Chapter 2 Powers of Judges at Chambers
Chapter 3 Disqualifications of Judges
Chapter 4 Incidental Powers and Duties of Judicial Officers
Chapter 5 Miscellaneous Provisions Respecting Courts of Justice

Terms Used In California Codes > Code of Civil Procedure > Part 1 > Title 2 - JUDICIAL OFFICERS

  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • agency: means every state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, commission, or other state agency, except that the term agency shall not include:

    California Civil Code 1798.3

  • Agency: means the Labor and Workforce Development Agency. See California Labor Code 18.5
  • Alarm agent: means a person employed by an alarm company operator whose duties include selling on premises, altering, installing, maintaining, moving, repairing, replacing, servicing, responding, or monitoring an alarm system, or a person who manages or supervises a person employed by an alarm company to perform any of the duties described in this subdivision or any person in training for any of the duties described in this subdivision. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Ancillary administration: Probate administration of property (usually real property) owned in a State other than the one in which the decedent had his (her) principal residence at the time of death.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: means a person to whom a donative transfer of property is made or that person's successor in interest, and:

    California Probate Code 24

  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: as used in this chapter means the board of supervisors in the case of a county or city and county, and city council or board of trustees in the case of a city. See California Government Code 50798.3
  • Bonds: as used in this chapter means the written evidence of any obligation incurred by the board payable out of revenues as provided in this chapter in order to secure funds with which to carry out the purposes of this chapter irrespective of the form of such obligation whether in the form of bonds, notes, debentures, interest bearing certificates or other forms prescribed by the board. See California Government Code 50798.1
  • Branch office: means any location, other than the principal place of business of the licensee, which is licensed as set forth in Article 11 (commencing with Section 7599. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Branch office manager: means an individual designated by the qualified manager to manage the licensee's branch office and who has met the requirements as set forth in Article 11 (commencing with Section 7599. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • Child: means any individual entitled to take as a child under this code by intestate succession from the parent whose relationship is involved. See California Probate Code 26
  • City: includes "city and county" and "incorporated town" but does not include "unincorporated town" or "village. See California Government Code 20
  • Claim: means a demand for payment for any of the following, whether due, not due, accrued or not accrued, or contingent, and whether liquidated or unliquidated:

    California Probate Code 19000

  • Claim: means a demand for payment for any of the following, whether due, not due, accrued or not accrued, or contingent, and whether liquidated or unliquidated:

    California Probate Code 9000

  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • commissioners: as used in this chapter shall refer to that engineer. See California Water Code 46156
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Community property: means :

    California Probate Code 28

  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conservatee: includes a limited conservatee. See California Probate Code 29
  • Conservator: includes a limited conservator. See California Probate Code 30
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • County: includes city and county. See California Government Code 19
  • County: includes city and county. See California Water Code 14
  • court supervision: means the judicial order, authorization, approval, confirmation, or instructions that would be required if authority to administer the estate had not been granted under this part. See California Probate Code 10401
  • Creditor: means a person who may have a claim against the trust property. See California Probate Code 19000
  • Creditor: means a person who may have a claim against estate property. See California Probate Code 9000
  • Day: means calendar day, and "week" means calendar week. See California Fish and Game Code 35
  • Debts: means all claims, as defined in subdivision (a), all expenses of administration, and all other proper charges against the trust estate, including taxes. See California Probate Code 19000
  • Deceased settlor: means a deceased person who, at the time of his or her death, held the power to revoke the trust in whole or in part. See California Probate Code 19000
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Fish and Wildlife. See California Fish and Game Code 37
  • Department: means the Department of Consumer Affairs. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Department: means the Department of Food and Agriculture. See California Food and Agricultural Code 32
  • Department: means Department of Industrial Relations. See California Labor Code 19
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: when used as a noun, means a disposition of real or personal property by will, and, when used as a verb, means to dispose of real or personal property by will. See California Probate Code 32
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Devisee: means any person designated in a will to receive a devise. See California Probate Code 34
  • direct assessment warrants: as used in this chapter , means such obligations, howsoever denominated. See California Water Code 45900
  • Director: means the Director of Consumer Affairs. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Director: means Director of Industrial Relations. See California Labor Code 20
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Financial institution: means a state or national bank, state or federal savings and loan association or credit union, or like organization. See California Probate Code 40
  • Firearms permit: means a permit issued by the bureau, pursuant to Article 6 (commencing with Section 7596), to a licensee, a qualified manager, or an alarm agent, to carry an exposed firearm while on duty. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Fish: means a wild fish, mollusk, crustacean, invertebrate, amphibian, or part, spawn, or ovum of any of those animals. See California Fish and Game Code 45
  • Fishery: means both of the following:

    California Fish and Game Code 94

  • full authority: means authority to administer the estate under this part that includes all the powers granted under this part. See California Probate Code 10402
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Heir: means any person, including the surviving spouse, who is entitled to take property of the decedent by intestate succession under this code. See California Probate Code 44
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Instrument: means a will, a document establishing or modifying a trust, a deed, or any other writing that designates a beneficiary or makes a donative transfer of property. See California Probate Code 45
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • interested person: includes any of the following:

    California Probate Code 48

  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Labor Commissioner: means Chief of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement. See California Labor Code 21
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Licensee: means a business entity, whether an individual, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation licensed under this chapter. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • limited authority: means authority to administer the estate under this part that includes all the powers granted under this part except the power to do any of the following:

    California Probate Code 10403

  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local agency: as used in this division means county, city, or city and county, unless the context otherwise requires. See California Government Code 50001
  • Member: means an individual who is a member of a limited liability company as defined in subdivision (p) of Section 17701. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means any individual, firm, company, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Person: means any natural person or any partnership, corporation, limited liability company, trust, or other type of association. See California Fish and Game Code 67
  • Person: means any individual, partnership, association, corporation, limited liability company, or any organized group of persons whether incorporated or not. See California Food and Agricultural Code 38
  • person: means any natural person, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, firm, or association. See California Civil Code 1798.3
  • Person: includes any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, or company. See California Government Code 17
  • Person: means any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or company. See California Water Code 19
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, or other entity. See California Probate Code 56
  • Person: means any person, association, organization, partnership, business trust, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Labor Code 18
  • Person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Personal representative: means executor, administrator, administrator with the will annexed, special administrator, successor personal representative, public administrator acting pursuant to Section 7660, or a person who performs substantially the same function under the law of another jurisdiction governing the person's status. See California Probate Code 58
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Pretrial conference: A meeting of the judge and lawyers to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review evidence and witnesses, to set a timetable, and to discuss the settlement of the case.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probate estate: means a decedent's estate subject to administration pursuant to Division 7 (commencing with Section 7000). See California Probate Code 19000
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Process: signifies a writ or summons issued in the course of a judicial proceeding. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Property: means anything that may be the subject of ownership and includes both real and personal property and any interest therein. See California Probate Code 62
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Purchase: means "buy" as defined in Section 24. See California Fish and Game Code 68
  • Qualified manager: means an individual who is in active control, management, and direction of the licensee's business, and who is in possession of a current and valid qualified manager's certificate pursuant to this chapter. See California Business and Professions Code 7590.1
  • Quasi-community property: means the following property, other than community property as defined in Section 28:

    California Probate Code 66

  • Real property: includes a leasehold interest in real property. See California Probate Code 68
  • record: means any file or grouping of information about an individual that is maintained by an agency by reference to an identifying particular such as the individual's name, photograph, finger or voice print, or a number or symbol assigned to the individual. See California Civil Code 1798.3
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • regulatory agency: means the Department of Business Oversight, the Department of Insurance, the Bureau of Real Estate, and agencies of the United States or of any other state responsible for regulating financial institutions. See California Civil Code 1798.3
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Revenue: as used in this chapter shall mean all fees, rates, charges, rentals or other income and revenue actually received or receivable by or for the account of the board from the operation of any particular project including without limiting the generality of the foregoing interest allowed on any moneys or securities and any proceeds derived from the sale of any securities and any consideration in any way derived from the particular project owned, operated or maintained by the board. See California Government Code 50798.2
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development. See California Labor Code 19.5
  • Security: includes any note, stock, treasury stock, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in an oil, gas, or mining title or lease or in payments out of production under such a title or lease, collateral trust certificate, transferable share, voting trust certificate or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a security, or any certificate of interest or participation, any temporary or interim certificate, receipt, or certificate of deposit for, or any warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing. See California Probate Code 70
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sole ownership: The type of property ownership in which one individual holds legal title to the property and has full control of it.
  • Spouse: includes domestic partner, as defined in Section 37 of this code, as required by Section 297. See California Probate Code 72
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Labor Code 12.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Fish and Game Code 83
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Government Code 18
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Water Code 18
  • State: includes any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession subject to the legislative authority of the United States. See California Probate Code 74
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the territories when applied to the different parts of the United States, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Fish and Game Code 73
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Food and Agricultural Code 49
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Government Code 10
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplementary assessment: as used in this chapter , means an assessment, in addition to the original assessment, for the purpose of raising an additional sum for the district project or any unit or combination of units of the project. See California Water Code 46900
  • Supplementary assessment: as used in this chapter means an assessment, in addition to the original assessment, for the purpose of raising an additional sum for the operation of the district works or for the conduct and management of the district or its works. See California Water Code 47100
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transferee: means the beneficiary, donee, or other recipient of an interest transferred by an instrument. See California Probate Code 81.5
  • Transport: includes offer or receive for transportation. See California Fish and Game Code 88
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust: means a trust described in Section 18200, or, if a portion of a trust, that portion that remained subject to the power of revocation at the deceased settlor's death. See California Probate Code 19000
  • Trust: includes the following:

    California Probate Code 82

  • Trust estate: means a decedent's property, real and personal, that is titled in the name of the trustee of the deceased settlor's trust or confirmed by order of the court to the trustee of the deceased settlor's trust. See California Probate Code 19000
  • Trustee: includes an original, additional, or successor trustee, whether or not appointed or confirmed by a court. See California Probate Code 84
  • Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
  • United States: means the United States of America, and in relation to any particular matter includes the officers, agents, employees, agencies, or instrumentalities authorized to act in relation thereto. See California Water Code 20
  • Violation: includes a failure to comply with any requirement of the code. See California Labor Code 22
  • Voir dire: The process by which judges and lawyers select a petit jury from among those eligible to serve, by questioning them to determine knowledge of the facts of the case and a willingness to decide the case only on the evidence presented in court. "Voir dire" is a phrase meaning "to speak the truth."
  • Will: includes codicil and any testamentary instrument which merely appoints an executor or revokes or revises another will. See California Probate Code 88
  • Will: includes codicil. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ: means an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Writing: includes printing and typewriting. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17