Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 52 > Subtitle II > Chapter 209 > Subchapter II
- Adjusted gross estate: The gross estate, less funeral expenses, expenses of estate administration during probate, debts of the estate, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See 42 USC 7602
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- affiliated group: means --
(A) 1 or more chains of includible corporations connected through stock ownership with a common parent corporation which is an includible corporation, but only if--
(B)(i) the common parent owns directly stock meeting the requirements of paragraph (2) in at least 1 of the other includible corporations, and
(ii) stock meeting the requirements of paragraph (2) in each of the includible corporations (except the common parent) is owned directly by 1 or more of the other includible corporations. See 26 USC 1504
- agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 28 USC 451
- air pollutant: means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. See 42 USC 7602
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- appropriate committees of Congress: includes the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. See 22 USC 1465ff
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 26 USC 7701
- Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
- Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
- Commission: means the United States Sentencing Commission. See 28 USC 998
- Common disaster: A sudden and extraordinary misfortune that brings about the simultaneous or near-simultaneous deaths of two or more associated persons, such as husband and wife.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 26 USC 7701
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See
- court of the United States: includes the Supreme Court of the United States, courts of appeals, district courts constituted by chapter 5 of this title, including the Court of International Trade and any court created by Act of Congress the judges of which are entitled to hold office during good behavior. See 28 USC 451
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Department: means the Department of State. See 22 USC 1433
- department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 28 USC 451
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 26 USC 7701
- Donee: The recipient of a gift.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Dower: A widow
- employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See
- employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 26 USC 7701
- fiscal year: means an accounting period of 12 months ending on the last day of any month other than December. See 26 USC 7701
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- foreign: when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic. See 26 USC 7701
- foreign estate: means an estate the income of which, from sources without the United States which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, is not includible in gross income under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
- foreign trust: means any trust other than a trust described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (30). See 26 USC 7701
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Government agency: means any executive department, board, bureau, commission, or other agency of the Federal Government, or independent establishment, or any corporation wholly owned (either directly or through one or more corporations) by the United States. See 22 USC 1433
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
- guidelines: means the guidelines promulgated by the Commission pursuant to section 994(a) of this title. See 28 USC 998
- includible corporation: means any corporation except--
(1) Corporations exempt from taxation under section 501. See 26 USC 1504
- including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 26 USC 7701
- incumbent domestic licensee: means a licensee as provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47 that was broadcasting a television signal as of January 1, 1989. See 22 USC 1465ff
- individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- international organization: means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U. See 26 USC 7701
- Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
- joint return: means a single return made jointly under section 6013 by a husband and wife. See 26 USC 7701
- Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
- judge of the United States: includes judges of the courts of appeals, district courts, Court of International Trade and any court created by Act of Congress, the judges of which are entitled to hold office during good behavior. See 28 USC 451
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- licensee: has the meaning provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47. See 22 USC 1465ff
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
- Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See
- order: means a sheep and wool promotion, research, education, and information order issued under section 7103 of this title. See
- partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 26 USC 7701
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 26 USC 7701
- performance: may be construed to mean "exercise". See
- person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See
- person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 26 USC 7701
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- preceding calendar period: means --
(1) calendar years 1932 and 1970 and all calendar years intervening between calendar year 1932 and calendar year 1970,
(2) the first calendar quarter of calendar year 1971 and all calendar quarters intervening between such calendar quarter and the first calendar quarter of calendar year 1982, and
(3) all calendar years after 1981 and before the calendar year for which the tax is being computed. See 26 USC 2502
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remainderman: One entitled to the remainder of an estate after a particular reserved right or interest, such as a life tenancy, has expired.
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- research: means development projects and studies relating to the production (including the feeding of sheep), processing, distribution, or use of sheep or sheep products to encourage, expand, improve, or make more efficient the marketing of sheep or sheep products. See
- Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
- rules and regulations: means rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission pursuant to section 995 of this title. See 28 USC 998
- Secretary: means the Secretary of State. See 22 USC 1433
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior when used in connection with public lands administered by him through the Bureau of Land Management and the Secretary of Agriculture in connection with public lands administered by him through the Forest Service. See
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 26 USC 7701
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- shareholder: includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 26 USC 7701
- State: means any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, and the Canal Zone. See
- State: means each of the 50 States. See
- State: means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 7602
- State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 26 USC 7701
- State: means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia. See
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 26 USC 7701
- student: means any individual--
(i) who is temporarily present in the United States--
(I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or
(II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and
(ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 26 USC 7701
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See
- Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 26 USC 7701
- taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
- taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 26 USC 7701
- Tenancy by the entirety: A type of joint tenancy between husband and wife that is recognized in some States. Neither party can sever the joint tenancy relationship; when a spouse dies, the survivor acquires full title to the property.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 26 USC 7701
- transaction: includes a series of transactions. See 26 USC 7701
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- unit: means each State, group of States, or class designation that is represented on the Board. See
- United States: means the 50 States and the District of Columbia. See
- United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 7701
- United States person: means --
(A) a citizen or resident of the United States,
(B) a domestic partnership,
(C) a domestic corporation,
(D) any estate (other than a foreign estate, within the meaning of paragraph (31)), and
(E) any trust if--
(i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust, and
(ii) one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust. See 26 USC 7701
- vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See
- vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See
- withholding agent: means any person required to deduct and withhold any tax under the provisions of section 1441, 1442, 1443, or 1461. See 26 USC 7701
- Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
- writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See