(a) A transfer made by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor, whether the creditor’s claim arose before or after the transfer was made, if the debtor made the transfer with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud any creditor of the debtor.
Terms Used In Alabama Code 8-9A-4
- asset: Property of a debtor, but the term does not include:
a. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- claim: A right to payment, whether or not the right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured, and specifically shall include the nonpayment of child support pursuant to a court order. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
- creditor: A person who has a claim. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
- debt: Liability on a claim. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
- debtor: A person who is liable on a claim. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
- insider: Includes:
a. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
- property: Both real and personal property, whether tangible or intangible, and any interest in property whether legal or equitable and includes anything that may be the subject of ownership. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
- transfer: Every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with an asset or an interest in an asset, and includes payment of money, release, lease, and creation of a lien or other encumbrance. See Alabama Code 37-2-134
(b) In determining actual intent under subsection (a), consideration may be given, among other factors, to whether:
(1) The transfer was to an insider;
(2) The debtor retained possession or control of the property transferred after the transfer;
(3) The transfer was disclosed or concealed;
(4) Before the transfer was made the debtor had been sued or threatened with suit;
(5) The transfer was of substantially all the debtor’s assets;
(6) The debtor absconded;
(7) The debtor removed or concealed assets;
(8) The value of the consideration received by the debtor was reasonably equivalent to the value of the asset transferred;
(9) The debtor was insolvent or became insolvent shortly after the transfer was made;
(10) The transfer occurred shortly before or shortly after a substantial debt was incurred; and
(11) The debtor transferred the essential assets of the business to a lienor who transferred the assets to an insider of the debtor.
(c) A transfer made by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor, whether the creditor’s claim arose before or after the transfer was made, if the debtor made the transfer without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer and the debtor:
(1) Was engaged or was about to engage in a business or a transaction for which the remaining assets of the debtor were unreasonably small in relation to the business or transaction; or
(2) Intended to incur, or believed or reasonably should have believed that he or she would incur, debts beyond his or her ability to pay as they became due.