Chapter 11 Estate Tax
Chapter 12 Gift Tax
Chapter 13 Tax On Generation-Skipping Transfers
Chapter 14 Special Valuation Rules
Chapter 15 Gifts and Bequests From Expatriates

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 26 > Subtitle B

  • active business computer software royalties: means any royalties--

    (A) received by any corporation during the taxable year in connection with the licensing of computer software, and

    (B) with respect to which the requirements of paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) are met. See 26 USC 543

  • Adjusted gross estate: The gross estate, less funeral expenses, expenses of estate administration during probate, debts of the estate, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • adjusted income from rents: means the gross income from rents, reduced by the amount subtracted under paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection. See 26 USC 543
  • adjusted ordinary gross income: means the ordinary gross income adjusted as follows:

    (A) Rents

    From the gross income from rents (as defined in the second sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection) subtract the amount allowable as deductions for--

    (i) exhaustion, wear and tear, obsolescence, and amortization of property other than tangible personal property which is not customarily retained by any one lessee for more than three years,

    (ii) property taxes,

    (iii) interest, and

    (iv) rent,


    to the extent allocable, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to such gross income from rents. See 26 USC 543

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Advisory Committee: means the Advisory Committee for Studies of Eastern Europe and the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union established by section 4503(a) of this title. See 22 USC 4502
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • affiliated group: has the meaning given such term by section 1504(a). See 26 USC 543
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agency: means an agency as defined in section 552(e) 1 of title 5. See 22 USC 3902
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • annuitant: means any individual, including a former participant or survivor, who meets all requirements for an annuity from the Fund under this chapter or any other Act and who has filed a claim for such annuity. See 22 USC 4044
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate committees of Congress: includes the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 26 USC 7701
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Bacon-Davis Act: means the Act entitled "An Act to amend the Act approved March 3, 1931, relating to the rate of wages for laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors on public buildings" approved August 30, 1935 (49 Stat. See 29 USC 262
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the Board of Directors of the Office of Compliance. See
  • Board: means the National Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Board established under section 7104(b) of this title. See
  • Board: means the Board of Directors of the Institute. See 22 USC 4602
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of the Census. See
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Chair: means the Chair of the Board of Directors of the Office of Compliance. See
  • Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies. See 22 USC 262r
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • chief of mission: means the principal officer in charge of a diplomatic mission of the United States or of a United States office abroad which is designated by the Secretary of State as diplomatic in nature, including any individual assigned under section 3982(c) of this title to be temporarily in charge of such a mission or office. See 22 USC 3902
  • child: means an individual--

    (A) who--

    (i) is an offspring or adopted child of the participant,

    (ii) is a stepchild or recognized natural child of the participant and who received more than one-half support from the participant, or

    (iii) lived with the participant, for whom a petition of adoption was filed by the participant, and who is adopted by the surviving spouse of the participant after the death of the participant. See 22 USC 4044

  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established pursuant to Reorganization Plan Numbered 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. See 22 USC 1641
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established, pursuant to Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. See 22 USC 1642
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. See 26 USC 7701
  • Common disaster: A sudden and extraordinary misfortune that brings about the simultaneous or near-simultaneous deaths of two or more associated persons, such as husband and wife.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative bank: means an institution without capital stock organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit, which--

    (A) is subject by law to supervision and examination by State or Federal authority having supervision over such institutions, and

    (B) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (19) of this subsection (relating to definition of domestic building and loan association). See 26 USC 7701

  • copyright royalties: means compensation, however designated, for the use of, or the right to use, copyrights in works protected by copyright issued under title 17 of the United States Code and to which copyright protection is also extended by the laws of any country other than the United States of America by virtue of any international treaty, convention, or agreement, or interests in any such copyrighted works, and includes payments from any person for performing rights in any such copyrighted work and payments (other than produced film rents as defined in paragraph (5)(B)) received for the use of, or right to use, films. See 26 USC 543
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 26 USC 7701
  • Council: means the Financial Institutions Examination Council. See
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See
  • court: means any court of any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Virgin Islands, and any Indian court as defined by section 1301(3) of title 25. See 22 USC 4044
  • court order: means any court decree of divorce or annulment, or any court order or court approved property settlement agreement incident to any court decree of divorce or annulment. See 22 USC 4044
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of State. See 22 USC 1433
  • Department: means the Department of State, except that with reference to the exercise of functions under this chapter with respect to another agency authorized by law to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system, such term means that other agency. See 22 USC 3902
  • Department: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 26 USC 7701
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • education: means activities providing information relating to the sheep industry or sheep products to producers, feeders, importers, consumers, and other persons. See
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
  • employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Excess defense articles: means the quantity of defense articles (other than construction equipment, including tractors, scrapers, loaders, graders, bulldozers, dump trucks, generators, and compressors) owned by the United States Government, and not procured in anticipation of military assistance or sales requirements, or pursuant to a military assistance or sales order, which is in excess of the Approved Force Acquisition Objective and Approved Force Retention Stock of all Department of Defense Components at the time such articles are dropped from inventory by the supplying agency for delivery to countries or international organizations under this chapter. See 22 USC 2403
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 26 USC 7701
  • fiscal year: means an accounting period of 12 months ending on the last day of any month other than December. See 26 USC 7701
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign: when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic. See 26 USC 7701
  • foreign estate: means an estate the income of which, from sources without the United States which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, is not includible in gross income under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
  • Foreign Service: means the Foreign Service of the United States. See 22 USC 3902
  • foreign trust: means any trust other than a trust described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (30). See 26 USC 7701
  • former spouse: means a former wife or husband of a participant or former participant who was married to such participant for not less than 10 years during periods of service by that participant which are creditable under section 4056 of this title. See 22 USC 4044
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Fund balance: means the sum of--

    (A) the investments of the Fund calculated at par value, plus

    (B) the cash balance of the Fund on the books of the Treasury. See 22 USC 4044

  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Government: means the Government of the United States. See 22 USC 3902
  • Government agency: means any executive department, board, bureau, commission, or other agency of the Federal Government, or independent establishment, or any corporation wholly owned (either directly or through one or more corporations) by the United States. See 22 USC 1433
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • gross income: as used in this part means the gross income, as defined in section 832(b)(1), increased by the amount of losses incurred, as defined in section 832(b)(5), and the amount of expenses incurred, as defined in section 832(b)(6), and decreased by the amount deductible under section 832(c)(7) (relating to tax-free interest). See 26 USC 543
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 26 USC 7701
  • incumbent domestic licensee: means a licensee as provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47 that was broadcasting a television signal as of January 1, 1989. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See
  • individual retirement plan: means --

    (A) an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), and

    (B) an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b). See 26 USC 7701

  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Institute: means the United States Institute of Peace established by this chapter. See 22 USC 4602
  • insurance: means primary insurance, excess insurance, reinsurance, surplus lines insurance, and any other arrangement for shifting and distributing risk which is determined to be insurance under applicable State or Federal law. See
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international financial institutions: means the International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, African Development Bank, African Development Fund, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank 2 Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,,3 and Inter-American Investment Corporation. See 22 USC 262r
  • international organization: means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U. See 26 USC 7701
  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • joint return: means a single return made jointly under section 6013 by a husband and wife. See 26 USC 7701
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Layover: Informal term for a period of delay required by rule. For example, when a bill or other measure is reported from committee, it may be considered on the floor only after it "lies over" for one legislative day and after the written report has been available for two calendar days. Layover periods may be waived by unanimous consent.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • licensee: has the meaning provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Litvinov Assignment: means (A) the communication dated November 16, 1933, from Maxim Litvinov to President Franklin D. See 22 USC 1641
  • lump-sum credit: means the compulsory and special contributions to the credit of a participant or former participant in the Fund plus interest on such contributions at 4 percent a year compounded annually to December 31, 1976, and after such date, for a participant who separates from the Service after completing at least 1 year of civilian service and before completing 5 years of such service, at the rate of 3 percent per year to the date of separation (except that interest shall not be paid for a fractional part of a month in the total service or on compulsory and special contributions from an annuitant for recall service or other service performed after the date of separation which forms the basis for annuity). See 22 USC 4044
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See
  • Memorandum of Understanding: means the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Italy regarding Italian assets in the United States and certain claims of nationals of the United States, signed at Washington, District of Columbia, August 14, 1947 (61 Stat. See 22 USC 1641
  • military and naval service: means honorable active service--

    (A) in the Armed Forces of the United States,

    (B) in the Regular or Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service after June 30, 1960, or

    (C) as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or a predecessor organization, after June 30, 1961,


    but does not include service in the National Guard except when ordered to active duty in the service of the United States. See 22 USC 4044

  • Military education and training: includes formal or informal instruction of foreign students in the United States or overseas by officers or employees of the United States, contract technicians, contractors (including instruction at civilian institutions), or by correspondence courses, technical, educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aids, orientation, and military advice to foreign military units and forces. See 22 USC 2403
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Office: means the Office of Compliance. See
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See
  • order: means a sheep and wool promotion, research, education, and information order issued under section 7103 of this title. See
  • ordinary gross income: means the gross income determined by excluding--

    (A) all gains from the sale or other disposition of capital assets, and

    (B) all gains (other than those referred to in subparagraph (A)) from the sale or other disposition of property described in section 1231(b). See 26 USC 543

  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • paid or accrued: shall be construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
  • partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 26 USC 7701
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 26 USC 7701
  • performance: may be construed to mean "exercise". See
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See
  • Person: means a natural person, partnership, association, other unincorporated body, corporation, or body politic. See 22 USC 1631
  • Person: means a natural person, partnership, association, other unincorporated body, corporation, or body politic. See 22 USC 1641
  • person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 26 USC 7701
  • personal holding company income: means the portion of the adjusted ordinary gross income which consists of:

    (1) Dividends, etc. See 26 USC 543

  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • preceding calendar period: means --

    (1) calendar years 1932 and 1970 and all calendar years intervening between calendar year 1932 and calendar year 1970,

    (2) the first calendar quarter of calendar year 1971 and all calendar quarters intervening between such calendar quarter and the first calendar quarter of calendar year 1982, and

    (3) all calendar years after 1981 and before the calendar year for which the tax is being computed. See 26 USC 2502

  • Pretrial services officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • produced film rents: means payments received with respect to an interest in a film for the use of, or right to use, such film, but only to the extent that such interest was acquired before substantial completion of production of such film. See 26 USC 543
  • producer: means any person, other than a feeder, who owns or acquires ownership of sheep. See
  • promotion: means any action (including paid advertising) to advance the image and desirability of sheep or sheep products to improve the competitive position, and stimulate sales, of sheep products in the domestic and international marketplace. See
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 22 USC 1631
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 22 USC 1641
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 22 USC 1642
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remainderman: One entitled to the remainder of an estate after a particular reserved right or interest, such as a life tenancy, has expired.
  • rents: means compensation, however designated, for the use of, or right to use, property, and the interest on debts owed to the corporation, to the extent such debts represent the price for which real property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its trade or business was sold or exchanged by the corporation. See 26 USC 543
  • research: means development projects and studies relating to the production (including the feeding of sheep), processing, distribution, or use of sheep or sheep products to encourage, expand, improve, or make more efficient the marketing of sheep or sheep products. See
  • Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
  • Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
  • Russian national: includes any corporation or business association organized under the laws, decrees, ordinances, or acts of the former Empire of Russia or of any government successor thereto, and subsequently nationalized or dissolved or whose assets were taken over by the Soviet Government or which was merged with any other corporation or organization by the Soviet Government. See 22 USC 1641
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of State. See 22 USC 1433
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of State, except that (subject to section 3921 of this title) with reference to the exercise of functions under this Act with respect to any agency authorized by law to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system, such term means the head of that agency. See 22 USC 3902
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 26 USC 7701
  • Secretary of the Treasury: means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his. See 26 USC 7701
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Service: means the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Services: include any service, repair, training of personnel, or technical or other assistance or information used for the purposes of furnishing nonmilitary assistance. See 22 USC 2403
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • shareholder: includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 26 USC 7701
  • shareholder: shall include any person who owns stock within the meaning of section 544. See 26 USC 543
  • Soviet Government: means the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including any of its present or former constituent republics, other political subdivisions, and any territories thereof, as constituted on or prior to November 16, 1933. See 22 USC 1641
  • special agent: means an employee of the Department of State with a primary skill code of 2501--

    (A) the duties of whose position--

    (i) are primarily--

    (I) the investigation, apprehension, or detention of individuals suspected or convicted of offenses against the criminal laws of the United States. See 22 USC 4044

  • specified payment: means --

    (A) any Federal payment other than a payment for which eligibility is based on the income or assets (or both) of a payee,

    (B) any payment described in paragraph (4), (7), (9), or (11) of section 6334(a), and

    (C) any annuity or pension payment under the Railroad Retirement Act or benefit under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act. See 26 USC 6331

  • spousal agreement: means any written agreement between--

    (A) a participant or former participant. See 22 USC 4044

  • State: means any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, and the Canal Zone. See
  • State: means the several States and Territories, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia. See
  • State: means each of the 50 States. See
  • State: includes the District of Columbia. See
  • State: includes , in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • State: means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia. See
  • State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 26 USC 7701
  • State: means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia or any Territory or possession of the United States. See 29 USC 262
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 26 USC 7701
  • student: means a child regularly pursuing a full-time course of study or training in residence in a high school, trade school, technical or vocational institute, junior college, college, university, or comparable recognized educational institution (for purposes of this paragraph, a child who is a student shall not be deemed to have ceased to be a student during any period between school years, semesters, or terms if the period of nonattendance does not exceed 5 calendar months and if the child shows to the satisfaction of the Secretary of State that he or she has a bona fide intention of continuing to pursue his or her course of study during the school year, semester, or term immediately following such period). See 22 USC 4044
  • student: means any individual--

    (i) who is temporarily present in the United States--

    (I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or

    (II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and


    (ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 26 USC 7701

  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See
  • surviving spouse: means the surviving wife or husband of a participant or annuitant who was married to the participant or annuitant for at least 9 months immediately preceding his or her death or is a parent of a child born of the marriage, except that the requirement for at least 9 months of marriage shall be deemed satisfied in any case in which the participant or annuitant dies within the applicable 9-month period, if--

    (A) the death of such participant or annuitant was accidental. See 22 USC 4044

  • Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 26 USC 7701
  • taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
  • taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 26 USC 7701
  • Tenancy by the entirety: A type of joint tenancy between husband and wife that is recognized in some States. Neither party can sever the joint tenancy relationship; when a spouse dies, the survivor acquires full title to the property.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 26 USC 7701
  • transaction: includes a series of transactions. See 26 USC 7701
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • tribal: means of or pertaining to an Indian tribe. See
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • unfunded liability: means the estimated excess of the present value of all benefits payable from the Fund under this part over the sum of--

    (A) the present value of deductions to be withheld from the future basic salary of participants and of future agency contributions to be made on their behalf, plus

    (B) the present value of Government payments to the Fund under section 4061 of this title, plus

    (C) the Fund balance as of the date the unfunded liability is determined. See 22 USC 4044

  • unit: means each State, group of States, or class designation that is represented on the Board. See
  • United States: when used in a geographic sense, means the several States and the District of Columbia. See 22 USC 3902
  • United States: means the 50 States and the District of Columbia. See
  • United States: includes each of the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. See
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 7701
  • United States person: means --

    (A) a citizen or resident of the United States,

    (B) a domestic partnership,

    (C) a domestic corporation,

    (D) any estate (other than a foreign estate, within the meaning of paragraph (31)), and

    (E) any trust if--

    (i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust, and

    (ii) one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust. See 26 USC 7701

  • Value: means --

    (1) with respect to an excess defense article, the actual value of the article plus the gross cost incurred by the United States Government in repairing, rehabilitating, or modifying the article, except that for purposes of section 2392(d) of this title such actual value shall not be taken into account. See 22 USC 2403

  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See
  • withholding agent: means any person required to deduct and withhold any tax under the provisions of section 1441, 1442, 1443, or 1461. See 26 USC 7701
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See