Terms Used In Florida Regulations 12C-1.016

  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
    (1) “Nonbusiness income” means all income other than business income. For a determination of nonbusiness income, see section 220.03(1)(r), F.S.
    (a) The classification of income by the labels occasionally used, such as manufacturing income, compensation for services, sales income, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, gains, operating income, nonoperating income, etc., is of no import in determining whether income is business or nonbusiness income. Income of any type or class and from any source is business income if it arises from transactions and activity occurring in the regular course of a trade or business. Accordingly, the critical element in determining whether income is “business income” or “nonbusiness income” is the identification of the transactions and activity which are the elements of a particular trade or business. In general, all transactions and activities of the taxpayer which are dependent upon or contribute to the operations of the taxpayer’s economic enterprise as a whole constitute the taxpayer’s trade or business and will be transactions and activity arising in the regular course of, and will constitute integral parts of, a trade or business.
    (b) Examples. The examples below illustrate the provisions of this rule relating to whether particular income is business or nonbusiness income. The examples used are illustrative only and do not purport to set forth all pertinent facts used in determination of whether particular income is business or nonbusiness income.
    1. Rents from real and tangible personal property. Rental income from real and tangible property is business income if the property with respect to which the rental income was received is used in the taxpayer’s trade or business or is incidental thereto and therefore is includible in the property factor.
    a. Example: The taxpayer operates a multistate car rental business. The income from car rentals is business income.
    b. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in the heavy construction business in which it uses equipment such as cranes, tractors, and earth-moving vehicles. The taxpayer makes short-term leases of the equipment when particular pieces of equipment are not needed on any particular project. The rental income is business income.
    c. Example: The taxpayer operates a multistate chain of men’s clothing stores. The taxpayer purchases a five-story office building for use in connection with its trade or business. It uses the street floor as one of its retail stores and the second and third floors for its general corporate headquarters. The remaining two floors are leased to others. The rental of the two floors is incidental to the operation of the taxpayer’s trade or business. The rental income is business income.
    d. Example: The taxpayer constructed a plant for use in its multistate manufacturing business, and 20 years later the plant was closed and put up for sale. The plant was rented for a temporary period from the time it was closed by the taxpayer until it was sold 18 months later. The rental income is business income, and the gain on the sale of the plant is business income.
    e. Example: The taxpayer operates a multistate chain of grocery stores. It owned an office building which it occupied as its corporate headquarters. Because of inadequate space, taxpayer acquired a new and larger building elsewhere for its corporate headquarters. The old building was rented to an investment company under a five-year lease. Upon expiration of the lease, taxpayer sold the building at a gain (or loss). The net rental income received over the lease period is business income, and the gain (or loss) on the sale of the building is nonbusiness income.
    2. Gains or losses from sales of assets. Gain or loss from the sale, exchange or other disposition of real or tangible or intangible personal property constitutes business income if the property while owned by the taxpayer was used in the taxpayer’s trade or business.
    a. Example: In conducting its multistate manufacturing business, the taxpayer systematically replaces automobiles, machines, and other equipment used in the business. The gains or losses resulting from those sales constitute business income.
    b. Example: The taxpayer constructed a plant for use in its multistate manufacturing business and 20 years later sold the property at a gain while it was in operation by the taxpayer. The gain is business income.
    c. Example: Same as Example b., except that the plant was closed and put up for sale but was not in fact sold until a buyer was found 18 months later. The gain is business income.
    d. Example: Same as Example b., except that the plant was rented while being held for sale. The rental income is business income, and the gain on the sale of the plant is business income.
    3. Interest. Interest income is business income where the intangible with respect to which the interest was received arises out of or was created in the regular course of the taxpayer’s trade or business operations or where the purpose for acquiring and holding the intangible is related to or incidental to such trade or business operations.
    a. Example: The taxpayer operates a multistate chain of department stores, selling for cash and on credit. Service charges, interest, or time-price differentials and the like are received with respect to installment sales and revolving charge accounts. The amounts are business income.
    b. Example: The taxpayer conducts a multistate manufacturing business. During the year the taxpayer receives a federal income tax refund and collects a judgment against a debtor of the business. Both the tax refund and the judgment bore interest. The interest income is business income.
    c. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in a multistate manufacturing and wholesaling business. In connection with that business, the taxpayer maintains special accounts to cover such items as workmen’s compensation claims, rain and storm damage, machinery replacement, etc. The funds in those accounts are invested. Similarly, the taxpayer temporarily invests funds intended for payment of federal, state and local tax obligations. The interest income is business income.
    d. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in a multistate money order and traveler’s check business. In addition to the fees received in connection with the sale of the money orders and traveler’s checks, the taxpayer earns interest income by the investment of the funds pending their redemption. The interest income is business income.
    e. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in a multistate manufacturing and selling business. The taxpayer usually has working capital and extra cash totaling $200,000 which it regularly invests in short-term interest bearing securities. The interest income is business income.
    4. Dividends. Dividends are business income where the stock with respect to which the dividends are received arises out of or was acquired in the regular course of the taxpayer’s trade or business operations or where the purpose for acquiring and holding the stock is related to or incidental to such trade or business operations.
    a. Example: The taxpayer operates a multistate chain of stock brokerage houses. During the year the taxpayer receives dividends on stock it owns. The dividends are business income.
    b. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in a multistate manufacturing and wholesaling business. In connection with that business the taxpayer maintains special accounts to cover such items as workmen’s compensation claims, etc. A portion of the moneys in those accounts is invested in interest-bearing bonds. The remainder is invested in various common stocks listed on national stock exchanges. Both the interest income and any dividends are business income.
    c. Example: The taxpayer and several unrelated corporations own all of the stock of a corporation whose business operations consist solely of acquiring and processing materials for delivery to the corporate owners. The taxpayer acquired the stock in order to obtain a source of supply of materials used in its manufacturing business. The dividends are business income.
    d. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in a multistate heavy construction business. Much of its construction work is performed for agencies of the federal government and various state governments. Under state and federal laws applicable to contracts for these agencies, a contractor must have adequate bonding capacity, as measured by the ratio of its current assets (cash and marketable securities) to current liabilities. In order to maintain an adequate bonding capacity, the taxpayer holds various stocks and interest-bearing securities. Both the interest income and any dividends received are business income.
    e. Example: The taxpayer receives dividends from the stock of its subsidiary or affiliate which acts as the marketing agency for products manufactured by the taxpayer. The dividends are business income.
    f. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in a multistate glass manufacturing business. It also holds a portfolio of stock and interest-bearing securities, the acquisition and holding of which are unrelated to the manufacturing business. The dividends and interest income received are nonbusiness income.
    5. Patent, trademark, and copyright royalties. Patent, trademark and copyright royalties are business income where the patent or trademark or copyright with respect to which the royalties were received arises out of or was created in the regular course of the taxpayer’s trade or business operations or where the purpose for acquiring and holding the patent or trademark or copyright is related to or incidental to such trade or business operations.
    a. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in the multistate business of manufacturing and selling industrial chemicals. In connection with that business the taxpayer obtained patents on certain of its products. The taxpayer licensed the production of the chemicals in foreign countries, in return for which the taxpayer receives royalties. The royalties received by the taxpayer are business income.
    b. Example: The taxpayer is engaged in the music publishing business and holds copyrights on numerous songs. The taxpayer acquires the assets of a smaller publishing company, including music copyrights. These acquired copyrights are thereafter used by the taxpayer in its business. Any royalties received on these copyrights are business income.
    c. Example: Same as Example b., except that the acquired company also held the patent on a type of phonograph needle. The taxpayer does not manufacture or sell phonographs or phonograph equipment. Any royalties received on the patent would be nonbusiness income.
    (2) Nonbusiness income is not subject to apportionment, but is allocated as provided in Florida Statutes § 220.16
Rulemaking Authority 213.06(1), 220.51 FS. Law Implemented 213.05, 220.03(1)(r), 220.16 FS. History—New 12-21-88, Amended 3-18-96.