Chapter 1 Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training

Terms Used In California Codes > Penal Code > Part 4 > Title 4 - STANDARDS AND TRAINING OF LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Alternative payment program: means a local government agency or nonprofit organization that has contracted with the department pursuant to Section 8220. See California Education Code 8208
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Basic health care services: includes ambulance and ambulance transport services provided through the "911" emergency response system. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • board: means the California Department of Tax and Fee Administration. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 20
  • book: signifies the recordation of an arrest in official police records, and the taking by the police of fingerprints and photographs of the person arrested, or any of these acts following an arrest. See California Penal Code 7
  • bribe: signifies anything of value or advantage, present or prospective, or any promise or undertaking to give any, asked, given, or accepted, with a corrupt intent to influence, unlawfully, the person to whom it is given, in his or her action, vote, or opinion, in any public or official capacity. See California Penal Code 7
  • bus: is a ny vehicle, including a trailer bus, designed, used, or maintained for carrying more than 15 persons including the driver. See California Vehicle Code 233
  • cargo container: means a receptacle with all of the following characteristics:

    California Penal Code 458

  • Child care and development services: means those services designed to meet a wide variety of needs of children and their families, while their parents or guardians are working, in training, seeking employment, incapacitated, or in need of respite. See California Education Code 8208
  • City: includes incorporated city, city and county, municipal corporation, municipality, town, and incorporated town. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 14
  • Claim: means a demand for payment for any of the following, whether due, not due, accrued or not accrued, or contingent, and whether liquidated or unliquidated:

    California Probate Code 9000

  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • commercial vehicle: is a motor vehicle of a type required to be registered under this code used or maintained for the transportation of persons for hire, compensation, or profit or designed, used, or maintained primarily for the transportation of property. See California Vehicle Code 260
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Controller: means the State Controller. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 21
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • County: includes city and county. See California Health and Safety Code 14
  • County: includes every county and city and county within this State. See California Vehicle Code 270
  • county: includes "city and county". See California Penal Code 7
  • County: includes city and county. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 15
  • Creditor: means a person who may have a claim against estate property. See California Probate Code 9000
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Motor Vehicles except, when used in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 2100) of Division 2 and in Divisions 11 (commencing with Section 21000), 12 (commencing with Section 24000), 13 (commencing with Section 29000), 14 (commencing with Section 31600), 14. See California Vehicle Code 290
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Director: means "State Director of Health Services. See California Health and Safety Code 21
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • distributor: is a ny person other than a manufacturer who sells or distributes new vehicles subject to registration under this code, new trailers subject to identification pursuant to Section 5014. See California Vehicle Code 296
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • driver: is a person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. See California Vehicle Code 305
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Enrollee: means a person who is enrolled in a plan and who is a recipient of services from the plan. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence of coverage: means any certificate, agreement, contract, brochure, or letter of entitlement issued to a subscriber or enrollee setting forth the coverage to which the subscriber or enrollee is entitled. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Exempted from the taxes imposed by this part: as used in this article , means, in case of the sales tax, exempted from the computation of the amount of tax imposed. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 6351
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Group contract: means a contract which by its terms limits the eligibility of subscribers and enrollees to a specified group. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Highway: is a way or place of whatever nature, publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See California Vehicle Code 360
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • inhabited: means currently being used for dwelling purposes, whether occupied or not. See California Penal Code 459
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • joint powers agency: means any agency, entity, or authority formed pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 6500) of Chapter 5 of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code. See California Penal Code 13507.1
  • knowingly: import s only a knowledge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission within the provisions of this code. See California Penal Code 7
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • License: means , and "licensed" refers to, a license as a plan pursuant to Section 1353. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • license: shall include a permit or a certificate issued by a state agency. See California Penal Code 23
  • licensed: refers to , a license as a plan pursuant to Section 1353. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Maintenance facility or terminal: includes a private business or residence. See California Vehicle Code 34515
  • maliciously: import a wish to vex, annoy, or injure another person, or an intent to do a wrongful act, established either by proof or presumption of law. See California Penal Code 7
  • month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See California Penal Code 7
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • motor vehicle: as used in this part , shall have the meanings ascribed to them in Sections 415 and 670 of the Vehicle Code. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 6022
  • motor vehicle: includes a recreational vehicle as that term is defined in subdivision (a) of Section 18010 of the Health and Safety Code, but does not include a truck camper. See California Vehicle Code 415
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Parent: means a biological parent, stepparent, adoptive parent, foster parent, caretaker relative, or any other adult living with a child who has responsibility for the care and welfare of the child. See California Education Code 8208
  • partnership: shall include limited liability company, registered limited liability partnership, and foreign limited liability partnership, except where the context or the specific provisions of this division otherwise require. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 28.5
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • peace officer: signify any one of the officers mentioned in Chapter 4. See California Penal Code 7
  • Person: includes any person, firm, partnership, general partner of a partnership, limited liability company, registered limited liability partnership, foreign limited liability partnership, association, corporation, company, syndicate, estate, trust, business trust, or organization of any kind. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 19
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, or other entity. See California Probate Code 56
  • Person: means any person, individual, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, foundation, labor organization, corporation, limited liability company, public agency, or political subdivision of the state. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Penal Code 7
  • Person: includes a natural person, firm, copartnership, association, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Vehicle Code 470
  • personal property: include money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt. See California Penal Code 7
  • Personal representative: means executor, administrator, administrator with the will annexed, special administrator, successor personal representative, public administrator acting pursuant to Section 7660, or a person who performs substantially the same function under the law of another jurisdiction governing the person's status. See California Probate Code 58
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • plan: refers to health care service plans and specialized health care service plans. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Plan contract: means a contract between a plan and its subscribers or enrollees or a person contracting on their behalf pursuant to which health care services, including basic health care services, are furnished. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Property: means anything that may be the subject of ownership and includes both real and personal property and any interest therein. See California Probate Code 62
  • property: includes both real and personal property. See California Penal Code 7
  • Provider: means any professional person, organization, health facility, or other person or institution licensed by the state to deliver or furnish health care services. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • representative: is a ny person regularly employed by a manufacturer or distributor for the purpose of negotiating or promoting the sale of the manufacturer's or distributer's vehicles to their franchisees or for regularly supervising or contacting franchisees or prospective franchisees in this state for any purpose. See California Vehicle Code 512
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • seal: includes an impression of such seal upon the paper alone, or upon any substance attached to the paper capable of receiving a visible impression. See California Penal Code 7
  • Service area: means a geographical area designated by the plan within which a plan shall provide health care services. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Solicitation: means any presentation or advertising conducted by, or on behalf of, a plan, where information regarding the plan, or services offered and charges therefor, is disseminated for the purpose of inducing persons to subscribe to, or enroll in, the plan. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Solicitor: means any person who engages in the acts defined in subdivision ( l). See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Solicitor firm: means any person, other than a plan, who through one or more solicitors engages in the acts defined in subdivision ( l). See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • specialized health care service plan: means either of the following:

    California Health and Safety Code 1345

  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Health and Safety Code 12.2
  • state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Penal Code 7
  • State Board of Equalization meeting as a public body: means the California Department of Tax and Fee Administration for those duties, powers, and responsibilities transferred to the California Department of Tax and Fee Administration pursuant to Section 15570. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 20.5
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subscriber: means the person who is responsible for payment to a plan or whose employment or other status, except for family dependency, is the basis for eligibility for membership in the plan. See California Health and Safety Code 1345
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Support services: means those services that, when combined with child care and development services, help promote the healthy physical, mental, social, and emotional growth of children. See California Education Code 8208
  • terminal: means the location or locations in this state that are designated by a motor carrier, where subject vehicles may be inspected by the department and where vehicle maintenance and inspection records and drivers' records will be made available for inspection. See California Vehicle Code 34515
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Tour bus: includes a bus described in subdivision (a) that has had its roof substantially structurally modified or removed. See California Vehicle Code 612
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • truck tractor: is a motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load, other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and the load so drawn. See California Vehicle Code 655
  • vehicle: is a device by which any person or property may be propelled, moved, or drawn upon a highway, excepting a device moved exclusively by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. See California Vehicle Code 670
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • vessel: means a vessel as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 651 of the Harbors and Navigation Code. See California Penal Code 7
  • will: includes codicil. See California Penal Code 7
  • willfully: when applied to the intent with which an act is done or omitted, implies simply a purpose or willingness to commit the act, or make the omission referred to. See California Penal Code 7
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.