Title 1 General Provisions
Title 2 Registration and Enrollment
Title 3 Enrollment
Title 4 Cancellation of Registration
Title 5 Registration Records
Title 6 Filing and Custody of Registration Records
Title 7 Checks Against Fraudulent Practices
Title 8 Electronic Personal Voter Registration Process
Title 9 Automatic Voter Registration

Terms Used In New York Laws > Election > Article 5 - Registration and Enrollment of Voters

  • ABA: means the design, implementation, and evaluation of environmental modifications, using behavioral stimuli and consequences, to produce socially significant improvement in human behavior, including the use of direct observation, measurement, and functional analysis of the relationship between environment and behavior. See
  • Abandonment: means the intentional relinquishment or forsaking of all possession or control of any substance. See
  • Accumulated contributions: shall mean the sum of all the amounts deducted from the compensation of a contributor, and credited to his individual account in the annuity savings fund together with regular interest thereon. See
  • Act: shall mean the Clean Air Act, 42 U. See
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Affected local government: shall mean every municipality in which land subject to an environmental easement is located. See
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Air contamination source: means all sources required to obtain a permit, certificate or approval pursuant to article nineteen of this chapter. See
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Annuity: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from contributions made by contributor as provided in this article. See
  • Annuity reserve: shall mean the present value of all payments to be made on account of any annuity, or benefit in lieu of any annuity, computed upon the basis of such mortality tables as shall be adopted by the retirement board with regular interest. See
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • athletic trainer: means any person who is duly certified in accordance with this article to perform athletic training under the supervision of a physician and limits his or her practice to secondary schools, institutions of postsecondary education, professional athletic organizations, or a person who, under the supervision of a physician, carries out comparable functions on orthopedic athletic injuries, excluding spinal cord injuries, in a health care organization. See
  • baby chicks: as used in this article , means any domestic fowl under the age of six weeks. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 175-M
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Beneficiary: shall mean any person in receipt of a retirement allowance or other benefit as provided by this article. See
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • Clinical: shall mean activities directly relating to the treatment or diagnosis of human ailments. See
  • Combustion installation: means one or more furnace, device, engine or turbine in which fossil fuel or wood is burned with air or oxygen and the air contaminant emissions include only those products resulting from:

    a. See

  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of agriculture and markets. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 258-BB
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Consumer: means any person other than a milk dealer who purchases milk for fluid consumption. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contributor: shall mean any member of the retirement system who has an account in the annuity savings fund as provided by this article. See
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Direct marketing: means the sale of farm and food products directly from producers to consumers and food buyers. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 282
  • Director: means the director of the division of milk control. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Disposal: means the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any substance so that such substance or any related constituent thereof may enter the environment, or the abandonment of any substance. See
  • Division: means the division of milk control created by this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Emission point: means any conduit, chimney, duct, vent, flue, stack or other functionally equivalent opening through which regulated air contaminants are emitted to the ambient air. See
  • Employer: shall mean the state of New York, the city, the village, school district board or trustee, or other agency of and within the state by which a teacher is paid. See
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Environment: means any water, water vapor, any land including land surface or subsurface, air, fish, wildlife, biota, and all other natural resources. See
  • Environmental easement: shall mean an interest in real property, created under and subject to the provisions of this title which contains a use restriction and/or a prohibition on the use of land in a manner inconsistent with engineering controls; provided that no such easement shall be acquired or held by the state which is subject to the provisions of article fourteen of the constitution. See
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Final average salary: shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during the five years of service immediately preceding his date of retirement, or it shall mean the average annual compensation earnable as a teacher during any five consecutive years of state service, said five years to be selected by the applicant prior to date of retirement. See
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Fugitive emissions: means those emissions of a regulated air contaminant that could not reasonably pass through an emission point. See
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Incinerator: means any structure or furnace in which combustion takes place and type 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 refuse, as classified in Table 1 of 6 NYCRR Appendix 2, is used as a fuel, alone or in conjunction with fossil fuel. See
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • lettuce: means iceberg type lettuce. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 160-P
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Licensee: means a licensed milk dealer. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Medical physics: shall mean the branch of physics limited to the field of radiological physics. See
  • Milk broker: means any person who buys and sells milk for licensees on a fee or commission basis or who arranges for or negotiates contracts to buy or sell milk among licensees. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Milk dealer: means any person who purchases, handles or sells milk, or bargains for the purchase or sale of milk, including brokers and agents. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Milk production area: as used in this article means those dairy farms maintained primarily as a source of fluid milk for a marketing area. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 258-L
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • New entrant: shall mean any teacher who is a member of the retirement system except a present teacher. See
  • non-economic loss: includes but is not limited to pain and suffering, mental anguish, loss of consortium or other damages for non-economic loss. See N.Y. Civil Practice Law and Rules 1600
  • noxious weeds: means any living stage (including but not limited to, seeds and reproductive parts) of any parasitic or other plant of a kind, or subdivision of a kind, which is of foreign origin, is new to or not widely prevalent in this state, and can directly or indirectly injure crops, other useful plants, livestock, or poultry or other interests of agriculture, including irrigation. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 161
  • nursery: means the grounds and premises, private or public, on or in which nursery stock is propagated, grown or cultivated for the purpose of distribution or selling the same as a business and shall include grounds or premises owned, leased or managed by the state or any agency of the state government, and the owner or operator of such business shall be a "nursery grower"; provided, however, that the term "nursery grower" shall not include persons engaged in the part-time production of plant products not sold in the regular channels of business. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 161
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Pension: shall mean the annual payments for life derived from payments made by an employer as provided in this article. See
  • Pension reserve: shall mean the present value of all payments to be made on account of any pension, or benefit in lieu of any pension, computed upon the basis of such mortality tables as shall be adopted by the retirement board with regular interest. See
  • person: shall be deemed to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all the officers, directors and persons having an interest in more than ten percent of the issued and outstanding stock of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial owner thereof, if such person be a corporation other than a banking organization as defined in section two of the banking law, a national banking association, a federal savings and loan association, the mortgage facilities corporation, savings banks life insurance fund, the savings banks retirement system, an authorized insurer as defined in section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust company or other corporation organized under the laws of this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at least twenty savings banks or by at least twenty savings and loan associations or a subsidiary corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company or other corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004
  • Person: means any person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, association, co-operative corporation or unincorporated co-operative association. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Person: means any person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, association, co-operative corporation or unincorporated co-operative association. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 258-BB
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Potential to emit: means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit any regulated air contaminant under its physical and operational design. See
  • Pound: means an avoirdupois pound. See
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Present teacher: shall mean any teacher who was a teacher on or before the first day of August, nineteen hundred twenty-one, whose membership in the retirement system created by this article has been continuous and

    a. See

  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Process air contamination source: means :

    a. See

  • Producer: means a person producing milk. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Producer: means any person who grows, produces, or causes to be grown or produced any farm and food products in New York state. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 282
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public or private agency: shall mean any agency of federal, state or local government, regional market authority, public benefit corporation, not-for-profit corporation, cooperative corporation or educational institution. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 260
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Radiation: shall mean all ionizing radiation above background levels or any non-ionizing radiation used in diagnostic imaging or in radiation oncology. See
  • Radiological physics: shall mean diagnostic radiological physics, therapeutic radiological physics or radiation oncology physics, medical nuclear physics and medical health physics. See
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Regulated medical waste: means regulated medical waste as defined in title 15 of article 27 of this chapter. See
  • Release: means any pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or leaching, directly or indirectly, of a substance so that the substance or any related constituent thereof, or any degradation product of such a substance or of a related constituent thereof, may enter the environment, or the disposal of any substance. See
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Retirement allowance: shall mean the pension plus the annuity. See
  • Retirement board: shall mean the retirement board provided by section five hundred four of this article. See
  • Retirement fund: shall mean the state teachers' retirement fund for public school teachers of the state of New York as created by chapter one hundred forty of the laws of nineteen hundred ten, chapter four hundred forty-nine of the laws of nineteen hundred eleven, chapter forty-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fourteen, chapter one hundred three of the laws of nineteen hundred nineteen and chapter one hundred sixty-one of the laws of nineteen hundred twenty-three. See
  • Retirement system: shall mean the New York state teachers' retirement system provided for in section five hundred two of this article. See
  • Service: shall mean actual teaching or supervision by the teacher during regular school hours of the day, and shall mean governmental service in the state of New York in another capacity where the teacher was a member of the New York state employees retirement system, and where such service was credited to the teacher in the said New York state employees retirement system. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Severe ozone nonattainment area: means that part of the state designated pursuant to section 7407 of the Act as not meeting the national ambient air quality standard for ozone, as classified under section 7511 of the Act. See
  • soil: means the commonly accepted medium or other medium in which plants are grown and which is or may be capable of harboring or transmitting insect pests and plant diseases. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 161
  • State air quality control program: means those activities of the department as specified in titles three and five of article nineteen of this chapter relating to air pollution and air contamination and any related enforcement activities. See
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Storage: shall mean a facility or equipment with a refrigerated, controlled atmosphere, or other enclosed unit used for the purpose of long-term storage of farm and food products in connection with a farmers' market. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 260
  • Store: means an individual business establishment at one location including a grocery store, hotel, restaurant, soda fountain, dairy products store, automatic milk vending machine, gasoline station or a similar mercantile establishment offering goods and/or services at retail to individual consumers. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 253
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Teacher: shall mean any regular teacher, special teacher, including any school librarian or physical training teacher, principal, vice-principal,




    director, superintendent, city superintendent, assistant city superintendent, district superintendent and other member of the teaching or professional staff of any class, public school, vocational school, truant reformatory school or parental school, and of any or all classes of schools within the state of New York, including schools on the Indian reservation, conducted under the order and superintendence of and wholly or partly at the expense of the New York state education department or of a duly elected board of education, board of school directors or board of trustees of the state or of any city or school district thereof, provided that no person shall be deemed a teacher within the meaning of this article who is not so employed for full time outside vacation periods. See

  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.