|Division 1||General Provisions||6-10-1 – 6-10-12|
|Division 2||Claim and Contest of Exemptions||6-10-20 – 6-10-43|
Terms Used In Alabama Code > Title 6 > Chapter 10 > Article 1
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- associate: When used to indicate a relationship with:
(A) a domestic or foreign entity or organization for which the person is:
(i) an officer or governing person; or
(ii) a beneficial owner of 10 percent or more of a class of voting ownership interests or similar securities of the entity or organization;
(B) a trust or estate in which the person has a substantial beneficial interest or for which the person serves as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity;
(C) the person's spouse or a relative of the person related by consanguinity or affinity within the fifth degree who resides with the person; or
(D) a governing person or an affiliate or officer of the person. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- association: Includes, but is not limited to, an unincorporated nonprofit association as defined in Chapter 17 and an unincorporated professional association as defined in Article 1 of Chapter 30. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- board: The State Board of Agriculture and Industries of the State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- brand: Any recorded identification mark applied to any position on the hide of livestock by means of heat, acid, or a chemical, except numbers used to keep production records or record of age. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
- Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
- circuit: means judicial circuit. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
- commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 32-6-15
- commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries of the State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- cooperative: Includes an employee cooperative as defined in Chapter 11. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- corporation: Includes a domestic or foreign business corporation as defined in Chapter 2, a domestic or foreign nonprofit corporation as defined in Chapter 3, a domestic or foreign professional corporation as defined in Chapter 4, and those entities specified in Chapter 20 as corporate. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- County: means Clay County. See Alabama Code 45-14-243.01
- court: Every court and judge having jurisdiction in a case. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- day: When used in the computation of time excludes the first day and includes the last day of the period so computed, unless the last day is a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, in which event the period runs until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday, or a legal holiday. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- department: The Department of Agriculture and Industries of the State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- director: An individual who serves on the board of directors, by whatever name known, of a foreign or domestic corporation. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- domestic: With respect to an entity, that the entity is formed and exists under this title. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- entity: A domestic entity or foreign entity. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- foreign: With respect to an entity, that the entity is formed and existing under the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- individual: A natural person and the estate of an incompetent or deceased natural person. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- JUDGE OF PROBATE: The judge of probate of the county in which a domestic entity's certificate of formation is filed, or, with respect to a statement of authority under Chapter 8A, which is to be filed in the real property records of a particular county, the judge of probate of the county in which that statement is filed. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- law: Unless the context requires otherwise, both statutory and common law. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- license: A license, certificate of registration, or other legal authorization. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- livestock: Cattle, swine, sheep, goats, equine or equidae, ratites, and poultry. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- LIVESTOCK HIDE DEALER: Any dealer who buys hides of livestock. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- LIVESTOCK MARKET: A place where a person assembles livestock for public sale, if the person is required to procure a license or permit from the state Department of Agriculture and Industries to operate the market. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- merger: The combination of one or more domestic entities with one or more domestic entities or non-code organizations resulting in:
(A) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations;
(B) the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations, or one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations; or
(C) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations and the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Month: means the calendar month. See Alabama Code 45-14-243.01
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- NONPROFIT CORPORATION: A domestic or foreign nonprofit corporation as defined in Chapter 3. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- officer: An individual elected, appointed, or designated as an officer of an entity by the entity's governing authority or under the entity's governing documents. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- organization: A corporation, limited partnership, general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, joint venture, joint stock company, cooperative, association, bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, or other organization, regardless of whether the organization is for profit, not for profit, nonprofit, domestic, or foreign. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- partnership: Includes a general partnership, a limited liability partnership, a foreign limited liability partnership, a limited partnership, a foreign limited partnership, a limited liability limited partnership, and a foreign limited liability limited partnership. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- person: An individual, including the estate of an incompetent or deceased individual, or an organization, whether created by the laws of this state or another state or foreign country, including, without limitation, a general partnership, limited liability partnership, limited partnership, limited liability limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation, professional corporation, professional association, trustee, personal representative, fiduciary, as defined in Section 19-3-150 or person performing in any similar capacity, business trust, estate, trust, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- person: An individual, a partnership, a corporation or two or more individuals having a joint or common interest. See Alabama Code 32-6-15
- person: Any individual, partnership, corporation, or association. See Alabama Code 45-42-243
- person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action and evidence of debt, deeds and conveyances. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- preceding: means next before. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- property: Includes all property, whether real, personal, or mixed, or tangible or intangible, or any right or interest therein. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- real property: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- SECRETARY OF STATE: The Secretary of State of the State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- state: Includes, when referring to a part of the United States, a state or commonwealth, and its agencies and governmental subdivisions, and a territory or possession, and its agencies and governmental subdivisions, of the United States. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- State sales tax: means the tax imposed by the state sales tax statutes. See Alabama Code 45-14-243.01
- State sales tax statutes: means Sections 40-23-1, 40-23-2, 40-23-3, and 40-23-4, which levy a certain retail sales tax, and include all statutes, including amendments to those sections, which expressly set forth any exemptions from the computation of the tax levied by those sections and all other statutes which expressly apply to, or purport to affect, the administration of those sections and the incidence and collection of the tax imposed therein. See Alabama Code 45-14-243.01
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- subscription: An agreement between a subscriber and an entity, or a written offer made by a subscriber to an entity before or after the entity's formation, in which the subscriber agrees or offers to purchase a specified ownership interest in the entity. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- subsidiary: An entity or organization at least 50 percent of:
(A) the ownership or membership interest of which is owned by a parent entity or parent organization; or
(B) the voting power of which is possessed by a parent entity or parent organization. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
- trustee: A person who serves as a trustee of a trust, including a real estate investment trust. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- year: means a calendar year; but, whenever the word "year" is used in reference to any appropriations for the payment of money out of the treasury, it shall mean fiscal year. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608