Sections
Subchapter 1 Generally 271 – 273
Subchapter 2 Public Information 310 – 314
Subchapter 3 Access to Public Records 315 – 320
Subchapter 5 Interpreters for Judicial 331 – 339

Terms Used In Vermont Statutes > Title 1 > Chapter 5

  • Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
  • Administrative action: means any action taken by an administrative official or by any agency, department, division, office, board, or commission of State government with regard to any proposal, drafting, development, or consideration of a policy, practice, or rule. See
  • Administrative official: means a State officer, or an officer, employee, or consultant of any agency, department, division, office, board, or commission of State government who as part of his or her official duties participates in any administrative action, other than in a solely clerical, secretarial, or ministerial capacity. See
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Aeronautics: means the science, art, and practice of flight, including transportation by aircraft and matters relating to air commerce; the operation, construction, repair, or maintenance of aircraft, aircraft power plants, and aircraft accessories, including the repair, packing, and maintenance of parachutes; the design, establishment, construction, extension, operation, improvement, repair, or maintenance of airports, restricted landing areas, or other air navigation facilities; and air instruction. See
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Agency: means the Agency of Transportation. See
  • agency: means any agency, board, department, commission, committee, branch, instrumentality, or authority of the State or any agency, board, committee, department, branch, instrumentality, commission, or authority of any political subdivision of the State. See
  • Air commerce: means the transportation by aircraft of persons or property or any class or classes, including express for compensation or hire, or flights which are certified wholly within the State of Vermont and which are made in serving as a local feeder route or are made by a carrier which does not operate a connecting air route to or from a point outside the State, or to provide excursion or sight-seeing trips. See
  • Air navigation: means the operation of aircraft in the air space over this State, or upon any airport or restricted landing area within this State. See
  • Air navigation facility: means any facility other than one owned or controlled by the federal government, used in, available for use in, or designed for use in, aid or convenience of air navigation, including airports and restricted landing areas. See
  • Aircraft: means a contrivance used or designed for navigation of or flight in the air and specifically includes ultralight aircraft. See
  • Airman: means an individual:

  • Airport: means any area of land or water set aside by the Agency, any political subdivision, or person, except a restricted landing area, which is designed for the landing and take-off of aircraft, and used or to be used in the interest of the general public whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or repair of aircraft, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo, and all appurtenant areas used or suitable for airport buildings or other airport facilities, including all appurtenant rights-of-way. See
  • Airport manager: means the owner of an airport in this State or an agent authorized to act on behalf of an airport owner. See
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • biennially: shall mean the year in which a regular session of the General Assembly is held. See
  • Board: means the Transportation Board. See
  • Business day: means a day that a public agency is open to provide services. See
  • Business of the public body: means the public body's governmental functions, including any matter over which the public body has supervision, control, jurisdiction, or advisory power. See
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Committee on committees: Committees formed in each party conference and responsible for nominating the party's Senators to committee membership and committee leadership positions. Nominations are subject to approval by the full party conference and to a formal vote of the Senate.
  • Compensation: means any salary, reward, retainer, or reimbursement received or to be received by one acting as a lobbyist, whether in the form of a fee, salary, forbearance, forgiveness, or any other form of recompense, reward, retainer, reimbursement, or combination thereof. See
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Deliberations: means weighing, examining, and discussing the reasons for and against an act or decision, but expressly excludes the taking of evidence and the arguments of parties. See
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Domestic: when applied to a corporation, company, association, or copartnership shall mean organized under the laws of this State; "foreign" when so applied, shall mean organized under the laws of another state, government, or country. See
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Employer: means any person, other than a lobbying firm, who engages the services of a lobbyist for compensation for the purpose of lobbying. See
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Expenditure: includes sums expended in connection with lobbying, including research, consulting, and other lobbying preparation and travel, meals, and lodging. See
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fees: shall mean earnings due for official services, aside from salaries or per diem compensation. See
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • following: when used by way of reference to a section of the law shall mean the next preceding or following section. See
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Gift: means :

  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Immediate family: means a person's spouse or civil union partner, parent, sibling, child, or in-law, including a parent, sibling, or child of a spouse or civil union partner. See
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Legislative action: means any action by a legislator with regard to introduction of a bill, resolution, or amendment or with regard to any bill, resolution, amendment, report, appointment, recommendation, nomination, election, proposed or final proposed rule, or other matter proposed for consideration by or pending in the General Assembly or in any committee of the General Assembly. See
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Legislator: means any member or member-elect of the General Assembly. See
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • lobbying: means :

  • Lobbying firm: means a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, limited liability corporation, or unincorporated association which receives or is entitled to receive $500. See
  • Lobbyist: means a person who receives or is entitled to receive, either by employment or contract, $500. See
  • Magistrate: shall mean any Supreme Court Justice, Superior judge, District judge, or Probate judge. See
  • Meeting: means a gathering of a quorum of the members of a public body for the purpose of discussing the business of the public body or for the purpose of taking action. See
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Month: shall mean a calendar month and "year" shall mean a calendar year and be equivalent to the expression "year of our Lord. See
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Municipality: means a county, city, village, town, or any other political subdivision of this State, and any public corporation, authority, or district of this State which is or may be authorized by law to acquire, establish, construct, maintain, improve, or operate transportation facilities or services. See
  • Municipality: shall include a city, town, town school district, incorporated school or fire district or incorporated village, and all other governmental incorporated units. See
  • Oath: shall include affirmation where by law an affirmation may be substituted. See
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means an individual, firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint stock association, or body politic, including a trustee, receiver, assignee, or other similar representative. See
  • Person who is deaf or hard of hearing: means any person who has such difficulty hearing, even with amplification, that he or she cannot rely on hearing for communication. See
  • Personal estate: shall include all property other than real estate. See
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Political subdivision: means any county, city, town, or other municipality. See
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Proceeding: means any judicial proceeding, contested case under 3 V. See
  • Psychiatric disability: means an impairment of thought, mood, perception, orientation, or memory that limits one or more major life activities but does not include intellectual disability. See
  • Public aircraft: means aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government, or any political subdivision, but not including any government-owned aircraft engaged in carrying persons or property for commercial purposes. See
  • Public body: means any board, council, or commission of the State or one or more of its political subdivisions, any board, council, or commission of any agency, authority, or instrumentality of the State or one or more of its political subdivisions, or any committee of any of the foregoing boards, councils, or commissions, except that "public body" does not include councils or similar groups established by the Governor for the sole purpose of advising the Governor with respect to policy. See
  • public document: means any written or recorded information, regardless of physical form or characteristics, which is produced or acquired in the course of public agency business. See
  • Publicly announced: means that notice is given to an editor, publisher, or news director of a newspaper or radio station serving the area of the State in which the public body has jurisdiction, and to any person who has requested under subdivision 312(c)(5) of this title to be notified of special meetings. See
  • Qualified interpreter: means an interpreter for a person who is deaf or hard of hearing who meets standards of competency established by the national or Vermont Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf as amended, by rule, by the Vermont Commission of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. See
  • Quasi-judicial proceeding: means a proceeding which is:

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • real estate: shall include lands, tenements, and hereditaments and all rights thereto and interests therein, and pews or slips in places of public worship shall be treated as real estate. See
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Restricted landing area: means an area of land or water, or both, that is used or is made available for the landing and take-off of aircraft, the use of which, except in case of emergency, shall be only as provided from time to time by the Board. See
  • seal: shall include an impression of the official seal made upon paper alone or by means of a wafer or wax affixed thereto. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Transportation. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Storage operator: means a person who stores an aircraft or aircraft component at the request of an airport manager. See
  • Structure: means any object constructed or installed by man, including buildings, towers, smokestacks, and overhead transmission lines. See
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • sworn: shall include affirmed. See
  • system: shall include electrical, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, telecommunication, elevator, and security systems. See
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.