* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine either the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty of the person charged, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or in the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

Terms Used In N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 241

  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Operator: means any person, corporation, firm, partnership, agency, association, organization or lessee that uses or operates a vehicle with or without the permission of the owner, and an owner who operates his own vehicle. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 239
  • Owner: means any person, corporation, partnership, firm, agency, association, lessor, or organization who at the time of the issuance of a notice of violation in any city in which a vehicle is operated:

    (1) is the beneficial or equitable owner of such vehicle; or

    (2) has title to such vehicle; or

    (3) is the registrant or co-registrant of such vehicle which is registered with the department of motor vehicles of this state or any other state, territory, district, province, nation or other jurisdiction; or

    (4) uses such vehicle in its vehicle renting and/or leasing business; or

    (5) is an owner of such vehicle as defined by section one hundred twenty-eight of this chapter or subdivision (a) of section twenty-one hundred one of this chapter. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 239

  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.

* NB Effective until September 6, 2024

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine either the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty of the person charged, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, as applicable prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective September 6, 2024 until December 1, 2024

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine either the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter of the person charged, or the

record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective and Expires December 1, 2024

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter of the person charged, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter of the person charged, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter of the person charged, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable, prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024 until September 20, 2025

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine either the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter of the person charged, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter of the person charged, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter of the person charged or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable, prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective September 20, 2025 until July 1, 2022

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine either the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter of the person charged or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter of the person charged or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter of the person charged or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable, prior to rendering a final determination. Final

determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective July 1, 2022 until December 1, 2024

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter of the person charged or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable, prior to rendering a final determination or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable, prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024 until December 1, 2024

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he or she may examine the prior parking violations record or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or the record of liabilities incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter of the person charged, as applicable, prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024 until December 1, 2024

* 1. The hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, either sustaining or dismissing them. Where the hearing examiner determines that the charges have been sustained he may examine the prior parking violations record of the person charged prior to rendering a final determination. Final determinations sustaining or dismissing charges shall be entered on a final determination roll maintained by the bureau together with records showing payment and nonpayment of penalties.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned

date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead or contest, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter alleged or liability in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty alleged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter alleged, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter alleged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, as appropriate, or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered and allegations contested within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea or contesting an allegation. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining

them, he or she shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective until September 6, 2024

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead or contest, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter alleged or liability in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty alleged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter alleged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter or in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law or sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty or contesting an

allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, as appropriate, or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered and allegations contested within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea or contesting an allegation. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he or she shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective September 6, 2024 until December 1, 2024

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter, or fails to contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or fails to contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead, contest, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged, or liability in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter, as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter alleged, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter alleged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of

chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, as appropriate, or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered and allegations contested within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea or contesting an allegation. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he or she shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective and Expires December 1, 2024

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or fails to contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter, or fails to contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or fails to contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or alleged liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or alleged liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or alleged liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a

default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he or she shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024 until September 20, 2025

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or fails to contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter or fails to contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter alleged, or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter alleged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with

section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective September 20, 2025 until July 1, 2022

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter alleged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter alleged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter alleged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee.

Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective July 1, 2022 until December 1, 2024

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or contest an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter alleged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter alleged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024 until December 1, 2024

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or contest an allegation of liability in accordance

with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or contest an allegation of liability incurred in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged or liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter alleged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or contesting an allegation of liability in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024 until December 1, 2024

* 2. Where an operator or owner fails to enter a plea to a charge of a parking violation or fails to appear on a designated hearing date or subsequent adjourned date or fails after a hearing to comply with the determination of a hearing examiner, as prescribed by this article or by rule or regulation of the bureau, such failure to plead, appear or comply shall be deemed, for all purposes, an admission of liability and shall be grounds for rendering and entering a default judgment in an amount provided by the rules and regulations of the bureau. However, after the expiration of the original date prescribed for entering a plea and before a default judgment may be rendered, in such case the bureau shall pursuant to the applicable provisions of law notify such operator or owner, by such form of first class mail as the commission may direct; (1) of the violation charged, (2) of the impending default judgment, (3) that such judgment will be entered in the Civil Court of the city in which the bureau has been established, or other court of civil jurisdiction or any other place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state of New York, and (4) that a default may be avoided by entering a plea or making an appearance within thirty days of the sending of such notice. Pleas entered within that period shall be in the manner prescribed in the notice and not subject to additional penalty or fee. Such notice of impending default judgment shall not be required prior to the rendering and entry thereof in the case of

operators or owners who are non-residents of the state of New York. In no case shall a default judgment be rendered or, where required, a notice of impending default judgment be sent, more than two years after the expiration of the time prescribed for entering a plea. When a person has demanded a hearing, no fine or penalty shall be imposed for any reason, prior to the holding of the hearing. If the hearing examiner shall make a determination on the charges, sustaining them, he shall impose no greater penalty or fine than those upon which the person was originally charged.

* NB Effective December 1, 2024

3. A judgment entered pursuant to the provisions of this section shall remain in full force and effect for eight years notwithstanding any other provision of law.