§ 2A:15-1 Actions in person or by attorney.
§ 2A:15-2 Beneficiary in contract suing or defending
§ 2A:15-3 Actions which survive; torts to decedent; funeral and burial expenses; statute of limitations.
§ 2A:15-4 Actions which survive; torts committed by decedent
§ 2A:15-5 Statutory proceedings; entitling; filing of papers; certified copies
§ 2A:15-5.1 Contributory negligence; elimination as bar to recovery; comparative negligence to determine damages
§ 2A:15-5.2 Findings of fact; percentage of fault; terms defined
§ 2A:15-5.3 Recovery of damages; apportionment among responsible parties
§ 2A:15-5.4 Exceptions
§ 2A:15-5.5 Definitions
§ 2A:15-5.6 Exclusive civil remedy
§ 2A:15-5.7 No liability to consumer
§ 2A:15-5.8 Joint tortfeasors
§ 2A:15-5.9 Short title
§ 2A:15-5.10 Definitions relative to punitive damages awards.
§ 2A:15-5.11 Punitive damages requested in complaint
§ 2A:15-5.12 Award of punitive damages; determination
§ 2A:15-5.13 Bifurcated trial at defendant’s request
§ 2A:15-5.14 Determination of award; limitations; exceptions.
§ 2A:15-5.15 Claims under existing law
§ 2A:15-5.16 Jury not informed of cap
§ 2A:15-5.17 Record referred for criminal investigation
§ 2A:15-6 Written notice of pendency of action; contents
§ 2A:15-7 Filed notice; effect as to persons claiming interest in real estate affected by notice
§ 2A:15-8 Rights of bona fide purchasers, mortgagees or lienors before notice filed and prior to final judgment
§ 2A:15-9 Notice of foreclosure action
§ 2A:15-10 Discharge of lis pendens of record when action not prosecuted
§ 2A:15-11 Notice of lis pendens
§ 2A:15-12 Record and index of notices; access to
§ 2A:15-13 Fee for recording notice as taxable costs
§ 2A:15-14 Marginal notation in record of notice of judgment for defendant; appeal; further lis pendens
§ 2A:15-15 Order discharging real estate from claim
§ 2A:15-16 Record of discharge of real estate from claim
§ 2A:15-17 Discharge of lis pendens when judgment is paid, satisfied or action settled or abandoned
§ 2A:15-18 Action by taxpayer on failure of county or municipality to sue
§ 2A:15-19 Intervention by taxpayer in action by or against county or municipality
§ 2A:15-30.1 Service of process on business entity; substituted service.
§ 2A:15-41 Capias; grounds in action founded upon tort
§ 2A:15-42 Capias; grounds in action founded upon contract
§ 2A:15-43 Production of defendant to give bail
§ 2A:15-44 Amercement of bail; arrest and imprisonment of defendant
§ 2A:15-45 Who may be bail
§ 2A:15-46 Recognizance filed; record book
§ 2A:15-47 Render in discharge of bail
§ 2A:15-48 Set-off
§ 2A:15-49 What constitutes
§ 2A:15-50 Challenges; triors; determination
§ 2A:15-51 Restraining order or interlocutory or permanent injunction in disputes concerning terms or conditions of employment prohibited
§ 2A:15-52 Public policy in matter of injunctions in labor disputes
§ 2A:15-53 Temporary or permanent injunctions in labor disputes; hearing and findings required; notice; duration of temporary restraining order; bond or undertaking
§ 2A:15-54 When restraining order or injunctive relief not to be granted
§ 2A:15-55 Finding of fact as basis for restraining order or injunction; acts to be enjoined; duration of permanent injunction
§ 2A:15-56 Disobedience of restraining order or injunction; contempt; jury trial; fees; trial without jury
§ 2A:15-57 Punishment for contempt
§ 2A:15-58 Definitions
§ 2A:15-59 Costs allowed in discretion of court
§ 2A:15-59.1 Frivolous causes of action
§ 2A:15-60 State or person prosecuting therefor
§ 2A:15-61 Double costs on appeal after jury verdict
§ 2A:15-62 Actions cognizable before the Superior Court, Law Division, Special Civil Part commenced in Law Division
§ 2A:15-63 Actions for assault, battery, imprisonment, libel or slander
§ 2A:15-64 By whom taxed; clerk to sign bill of costs
§ 2A:15-65 Time within which costs must be taxed
§ 2A:15-66 Duties of taxing officer
§ 2A:15-67 Bond for costs by nonresident claimant
§ 2A:15-68 Deposit in lieu of bond
§ 2A:15-69 Proceedings stayed until bond filed or deposit made
§ 2A:15-70 Notice of security given
§ 2A:15-71 Bond or deposit filed before demand is made for security
§ 2A:15-72 Exception to bond
§ 2A:15-73 Investment of moneys brought into Superior Court
§ 2A:15-74 Care and supervision of funds, investments and securities; persons employed for; compensation and salaries
§ 2A:15-75 Payment of judgments out of funds in court
§ 2A:15-92 Actions during world war II against persons in enemy or enemy-occupied countries
§ 2A:15-93 Payment of enemy property to United States attorney general
§ 2A:15-94 Transfer of actions pending September 15, 1948
§ 2A:15-95 Validation of sales where defect in notice to non-resident defendants
§ 2A:15-96 Payment for losses resulting from accident without admission of liability
§ 2A:15-97 Deduction of duplicate benefits

Terms Used In New Jersey Statutes > Title 2A > Chapter 15

  • Acceptor: means a drawee who has accepted a draft. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Account: means any deposit or credit account with a bank, including a demand, time, savings, passbook, share draft, or like account, other than an account evidenced by a certificate of deposit. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Adviser: means a person who, at the request of the issuer, a confirmer, or another adviser, notifies or requests another adviser to notify the beneficiary that a letter of credit has been issued, confirmed, or amended. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Afternoon: means the period of a day between noon and midnight. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Applicant: means a person at whose request or for whose account a letter of credit is issued. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • assessor: when used in relation to the assessment of taxes or water rents or other public assessments, includes all officers, boards or commissions charged with the duty of making such assessments, unless a particular officer, board or commission is specified. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bailee: means a person that by a warehouse receipt, bill of lading, or other document of title acknowledges possession of goods and contracts to deliver them. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
  • Bank: means a person engaged in the business of banking, including a savings bank, savings and loan association, credit union, or trust company. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-105
  • Banking day: means the part of a day on which a bank is open to the public for carrying on substantially all of its banking functions. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Beneficiary: means a person who under the terms of a letter of credit is entitled to have its complying presentation honored. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Bequeath: To gift property by will.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Buyer: means a person who buys or contracts to buy goods. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2-103
  • Carrier: means a person that issues a bill of lading. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • census: means the latest Federal census effective within this State. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • certified mail: include private express carrier service, provided that the private express carrier service provides confirmation of mailing. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Clearing house: means an association of banks or other payors regularly clearing items. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • Collecting bank: means a bank handling an item for collection except the payor bank. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-105
  • collector: when used in relation to the collection of taxes or water rents or other public assessments, includes all officers charged with the duty of collecting such taxes, water rents or assessments, unless a particular officer is specified. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Commercial unit: means such a unit of goods as by commercial usage is a single whole for purposes of lease and division of which materially impairs its character or value on the market or in use. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Commission: means the Boat Regulation Commission established pursuant to section 14 of P. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Confirmer: means a nominated person who undertakes, at the request or with the consent of the issuer, to honor a presentation under a letter of credit issued by another. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Consignee: means a person named in a bill of lading to which or to whose order the bill promises delivery. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Consignor: means a person named in a bill of lading as the person from which the goods have been received for shipment. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Consumer lease: means a lease that a lessor regularly engaged in the business of leasing or selling makes to a lessee who is a natural person and who takes under the lease primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Customer: means a person having an account with a bank or for whom a bank has agreed to collect items, including a bank that maintains an account at another bank. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Delivery order: means a record that contains an order to deliver goods directed to a warehouse, carrier, or other person that in the ordinary course of business issues warehouse receipts or bills of lading. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Department: means the Department of Law and Public Safety. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Depositary bank: means the first bank to take an item even though it is also the payor bank, unless the item is presented for immediate payment over the counter. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-105
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Director: means the Director of the Division of Motor Vehicles in the Department of Transportation. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Disabled veteran: means any veteran who is eligible to be compensated for a service-connected disability from war service by the United States Veterans Administration or who receives or is entitled to receive equivalent compensation for a service-connected disability which arises out of military or naval service as set forth in this chapter and who has submitted sufficient evidence of the record of disability incurred in the line of duty to the Adjutant General of the Department of Military and Veterans' Affairs and received a determination of status no later than eight days prior to the issuance of an employment list, for which that individual received a passing score on an examination. See New Jersey Statutes 11A:5-1
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Division: means the Division of Motor Vehicles in the Department of Transportation. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Document: means a draft or other demand, document of title, investment security, certificate, invoice, or other record, statement, or representation of fact, law, right, or opinion (a) which is presented in a written or other medium permitted by the letter of credit or, unless prohibited by the letter of credit, by the standard practice referred to in subsection e. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Documentary draft: means a draft to be presented for acceptance or payment if specified documents, certificated securities (12A:8-102) or instructions for uncertificated securities (12A:8-102), or other certificates, statements, or the like are to be received by the drawee or other payor before acceptance or payment of the draft. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Documented vessel: means a vessel which has a valid Marine Document issued by the United States Coast Guard or any Federal agency successor thereto. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Draft: means a draft as defined in 12A:3-104 or an item, other than an instrument, that is an order. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Drawee: means a person ordered in a draft to make payment. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Drawee: means a person ordered in a draft to make payment. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Drawer: means a person who signs or is identified in a draft as a person ordering payment. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fault: means wrongful act, omission, breach, or default. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Finance lease: means a lease with respect to which:

     . See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Good faith: means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable commercial standards of fair dealing. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Good faith: means honesty in fact in the conduct or transaction concerned. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Goods: means all things that are movable at the time of identification to the lease contract, or are fixtures (12A:2A-309), but the term does not include money, documents, instruments, accounts, chattel paper, general intangibles, or minerals or the like, including oil and gas, before extraction. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Goods: means all things that are treated as movable for the purposes of a contract for storage or transportation. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Installment lease contract: means a lease contract that authorizes or requires the delivery of goods in separate lots to be separately accepted, even though the lease contract contains a clause "each delivery is a separate lease" or its equivalent. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Issuer: means a bank or other person that issues a letter of credit, but does not include an individual who makes an engagement for personal, family, or household purposes. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Issuer: means a bailee that issues a document of title or, in the case of an unaccepted delivery order, the person that orders the possessor of goods to deliver. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Item: means an instrument or a promise or order to pay money handled by a bank for collection or payment. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-104
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lease: means a transfer of the right to possession and use of goods for a term in return for consideration, but a sale, including a sale on approval or a sale or return, or retention or creation of a security interest is not a lease. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lease agreement: means the bargain, with respect to the lease, of the lessor and the lessee in fact as found in their language or by implication from other circumstances including course of dealing or usage of trade or course of performance as provided in this chapter. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Lease contract: means the total legal obligation that results from the lease agreement as affected by this chapter and any other applicable rules of law. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Leasehold interest: means the interest of the lessor or the lessee under a lease contract. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
  • Length: means measurement from end to end over the deck parallel to the centerline excluding sheer, bowsprits, bumpkins, rudders, outboard motors, brackets or other equipment or appendages. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Lessee: means a person who acquires the right to possession and use of goods under a lease. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Lessor: means a person who transfers the right to possession and use of goods under a lease. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Letter of credit: means a definite undertaking that satisfies the requirements of 12A:5-104 by an issuer to a beneficiary at the request or for the account of an applicant or, in the case of a financial institution, to itself or for its own account, to honor a documentary presentation by payment or delivery of an item of value. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Lien: means a charge against or interest in goods to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation, but the term does not include a security interest. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Lot: means a parcel or a single article that is the subject matter of a separate lease or delivery, whether or not it is sufficient to perform the lease contract. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Maker: means a person who signs or is identified in a note as a person undertaking to pay. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Merchant lessee: means a lessee that is a merchant with respect to goods of the kind subject to the lease. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • month: means a calendar month, and the word "year" means a calendar year. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Motor: means a temporarily or permanently installed fuel consuming mechanism by which the vessel is or may be propelled, including an electrical motor. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • municipal corporation: include cities, towns, townships, villages and boroughs, and any municipality governed by a board of commissioners or an improvement commission. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Nominated person: means a person whom the issuer (a) designates or authorizes to pay, accept, negotiate, or otherwise give value under a letter of credit and (b) undertakes by agreement or custom and practice to reimburse. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • oath: includes "affirmation. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Operate: means to navigate, use, control or command a vessel. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Operator: means every person having charge, control, operation or direction of any vessel and the owner of the vessel if the owner is on the vessel at the time it is operated in violation of the law. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Order: means a written instruction to pay money signed by the person giving the instruction. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means a person, other than a lienholder, having the property in or title to a vessel. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Party: means a party to an instrument. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Payor bank: means a bank that is the drawee of a draft. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-105
  • person: includes corporations, companies, associations, societies, firms, partnerships and joint stock companies as well as individuals, unless restricted by the context to an individual as distinguished from a corporate entity or specifically restricted to one or some of the above enumerated synonyms and, when used to designate the owner of property which may be the subject of an offense, includes this State, the United States, any other State of the United States as defined infra and any foreign country or government lawfully owning or possessing property within this State. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Personal property: includes goods and chattels, rights and credits, moneys and effects, evidences of debt, choses in action and all written instruments by which any right to, interest in, or lien or encumbrance upon, property or any debt or financial obligation is created, acknowledged, evidenced, transferred, discharged or defeated, in whole or in part, and everything except real property as herein defined which may be the subject of ownership. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Personal watercraft: means a personal watercraft as defined by section 1 of P. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Pontoon boat: means a vessel supported by one or more cylindrical floats and propelled by an inboard or outboard motor. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • population: when used in any statute, shall be taken to mean the population as shown by the latest Federal census effective within this State, and shall be construed as synonymous with "inhabitants. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Power vessel: means a vessel temporarily or permanently equipped with machinery for propulsion, including a personal watercraft, and shall not include a vessel propelled wholly by sails or by muscular power. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Present value: means the amount as of a date certain of one or more sums payable in the future, discounted to the date certain. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Presentation: means delivery of a document to an issuer or nominated person for honor or giving of value under a letter of credit. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Presenter: means a person making a presentation as or on behalf of a beneficiary or nominated person. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Presenting bank: means a bank presenting an item except a payor bank. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:4-105
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Promise: means a written undertaking to pay money signed by the person undertaking to pay. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Purchase: includes taking by sale, lease, mortgage, security interest, pledge, gift, or any other voluntary transaction creating an interest in goods. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • real property: include lands, tenements and hereditaments and all rights thereto and interests therein. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium, or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • registered mail: include "certified mail". See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remitter: means a person who purchases an instrument from its issuer if the instrument is payable to an identified person other than the purchaser. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:3-103
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
  • Sailboat: means any boat whose sole source of propulsion is the wind. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Seller: means a person who sells or contracts to sell goods. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2-103
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Ship: includes vessels, steamers, canal boats and every boat or structure adapted to navigation or movement from place to place, upon the ocean, lakes, rivers or artificial waterways, either by its own power or otherwise. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Shipper: means a person that enters into a contract of transportation with a carrier. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • State: extends to and includes any State, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia and the Canal Zone. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Sublease: means a lease of goods the right to possession and use of which was acquired by the lessor as a lessee under an existing lease. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Successor of a beneficiary: means a person who succeeds to substantially all of the rights of a beneficiary by operation of law, including a corporation with or into which the beneficiary has been merged or consolidated, an administrator, executor, personal representative, trustee in bankruptcy, debtor in possession, liquidator, and receiver. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:5-102
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplier: means a person from whom a lessor buys or leases goods to be leased under a finance lease. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • Supply contract: means a contract under which a lessor buys or leases goods to be leased. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:2A-103
  • sworn: includes "affirmed. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • territory: extends to and includes any territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia and the Canal Zone. See New Jersey Statutes 1:1-2
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Vessel: means a boat or watercraft, other than a sea plane on the water, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water. See New Jersey Statutes 12:7-71
  • Veteran: means any honorably discharged soldier, sailor, marine or nurse who served in any army or navy of the allies of the United States in World War I, between July 14, 1914 and November 11, 1918, or who served in any army or navy of the allies of the United States in World War II, between September 1, 1939 and September 2, 1945 and who was inducted into that service through voluntary enlistment, and was a citizen of the United States at the time of the enlistment, and who did not renounce or lose his or her United States citizenship. See New Jersey Statutes 11A:5-1
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • War service: means service by a veteran in any war or conflict described in this chapter during the periods specified. See New Jersey Statutes 11A:5-1
  • Warehouse: means a person engaged in the business of storing goods for hire. See New Jersey Statutes 12A:7-102
  • Whips: Assistants to the floor leaders who are also elected by their party conferences. The Majority and Minority Whips (and their assistants) are responsible for mobilizing votes within their parties on major issues. In the absence of a party floor leader, the whip often serves as acting floor leader.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.