviction, or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state, where such person was under the age of twenty-one at the time of commission of such violation and has previously been found to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred

ninety-two-a of this article, or has previously been convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article not arising out of the same incident, or has previously been convicted of or received a youthful offender or juvenile adjudication for an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor when the conviction, or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state and not arising out of the same.

(8) Out-of-state offenses. Except as provided in subparagraph six or seven of this paragraph: (i) ninety days, where the holder is convicted of an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor where the conviction was had outside this state and (ii) six months, where the holder is convicted of, or receives a youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication, which would have been a misdemeanor or felony if committed by an adult, in connection with, an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of or while impaired by the use of drugs where the conviction or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state.

(9) Effect of rehabilitation program. No period of revocation arising out of subparagraph four, five, six or seven of this paragraph may be set aside by the commissioner for the reason that such person was a participant in the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program set forth in section eleven hundred ninety-six of this chapter.

(10) Action required by commissioner. Where a court fails to impose, or incorrectly imposes, a suspension or revocation required by this subdivision, the commissioner shall, upon receipt of a certificate of conviction filed pursuant to section five hundred fourteen of this chapter, impose such mandated suspension or revocation, which shall supersede any such order which the court may have imposed.

(11) Limitation of certain mandatory revocations. Where revocation is mandatory pursuant to subparagraph five of this paragraph for a conviction of a violation of subdivision five of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such revocation shall be issued only by the commissioner and shall be applicable only to that portion of the holder’s driver’s license or privilege which permits the operation of commercial motor vehicles, and the commissioner shall immediately issue a license, other than a commercial driver’s license, to such person provided that such person is otherwise eligible to receive such license and further provided that issuing a license to such person does not create a substantial traffic safety hazard.

(12) Permanent revocation. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter to the contrary, whenever a revocation is imposed upon a person for the refusal to submit to a chemical test pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article or conviction for any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article for which a sentence of imprisonment may be imposed, and such person has: (i) within the previous four years been twice convicted of any provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or a violation of the penal law for which a violation of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element and at least one such conviction was for a crime, or has twice been found to have refused to submit to a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, or has any combination of two such convictions and findings of refusal not arising out of the same incident; or (ii) within the previous eight years been convicted three times of any provision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article for which a sentence of imprisonment may be imposed or a violation of the penal law for which

a violation of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element and at least two such convictions were for crimes, or has been found, on three separate occasions, to have refused to submit to a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, or has any combination of such convictions and findings of refusal not arising out of the same incident, such revocation shall be permanent.

(b) The permanent driver’s license revocation required by clause (a) of this subparagraph shall be waived by the commissioner after a period of five years has expired since the imposition of such permanent revocation, provided that during such five-year period such person has not been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article while operating a motor vehicle and has not been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or section five hundred eleven of this chapter or a violation of the penal law for which a violation of any subdivision of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element and either:

(i) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person has voluntarily enrolled in and successfully completed an appropriate rehabilitation program; or

(ii) that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law.

Provided, however, that the commissioner may, on a case by case basis, refuse to restore a license which otherwise would be restored pursuant to this item, in the interest of the public safety and welfare.

(c) For revocations imposed pursuant to clause (a) of this subparagraph, the commissioner may adopt rules to permit conditional or restricted operation of a motor vehicle by any such person after a mandatory revocation period of not less than three years subject to such criteria, terms and conditions as established by the commissioner.

(d) Upon (i) a finding of refusal after having been convicted three times within four years of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or of the penal law for which a violation of any subdivision of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of three such convictions not arising out of the same incident within four years or (ii) a fourth conviction of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of any such subdivision of such section eleven hundred ninety-two or of the penal law for which a violation of any of such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of three such convictions not arising out of the same incident within four years or (iii) a finding of refusal after having been convicted four times within eight years of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or of the penal law for which a violation of any of such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of four such convictions not arising out of the same incident within eight years or (iv) a fifth conviction of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of such subdivision or of the penal law for which a violation of any of such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of four such convictions not arising out of the same incident within eight years, such revocation shall be permanent.

(e) The permanent driver’s license revocation required by clause (d) of this subparagraph may be waived by the commissioner after a period of

eight years has expired since the imposition of such permanent revocation provided:

(i) that during such eight-year period such person has not been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article while operating a motor vehicle and has not been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or section five hundred eleven of this chapter or a violation of the penal law for which a violation of any such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element; and

(ii) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person has voluntarily enrolled in and successfully completed an appropriate rehabilitation program; and

(iii) after such documentation is accepted, that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law.

Notwithstanding the provisions of this clause, nothing contained in this clause shall be deemed to require the commissioner to restore a license to an applicant who otherwise has complied with the requirements of this item, in the interest of the public safety and welfare.

(f) Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall be deemed to reduce a license revocation period imposed pursuant to any other provision of law.

(c) Reissuance of licenses; restrictions. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, where a license is revoked pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subdivision, no new license shall be issued after the expiration of the minimum period specified in such paragraph, except in the discretion of the commissioner.

(2) Where a license is revoked pursuant to subparagraph two, three or eight of paragraph (b) of this subdivision for a violation of subdivision four of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, and where the individual does not have a driver’s license or the individual’s license was suspended at the time of conviction or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication, the commissioner shall not issue a new license nor restore the former license for a period of six months after such individual would otherwise have become eligible to obtain a new license or to have the former license restored; provided, however, that during such delay period the commissioner may issue a restricted use license pursuant to section five hundred thirty of this chapter.

(3) In no event shall a new license be issued where a person has been twice convicted of a violation of subdivision three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or of driving while intoxicated or of driving while ability is impaired by the use of a drug or of driving while ability is impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs where physical injury, as defined in section 10.00 of the penal law, has resulted from such offense in each instance.

(d) Suspension or revocation; sentencing. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct issued pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law, where a suspension or revocation, other than a revocation required to be issued by the commissioner, is mandatory pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) of this subdivision, the magistrate, justice or judge shall issue an order suspending or revoking such license upon sentencing, and the license holder shall surrender such license to the court. Except as hereinafter provided, such suspension or revocation shall take effect immediately.

(2) Except where the license holder has been charged with a violation of article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law arising out of the same incident or convicted of such violation or a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years, the judge, justice or magistrate may issue an order making said license suspension or revocation take effect twenty days after the date of sentencing. The license holder shall be given a copy of said order permitting the continuation of driving privileges for twenty days after sentencing, if granted by the court. The court shall forward to the commissioner the certificates required in sections five hundred thirteen and five hundred fourteen of this chapter, along with a copy of any order issued pursuant to this paragraph and the license, within ninety-six hours of sentencing.

(e) Special provisions. (1) Suspension pending prosecution; procedure. a. Without notice, pending any prosecution, the court shall suspend such license, where the holder has been charged with a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and either (i) a violation of a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law arising out of the same incident, or (ii) has been convicted of any violation under section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years.

b. The suspension under the preceding clause shall occur no later than twenty days after the holder’s first appearance before the court on the charges or at the conclusion of all proceedings required for the arraignment. In order for the court to impose such suspension it must find that the accusatory instrument conforms to the requirements of section 100.40 of the criminal procedure law and there exists reasonable cause to believe that the holder operated a motor vehicle in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and either (i) the person had been convicted of any violation under such section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years; or (ii) that the holder committed a violation of a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law. At such time the holder shall be entitled to an opportunity to make a statement regarding the enumerated issues and to present evidence tending to rebut the court’s findings. Where such suspension is imposed upon a pending charge of a violation of a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law and the holder has requested a hearing pursuant to article one hundred eighty of the criminal procedure law, the court shall conduct such hearing. If upon completion of the hearing, the court fails to find that there is reasonable cause to believe that the holder committed a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law and the holder has not been previously convicted of any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years the court shall promptly notify the commissioner and direct restoration of such license to the license holder unless such license is suspended or revoked pursuant to any other provision of this chapter.

(2) Bail forfeiture. A license shall be suspended where the holder forfeits bail upon a charge of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. Such suspension shall not be terminated until the holder submits to the jurisdiction of the court in which the bail was forfeited.

(3) Permanent disqualification from operating certain motor vehicles. a. Except as otherwise provided herein, in addition to any revocation

set forth in subparagraph four or five of paragraph (b) of this subdivision, any person sentenced pursuant to subparagraph three of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section shall be permanently disqualified from operating any vehicle set forth in such paragraph. In addition, the commissioner shall not issue such person a license valid for the operation of any vehicle set forth therein by such person. The commissioner may waive such disqualification and prohibition hereinbefore provided after a period of five years has expired from such sentencing provided:

(i) that during such five year period such person has not violated any of the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or any alcohol or drug related traffic offense in this state or in any jurisdiction outside this state;

(ii) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person is not in need of alcohol or drug treatment or has satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of such treatment; and

(iii) after such documentation is accepted, that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law.

b. Any person who holds a commercial driver’s license and is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article who has had a prior finding of refusal to submit to a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article or has had a prior conviction of any of the following offenses: any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; any violation of subdivision one or two of section six hundred of this chapter; or has a prior conviction of any felony involving the use of a motor vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision one of section five hundred ten-a of this chapter, shall be permanently disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle. The commissioner may waive such disqualification and prohibition hereinbefore provided after a period of ten years has expired from such sentence provided:

(i) that during such ten year period such person has not been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article while operating a motor vehicle and has not been convicted of any one of the following offenses while operating a motor vehicle: any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; any violation of subdivision one or two of section six hundred of this chapter; or has a prior conviction of any felony involving the use of a motor vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision one of section five hundred ten-a of this chapter;

(ii) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person is not in need of alcohol or drug treatment or has satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of such treatment; and

(iii) after such documentation is accepted, that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law.

c. Upon a third finding of refusal and/or conviction of any of the offenses which require a permanent commercial driver’s license revocation, such permanent revocation may not be waived by the commissioner under any circumstances.

(4) Youthful offenders. Where a youth is determined to be a youthful offender, following a conviction of a violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article for which a license suspension or revocation is mandatory, the court shall impose such suspension or revocation as is otherwise required upon conviction and, further, shall

notify the commissioner of said suspension or revocation and its finding that said violator is granted youthful offender status as is required pursuant to section five hundred thirteen of this chapter.

(5) Probation. When a license to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked pursuant to this chapter, and the holder has been sentenced to a period of probation pursuant to section 65.00 of the penal law for a violation of any provision of this chapter, or any other provision of the laws of this state, and a condition of such probation is that the holder thereof not operate a motor vehicle or not apply for a license to operate a motor vehicle during the period of such condition of probation, the commissioner may not restore such license until the period of the condition of probation has expired.

(6) Application for new license. Where a license has been revoked pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subdivision, or where the holder is subject to a condition of probation as provided in subparagraph five of this paragraph, application for a new license may be made within forty-five days prior to the expiration of such minimum period of revocation or condition of probation, whichever expires last.

(7) Suspension pending prosecution; excessive blood alcohol content. a. Except as provided in clause a-1 of this subparagraph, a court shall suspend a driver’s license, pending prosecution, of any person charged with a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article who, at the time of arrest, is alleged to have had .08 of one percent or more by weight of alcohol in such driver’s blood as shown by chemical analysis of blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to subdivision two or three of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article.

a-1. A court shall suspend a class DJ or MJ learner’s permit or a class DJ or MJ driver’s license, pending prosecution, of any person who has been charged with a violation of subdivision one, two, two-a and/or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.

b. The suspension occurring under clause a of this subparagraph shall occur no later than at the conclusion of all proceedings required for the arraignment and the suspension occurring under clause a-1 of this subparagraph shall occur immediately after the holder’s first appearance before the court on the charge which shall, whenever possible, be the next regularly scheduled session of the court after the arrest or at the conclusion of all proceedings required for the arraignment; provided, however, that if the results of any test administered pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article are not available within such time period, the complainant police officer or other public servant shall transmit such results to the court at the time they become available, and the court shall, as soon as practicable following the receipt of such results and in compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph, suspend such license. In order for the court to impose such suspension it must find that the accusatory instrument conforms to the requirements of section 100.40 of the criminal procedure law and there exists reasonable cause to believe either that (a) the holder operated a motor vehicle while such holder had .08 of one percent or more by weight of alcohol in his or her blood as was shown by chemical analysis of such person’s blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article or (b) the person was the holder of a class DJ or MJ learner’s permit or a class DJ or MJ driver’s license and operated a motor vehicle while such holder was in violation of subdivision one, two and/or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. At the time of such license suspension the holder shall be entitled to an opportunity to

make a statement regarding these two issues and to present evidence tending to rebut the court’s findings.

c. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall be construed to prohibit or limit a court from imposing any other suspension pending prosecution required or permitted by law.

d. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of this chapter, if any suspension occurring under this subparagraph has been in effect for a period of thirty days, the holder may be issued a conditional license, in accordance with section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article, provided the holder of such license is otherwise eligible to receive such conditional license. A conditional license issued pursuant to this subparagraph shall not be valid for the operation of a commercial motor vehicle. The commissioner shall prescribe by regulation the procedures for the issuance of such conditional license.

e. If the court finds that the suspension imposed pursuant to this subparagraph will result in extreme hardship, the court must issue such suspension, but may grant a hardship privilege, which shall be issued on a form prescribed by the commissioner. For the purposes of this clause, “extreme hardship” shall mean the inability to obtain alternative means of travel to or from the licensee’s employment, or to or from necessary medical treatment for the licensee or a member of the licensee’s household, or if the licensee is a matriculating student enrolled in an accredited school, college or university travel to or from such licensee’s school, college or university if such travel is necessary for the completion of the educational degree or certificate. The burden of proving extreme hardship shall be on the licensee who may present material and relevant evidence. A finding of extreme hardship may not be based solely upon the testimony of the licensee. In no event shall arraignment be adjourned or otherwise delayed more than three business days solely for the purpose of allowing the licensee to present evidence of extreme hardship. The court shall set forth upon the record, or otherwise set forth in writing, the factual basis for such finding. The hardship privilege shall permit the operation of a vehicle only for travel to or from the licensee’s employment, or to or from necessary medical treatment for the licensee or a member of the licensee’s household, or if the licensee is a matriculating student enrolled in an accredited school, college or university travel to or from such licensee’s school, college or university if such travel is necessary for the completion of the educational degree or certificate. A hardship privilege shall not be valid for the operation of a commercial motor vehicle.

(f) Notice of charges to parent or guardian. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision two of section eighteen hundred seven of this chapter, upon the first scheduled appearance of any person under eighteen years of age who resides within the household of his or her parent or guardian upon a charge of a violation of subdivision one, two and/or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, the local criminal court before which such first appearance is scheduled shall forthwith transmit written notice of such appearance or failure to make such appearance to the parent or guardian of such minor person; provided, however, that if an arraignment and conviction of such person follows such appearance upon the same day, or in case such person waives arraignment and enters a plea of guilty to the offense as charged in accordance with the provisions of section eighteen hundred five of this chapter, transmittal of notice of his or her conviction as provided in section five hundred fourteen of this chapter shall be sufficient and the notice required by this paragraph need not be given; provided further that the failure of a local criminal court to transmit the

notice required by this paragraph shall in no manner affect the validity of a conviction subsequently obtained.