Texas Business Organizations Code Chapter 3 – Formation and Governance
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Terms Used In Texas Business Organizations Code Chapter 3 - Formation and Governance
- Abstract of judgment: In a federal criminal proceeding, A certification from a U.S. District Court clerk that a judgment of restitution was entered against the defendant owing to the victim. If the defendant inherits, owns, or sells real property or holdings, these assets can then be attached at the state and local levels as well.
- Act: means a bodily movement, whether voluntary or involuntary, and includes speech. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Actor: means a person whose criminal responsibility is in issue in a criminal action. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Agency: includes authority, board, bureau, commission, committee, council, department, district, division, and office. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Another: means a person other than the actor. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Association: means a government or governmental subdivision or agency, trust, partnership, or two or more persons having a joint or common economic interest. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Association: means an entity governed as an association under Title 6 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Assumed name: means a name adopted for use by a person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
- Benefit: means anything reasonably regarded as economic gain or advantage, including benefit to any other person in whose welfare the beneficiary is interested. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Bodily injury: means physical pain, illness, or any impairment of physical condition. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Business: means a trade, occupation, profession, or other commercial activity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Certificate of formation: means :
(A) the document required to be filed with the filing officer under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Certificated ownership interest: means an ownership interest of a domestic entity represented by a certificate issued in bearer or registered form. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- Close corporation: means a for-profit corporation that elects to be governed as a close corporation in accordance with Subchapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
- Coercion: means a threat, however communicated:
(A) to commit an offense;
(B) to inflict bodily injury in the future on the person threatened or another;
(C) to accuse a person of any offense;
(D) to expose a person to hatred, contempt, or ridicule;
(E) to harm the credit or business repute of any person; or
(F) to take or withhold action as a public servant, or to cause a public servant to take or withhold action. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Committee membership: Legislators are assigned to specific committees by their party. Seniority, regional balance, and political philosophy are the most prominent factors in the committee assignment process.
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Comptroller: means the state comptroller of public accounts. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Conduct: means an act or omission and its accompanying mental state. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Consent: means assent in fact, whether express or apparent. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Controlled substance: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Conversion: means :
(A) the continuance of a domestic entity as a non-code organization of any type;
(B) the continuance of a non-code organization as a domestic entity of any type;
(C) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a domestic entity of another type;
(D) the continuance of a domestic entity of one type as a foreign entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity; or
(E) the continuance of a foreign entity of one type as a domestic entity of the same type that may be treated as a domestication, continuance, or transfer transaction under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Converted entity: means an organization resulting from a conversion. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Converting entity: means an organization as the organization existed before the organization's conversion. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- cooperative association: means an association governed as a cooperative association under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Corporation: includes nonprofit corporations, professional associations created pursuant to statute, and joint stock companies. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Corporation: means an entity governed as a corporation under Title 2 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Correctional facility: means a place designated by law for the confinement of a person arrested for, charged with, or convicted of a criminal offense. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- County election precinct: means an election precinct established under Section Texas Election Code 1.005
- Covered entity: means any person who:
(A) for commercial, financial, or professional gain, monetary fees, or dues, or on a cooperative, nonprofit, or pro bono basis, engages, in whole or in part, and with real or constructive knowledge, in the practice of assembling, collecting, analyzing, using, evaluating, storing, or transmitting protected health information. See Texas Health and Safety Code 181.001
- Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Deadly weapon: means :
(A) a firearm or anything manifestly designed, made, or adapted for the purpose of inflicting death or serious bodily injury; or
(B) anything that in the manner of its use or intended use is capable of causing death or serious bodily injury. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Death: includes , for an individual who is an unborn child, the failure to be born alive. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Director: means an individual who serves on the board of directors of a foreign or domestic corporation. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Disclose: means to release, transfer, provide access to, or otherwise divulge information outside the entity holding the information. See Texas Health and Safety Code 181.001
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Domestic: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under this code or the entity's internal affairs are governed by this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Domestic entity: means an organization formed under or the internal affairs of which are governed by this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Effective consent: includes consent by a person legally authorized to act for the owner. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Election official: means :
(A) a county clerk;
(B) a permanent or temporary deputy county clerk;
(C) an elections administrator;
(D) a permanent or temporary employee of an elections administrator;
(E) an election judge;
(F) an alternate election judge;
(G) an early voting clerk;
(H) a deputy early voting clerk;
(I) an election clerk;
(J) the presiding judge of an early voting ballot board;
(K) the alternate presiding judge of an early voting ballot board;
(L) a member of an early voting ballot board;
(M) the chair of a signature verification committee;
(N) the vice chair of a signature verification committee;
(O) a member of a signature verification committee;
(P) the presiding judge of a central counting station;
(Q) the alternate presiding judge of a central counting station;
(R) a central counting station manager;
(S) a central counting station clerk;
(T) a tabulation supervisor;
(U) an assistant to a tabulation supervisor; and
(V) a chair of a county political party holding a primary election or a runoff primary election. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- Electronic transmission: means a form of communication, including communication by use of or participation in one or more electronic data systems, that:
(A) does not directly involve the physical transmission of paper;
(B) creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by the recipient; and
(C) may be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Entity: means a domestic entity or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Felony: means an offense so designated by law or punishable by death or confinement in a penitentiary. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Filing entity: means a domestic entity that is a corporation, limited partnership, limited liability company, professional association, cooperative, or real estate investment trust. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Filing officer: means :
(A) with respect to an entity other than a domestic real estate investment trust, the secretary of state; or
(B) with respect to a domestic real estate investment trust, the county clerk of the county in which the real estate investment trust's principal office is located in this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- For-profit corporation: means a corporation governed as a for-profit corporation under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- General election: means an election, other than a primary election, that regularly recurs at fixed dates. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- General partner: means :
(A) each partner in a general partnership; or
(B) a person who has become, and has not ceased to be, a general partner in a limited partnership in accordance with the governing documents of the limited partnership or this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Governing authority: means a person or group of persons who are entitled to manage and direct the affairs of an entity under this code and the governing documents of the entity, except that if the governing documents of the entity or this code divide the authority to manage and direct the affairs of the entity among different persons or groups of persons according to different matters, "governing authority" means the person or group of persons entitled to manage and direct the affairs of the entity with respect to a matter under the governing documents of the entity or this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Governing documents: means :
(A) in the case of a domestic entity:
(i) the certificate of formation for a domestic filing entity or the document or agreement under which a domestic nonfiling entity is formed; and
(ii) the other documents or agreements adopted by the entity under this code to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity; or
(B) in the case of a foreign entity, the instruments, documents, or agreements adopted under the law of its jurisdiction of formation to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Governing person: means a person serving as part of the governing authority of an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Government: means :
(A) the state;
(B) a county, municipality, or political subdivision of the state; or
(C) any branch or agency of the state, a county, municipality, or political subdivision. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- Harm: means anything reasonably regarded as loss, disadvantage, or injury, including harm to another person in whose welfare the person affected is interested. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and Privacy Standards: means the privacy requirements in existence on September 1, 2011, of the Administrative Simplification subtitle of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (Pub. See Texas Health and Safety Code 181.001
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Individual: means a human being who is alive, including an unborn child at every stage of gestation from fertilization until birth. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Individual: means a natural person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
- Jurisdiction of formation: means :
(A) in the case of a domestic filing entity, this state;
(B) in the case of a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed in connection with its formation, the jurisdiction in which the entity's certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed; or
(C) in the case of a domestic nonfiling entity or a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is not filed in connection with its formation:
(i) the jurisdiction the laws of which are chosen in the entity's governing documents to govern its internal affairs if that jurisdiction bears a reasonable relation to the owners or members or to the entity's business and affairs under the principles of this state that otherwise would apply to a contract among the owners or members; or
(ii) if Subparagraph (i) does not apply, the jurisdiction in which the entity has its chief executive office. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- Late-payment fee: The fee that will be imposed when your payment is late. Source: Federal Reserve
- Law: means a constitution, statute, city charter, or city ordinance. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Law: means the constitution or a statute of this state or of the United States, a written opinion of a court of record, a municipal ordinance, an order of a county commissioners court, or a rule authorized by and lawfully adopted under a statute. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Law: means , unless the context requires otherwise, both statutory and common law. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
- Limited liability company: means an entity governed as a limited liability company under Title 3 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Limited partnership: means a partnership that is governed as a limited partnership under Title 4 and that has one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Local canvass: means the canvass of the precinct election returns. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Manager: means a person designated as a manager of a limited liability company that is not managed by members of the company. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Managerial official: means an officer or a governing person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Marketing: means :
(A) making a communication about a product or service that encourages a recipient of the communication to purchase or use the product or service, unless the communication is made:
(i) to describe a health-related product or service or the payment for a health-related product or service that is provided by, or included in a plan of benefits of, the covered entity making the communication, including communications about:
(a) the entities participating in a health care provider network or health plan network;
(b) replacement of, or enhancement to, a health plan; or
(c) health-related products or services available only to a health plan enrollee that add value to, but are not part of, a plan of benefits;
(ii) for treatment of the individual;
(iii) for case management or care coordination for the individual, or to direct or recommend alternative treatments, therapies, health care providers, or settings of care to the individual; or
(iv) by a covered entity to an individual that encourages a change to a prescription drug included in the covered entity's drug formulary or preferred drug list;
(B) an arrangement between a covered entity and any other entity under which the covered entity discloses protected health information to the other entity, in exchange for direct or indirect remuneration, for the other entity or its affiliate to make a communication about its own product or service that encourages recipients of the communication to purchase or use that product or service; and
(C) notwithstanding Paragraphs (A)(ii) and (iii), a product-specific written communication to a consumer that encourages a change in products. See Texas Health and Safety Code 181.001
- Measure: means a question or proposal submitted in an election for an expression of the voters' will. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Member: means :
(A) in the case of a limited liability company, a person who has become, and has not ceased to be, a member in the limited liability company as provided by its governing documents or this code;
(B) in the case of a nonprofit corporation, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit corporation under its governing documents;
(C) in the case of a cooperative association, a member of a nonshare or share association;
(D) in the case of a nonprofit association, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit association under its governing documents; or
(E) in the case of a professional association, a person who has membership rights in the professional association under its governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Merger: means :
(A) the division of a domestic entity into two or more new domestic entities or other organizations or into a surviving domestic entity and one or more new domestic or foreign entities or non-code organizations; or
(B) the combination of one or more domestic entities with one or more domestic entities or non-code organizations resulting in:
(i) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations;
(ii) the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations; or
(iii) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations and the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Misdemeanor: means an offense so designated by law or punishable by fine, by confinement in jail, or by both fine and confinement in jail. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- Nonprofit corporation: means a corporation governed as a nonprofit corporation under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Oath: includes affirmation. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Officer: means an individual elected, appointed, or designated as an officer of an entity by the entity's governing authority or under the entity's governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Omission: means failure to act. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Organization: means a corporation, limited or general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, joint venture, joint stock company, cooperative, association, bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, or other organization, regardless of whether the organization is for-profit, nonprofit, domestic, or foreign. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Owner: means a person who:
(A) has title to the property, possession of the property, whether lawful or not, or a greater right to possession of the property than the actor; or
(B) is a holder in due course of a negotiable instrument. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Ownership interest: means an owner's interest in an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Partner: means a limited partner or general partner. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Partnership: means an entity governed as a partnership under Title 4. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Peace officer: means a person elected, employed, or appointed as a peace officer under Article Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Person: means an individual or a corporation, association, limited liability company, or other entity or organization governed by the Business Organizations Code. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Person: means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, trust, association, or other organization, estate, government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other legal entity, or a series of a domestic limited liability company or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plan of conversion: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Plan of merger: means a document that conforms with the requirements of Sections Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- Political subdivision: means a county, city, or school district or any other governmental entity that:
(A) embraces a geographic area with a defined boundary;
(B) exists for the purpose of discharging functions of government; and
(C) possesses authority for subordinate self-government through officers selected by it. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Population: means the population shown by the most recent federal decennial census. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Possession: means actual care, custody, control, or management. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Primary election: means an election held by a political party under Chapter Texas Election Code 1.005
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
- Product: means a prescription drug or prescription medical device. See Texas Health and Safety Code 181.001
- Professional corporation: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Professional entity: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Professional limited liability company: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Professional service: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Property: includes tangible and intangible property and an interest in that property. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- Public servant: means a person elected, selected, appointed, employed, or otherwise designated as one of the following, even if he has not yet qualified for office or assumed his duties:
(A) an officer, employee, or agent of government;
(B) a juror or grand juror; or
(C) an arbitrator, referee, or other person who is authorized by law or private written agreement to hear or determine a cause or controversy; or
(D) an attorney at law or notary public when participating in the performance of a governmental function; or
(E) a candidate for nomination or election to public office; or
(F) a person who is performing a governmental function under a claim of right although he is not legally qualified to do so. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real estate investment trust: means an entity governed as a real estate investment trust under Title 5. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
- Registered voter: means a person registered to vote in this state whose registration is effective. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Residence address: means the street address and any apartment number, or the address at which mail is received if the residence has no address, and the city, state, and zip code that correspond to a person's residence. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Secretary: means the:
(A) individual designated as secretary of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
(B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of secretary of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Share: means a unit into which the ownership interest in a for-profit corporation, professional corporation, real estate investment trust, or professional association is divided, regardless of whether the share is certificated or uncertificated. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Sight order: means a written or electronic instruction to pay money that is authorized by the person giving the instruction and that is payable on demand or at a definite time by the person being instructed to pay. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Signature: includes the mark of a person unable to write, and "subscribe" includes the making of such a mark. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Signature: means any symbol executed or adopted by a person with present intention to authenticate a writing. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Social purposes: means one or more purposes of a for-profit corporation that are specified in the corporation's certificate of formation and consist of promoting one or more positive impacts on society or the environment or of minimizing one or more adverse impacts of the corporation's activities on society or the environment. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Special election: means an election that is not a general election or a primary election. See Texas Election Code 1.005
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Succeeding: means immediately following. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Swear: includes affirm. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
- Uncertificated ownership interest: means an ownership interest in a domestic entity that is not represented by an instrument and is transferred by:
(A) amendment of the governing documents of the entity; or
(B) registration on books maintained by or on behalf of the entity for the purpose of registering transfers of ownership interests. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Unlawful: means criminal or tortious or both and includes what would be criminal or tortious but for a defense not amounting to justification or privilege. See Texas Penal Code 1.07
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- Week: means seven consecutive days. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- written: means an expression of words, letters, characters, numbers, symbols, figures, or other textual information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium that is retrievable in a perceivable form. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002