Terms Used In Alabama Code > Title 45 > Chapter 44 > Article 8
Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
Appraisal: A determination of property value.
Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
explosive: A chemical compound or other substance or mechanical system intended for the purpose of producing an explosion capable of causing injury to persons or damage to property or containing oxidizing and combustible units or other ingredients in proportions or quantities that ignition, fire, friction, concussion, percussion, or detonator may produce an explosion capable of causing injury to persons or damage to property. See Alabama Code 45-44-82
Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
HEALTH CARE SERVICES: Any services included in the furnishing to any individual of medical or dental care, or hospitalization or incident to the furnishing of such care or hospitalization, as well as the furnishing to any person of any and all other services for the purpose of preventing, alleviating, curing, or healing human illness, injury, or physical disability. See Alabama Code 45-43-244.10
HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION: Any person that undertakes to provide or arrange for basic health care services through an organized system which combines the delivery and financing of health care to enrollees. See Alabama Code 45-43-244.10
In forma pauperis: In the manner of a pauper. Permission given to a person to sue without payment of court fees on claim of indigence or poverty.
insurer: Every insurer authorized in this state to issue contracts of accident and sickness insurance. See Alabama Code 45-43-244.10
Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
materials: Infected barns or other infected structures or parts thereof and farm products, clothing, straw, hay or other feed for animals and other articles stored or contained in or adjacent to such barns or other structures. See Alabama Code 45-43-246.65
Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
obligations: Bonds, warrants, certificates of indebtedness and notes of a unit, including bonds, warrants, certificates and notes that are general obligations of the issuing unit and those that are payable solely from a specified source. See Alabama Code 45-44-84.44
ORGANIZING SUBDIVISION: With respect to any unit, each municipality or county which may have granted authorization or made determinations respecting the incorporation of the unit or the governing body of which may have granted such authorization or made such determinations and, in the case of a board of education, the county or city with respect to which such board of education is organized. See Alabama Code 45-44-84.44
Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
person: Any natural or artificial person including, but not limited to, individuals, partnerships, associations, trusts, or corporations. See Alabama Code 45-43-244.10
person: An individual, a partnership, a corporation or two or more individuals having a joint or common interest. See Alabama Code 32-6-15
Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
unit: Any public corporation organized in this state pursuant to authorization or determination by any municipality or municipalities or county or counties or a municipality and a county or by any combination of municipalities and counties or by the governing body of any one or more thereof and shall include also any county board of education and any city board of education. See Alabama Code 45-44-84.44
year: means a calendar year; but, whenever the word "year" is used in reference to any appropriations for the payment of money out of the treasury, it shall mean fiscal year. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608