Sections
Article 1 General Provisions 2.2-3100 – 2.2-3101
Article 2 Generally Prohibited and Unlawful Conduct 2.2-3102 – 2.2-3104.2
Article 3 Prohibited Conduct Relating to Contracts 2.2-3105 – 2.2-3110
Article 4 Prohibited Conduct Relating to Transactions 2.2-3111 – 2.2-3112
Article 5 Disclosure Statements Required to Be Filed 2.2-3113 – 2.2-3118.2
Article 6 School Boards and Employees of School Boards 2.2-3119
Article 7 Penalties and Remedies 2.2-3120 – 2.2-3127
Article 8 Orientation for State Filers 2.2-3128 – 2.2-3131
Article 9 Training for Local Filers 2.2-3132

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 2.2 > Subtitle I > Part E > Chapter 31

  • Abandon: means to desert, forsake, or absolutely give up an animal without having secured another owner or custodian for the animal or by failing to provide the elements of basic care as set forth in § Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Applicant: means a customer who applies for a refund anticipation loan through a facilitator. See Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Aquaculture: means the propagation, rearing, enhancement, and harvest of aquatic organisms in controlled or selected environments, conducted in marine, estuarine, brackish, or fresh water. See Virginia Code 3.2-2600
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Authority: means the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority created pursuant to this title. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beekeeper: means any person who keeps and manages bees for profit, and shall include those growers who keep bees for pollinating crops. See Virginia Code 3.2-2800
  • Beer: means any alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of an infusion or decoction of barley, malt, and hops or of any similar products in drinkable water and containing one-half of one percent or more of alcohol by volume. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Beneficiary: means the spouse of a deceased person and such persons as are entitled to take under the will of a deceased person if testate, or as his heirs at law if intestate. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the Board of Directors of the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Board: means the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services. See Virginia Code 3.2-100
  • Boarding establishment: means a place or establishment other than a public or private animal shelter where companion animals not owned by the proprietor are sheltered, fed, and watered in exchange for a fee. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Bond: includes any form of financial instrument that provides security equivalent to that provided by a bond, such as an irrevocable letter of credit, if its use in lieu of a bond is authorized pursuant to regulations adopted by the Commission. See Virginia Code 6.2-2200
  • Borrower: means an applicant who receives a refund anticipation loan through a facilitator. See Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Bottle: means any vessel intended to contain liquids and having a capacity of not more than 43 ounces. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Financial Institutions, a division of the Commission. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Business: means a corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, firm, enterprise, franchise, association, trust or foundation, or any other individual or entity carrying on a business or profession, whether or not for profit. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Candidate: means a person who seeks or campaigns for an office of the Commonwealth or one of its governmental units in a general, primary, or special election and who is qualified to have his name placed on the ballot for the office. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • care: means the responsible practice of good animal husbandry, handling, production, management, confinement, feeding, watering, protection, shelter, transportation, treatment, and, when necessary, euthanasia, appropriate for the age, species, condition, size and type of the animal and the provision of veterinary care when needed to prevent suffering or impairment of health. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Check casher: means a person engaged in the business of cashing checks, drafts, or money orders for compensation. See Virginia Code 6.2-2100
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • City: means an independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on July 1, 1971, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-208
  • Civil aircraft: means any aircraft other than a public aircraft. See Virginia Code 5.1-1
  • Club: means any private nonprofit corporation or association which is the owner, lessee, or occupant of an establishment operated solely for a national, social, patriotic, political, athletic, or other like purpose, but not for pecuniary gain, the advantages of which belong to all of the members. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Collar: means a well-fitted device, appropriate to the age and size of the animal, attached to the animal's neck in such a way as to prevent trauma or injury to the animal. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Commercial dog breeder: means any person who, during any 12-month period, maintains 30 or more adult female dogs for the primary purpose of the sale of their offspring as companion animals. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Commission: means the State Corporation Commission. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Financial Institutions. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Companion animal: means any domestic or feral dog, domestic or feral cat, nonhuman primate, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit not raised for human food or fiber, exotic or native animal, reptile, exotic or native bird, or any feral animal or any animal under the care, custody, or ownership of a person or any animal that is bought, sold, traded, or bartered by any person. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Company: means a bank, trust company, or other entity conducting the business of renting safe deposit boxes. See Virginia Code 6.2-2300
  • Consumer: means any natural person purchasing an animal from a dealer or pet shop or hiring the services of a boarding establishment. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Consumer: means an individual residing in the Commonwealth who owes money to one or more creditors, for personal, family, or household purposes, including an individual who owes money jointly with one or more other individuals. See Virginia Code 6.2-2000
  • Container: means any barrel, bottle, carton, keg, vessel or other receptacle used for holding alcoholic beverages. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: includes a subcontract only when the contract of which it is a part is with the officer's or employee's own governmental agency. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Correctional officer: means a duly sworn non-probationary employee of the Department of Corrections whose normal duties relate to maintaining immediate control, supervision, and custody of prisoners confined in any state correctional facility. See Virginia Code 9.1-508
  • Council: means the Virginia Conflict of Interest and Ethics Advisory Council established in § 30-355. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Cross pollination: means the transfer of pollen from the anthers of blossoms to the stigmas of other blossoms of the same crops or a variety of the same crop. See Virginia Code 3.2-2800
  • Customer: means an individual for whom tax preparation services are performed. See Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Dealer: means any person who in the regular course of business for compensation or profit buys, sells, transfers, exchanges, or barters companion animals. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Deceased person: means any individual whose death occurs on or after April 8, 1972, in the line of duty as the direct or proximate result of the performance of his duty, including the presumptions under §§ Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Director: means the Executive Director of the Department of Fire Programs. See Virginia Code 9.1-209
  • Disabled person: includes any state employee included in the definition of a deceased person who was disabled on or after January 1, 1966. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dump: means to knowingly desert, forsake, or absolutely give up without having secured another owner or custodian any dog, cat, or other companion animal in any public place including the right-of-way of any public highway, road or street or on the property of another. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Emergency medical services personnel: means any person who holds a valid certificate issued by the Commissioner and who is employed solely within the fire department, emergency medical services agency, or public safety department of an employing agency as a full-time emergency medical services personnel whose primary responsibility is the provision of emergency care to the sick and injured, using either basic or advanced techniques. See Virginia Code 9.1-300
  • Emergency veterinary treatment: means veterinary treatment to stabilize a life-threatening condition, alleviate suffering, prevent further disease transmission, or prevent further disease progression. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Employee: means any person who would be covered or whose spouse, dependents, or beneficiaries would be covered under the benefits of this chapter if the person became a disabled person or a deceased person. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Employee: means all persons employed by a governmental or advisory agency, unless otherwise limited by the context of its use. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Employer: means (i) the employer of a person who is a covered employee or (ii) in the case of a volunteer who is a member of any fire company or department or rescue squad described in the definition of "deceased person" the county, city, or town that by ordinance or resolution recognized such fire company or department or rescue squad as an integral part of the official safety program of such locality. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Employer: means any political subdivision of the Commonwealth, including any county, city, town, authority, or special district that employs fire protection employees except any locality with five or fewer paid firefighters that is exempt from overtime rules by 29 U. See Virginia Code 9.1-700
  • Employing agency: means any municipality of the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, including authorities and special districts, that employs firefighters and emergency medical services personnel. See Virginia Code 9.1-300
  • Enclosure: means a structure used to house or restrict animals from running at large. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Entity: means any corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or other legal or commercial entity. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Establishment: means any place where alcoholic beverages of one or more varieties are lawfully manufactured, sold, or used. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Euthanasia: means the humane destruction of an animal accomplished by a method that involves instantaneous unconsciousness and immediate death or by a method that involves anesthesia, produced by an agent that causes painless loss of consciousness, and death during such loss of consciousness. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: means service by virtue of one's office and includes voting privileges for ex officio members unless otherwise provided. See Virginia Code 1-215
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • exercise: means the opportunity for the animal to move sufficiently to maintain normal muscle tone and mass for the age, species, size, and condition of the animal. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Exhibitor: means any person who has animals for or on public display, excluding an exhibitor licensed by the U. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Facilitator: means a person who receives or accepts for delivery an application for a refund anticipation loan, delivers a check in payment of refund anticipation loan proceeds, or in any other manner acts to allow the making of a refund anticipation loan. See Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Facility: means a building or portion thereof as designated by the State Veterinarian, other than a private residential dwelling and its surrounding grounds, that is used to contain a primary enclosure or enclosures in which animals are housed or kept. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a set of United States statutes added as Title VIII of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Its purpose is to ensure ethical practices in the collection of consumer debts and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. It is often used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • farm: means any person that obtains at least 51 percent of its annual gross income from agricultural operations and produces the agricultural waste used as feedstock for the waste-to-energy technology, (ii) "agricultural waste" means biomass waste materials capable of decomposition that are produced from the raising of plants and animals during agricultural operations, including animal manures, bedding, plant stalks, hulls, and vegetable matter, and (iii) "waste-to-energy technology" means any technology, including but not limited to a methane digester, that converts agricultural waste into gas, steam, or heat that is used to generate electricity on-site. See Virginia Code 1-222.1
  • Farm winery: means (i) an establishment (a) located on a farm in the Commonwealth on land zoned agricultural with a producing vineyard, orchard, or similar growing area and with facilities for fermenting and bottling wine on the premises where the owner or lessee manufactures wine that contains not more than 21 percent alcohol by volume or (b) located in the Commonwealth on land zoned agricultural with a producing vineyard, orchard, or similar growing area or agreements for purchasing grapes or other fruits from agricultural growers within the Commonwealth, and with facilities for fermenting and bottling wine on the premises where the owner or lessee manufactures wine that contains not more than 21 percent alcohol by volume or (ii) an accredited public or private institution of higher education, provided that (a) no wine manufactured by the institution shall be sold, (b) the wine manufactured by the institution shall be used solely for research and educational purposes, (c) the wine manufactured by the institution shall be stored on the premises of such farm winery that shall be separate and apart from all other facilities of the institution, and (d) such farm winery is operated in strict conformance with the requirements of this clause (ii) and Board regulations. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Farming activity: means , consistent with standard animal husbandry practices, the raising, management, and use of agricultural animals to provide food, fiber, or transportation and the breeding, exhibition, lawful recreational use, marketing, transportation, and slaughter of agricultural animals pursuant to such purposes. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: shall include any one or more of the following:

    a. See Virginia Code 8.01-2

  • Fighter or attack jet: means a jet-powered aircraft designed for military (i) combat training or (ii) operational mission execution. See Virginia Code 5.1-1
  • Financial institution: means any bank, trust company, savings institution, industrial loan association, consumer finance company, credit union, broker-dealer as defined in subsection A of § 13. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Financial institution: means any bank, trust company, savings institution, industrial loan association, consumer finance company, or credit union. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Firefighter: means any person who is employed solely within the fire department or public safety department of an employing agency as a full-time firefighter whose primary responsibility is the prevention and extinguishment of fires, the protection of life and property, and the enforcement of local and state fire prevention codes and laws pertaining to the prevention and control of fires. See Virginia Code 9.1-300
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foster care provider: means a person who provides care or rehabilitation for companion animals through an affiliation with a public or private animal shelter, home-based rescue, releasing agency, or other animal welfare organization. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Foster home: means a private residential dwelling and its surrounding grounds, or any facility other than a public or private animal shelter, at which site through an affiliation with a public or private animal shelter, home-based rescue, releasing agency, or other animal welfare organization care or rehabilitation is provided for companion animals. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Fund: means the Line of Duty Death and Health Benefits Trust Fund established pursuant to § Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Humane investigator: means a person who has been appointed by a circuit court as a humane investigator as provided in § Source: OCC
  • Interrogation: means any questioning of a formal nature as used in Chapter 4 (§ 9. See Virginia Code 9.1-300
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Intoxicated: means a condition in which a person has drunk enough alcoholic beverages to observably affect his manner, disposition, speech, muscular movement, general appearance or behavior. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Item: means a check, draft, or money order. See Virginia Code 6.2-2100
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Kennel: means any establishment in which five or more canines, felines, or hybrids of either are kept for the purpose of breeding, hunting, training, renting, buying, boarding, selling, or showing. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Law-enforcement employee: means any person who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic or highway laws of the Commonwealth, other than an employee who is exempt from the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, and who is a full-time employee of either (i) a police department or (ii) a sheriff's office that is part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof. See Virginia Code 9.1-700
  • Law-enforcement officer: means any person, other than a Chief of Police or the Superintendent of the Department of State Police, who, in his official capacity, is (i) authorized by law to make arrests and (ii) a nonprobationary officer of one of the following agencies:

    a. See Virginia Code 9.1-500

  • Law-enforcement officer: means any person who is a full-time or part-time employee of a police department or sheriff's office that is part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic or highway laws of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • lessee: shall include a cooperative formed by an association of individuals for the purpose of manufacturing wine. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Lessee: means the person renting a box from a company. See Virginia Code 6.2-2300
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Licensed: means the holding of a valid license granted by the Authority. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Licensee: means any person to whom a license has been granted by the Authority. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Licensee: means a person to whom a license has been issued under this chapter. See Virginia Code 6.2-2200
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Line of duty: means any action the deceased or disabled person was obligated or authorized to perform by rule, regulation, condition of employment or service, or law. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Livestock: includes all domestic or domesticated: bovine animals; equine animals; ovine animals; porcine animals; cervidae animals; capradae animals; animals of the genus Lama or Vicugna; ratites; fish or shellfish in aquaculture facilities, as defined in § Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Nonlegislative citizen member: means any natural person who is not a member of the General Assembly of Virginia. See Virginia Code 1-225
  • Nonparticipating employer: means any employer that is a political subdivision of the Commonwealth that elected to directly fund the cost of benefits provided under this chapter and not participate in the Fund. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Notary: means notary public. See Virginia Code 1-226
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See Virginia Code 1-228
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes members of the judiciary. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Ordinance: means any law, rule, regulation, or ordinance adopted by the governing body of any locality. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Other officer: includes all other persons employed or elected by the people of Virginia, or by any locality, whose duty it is to preserve the peace, to make arrests, or to enforce the law. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means any person who: (i) has a right of property in an animal; (ii) keeps or harbors an animal; (iii) has an animal in his care; or (iv) acts as a custodian of an animal. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Parent-subsidiary relationship: means a relationship that exists when one corporation directly or indirectly owns shares possessing more than 50 percent of the voting power of another corporation. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Participating employer: means any employer that is a state agency or is a political subdivision of the Commonwealth that did not make an election to become a nonparticipating employer. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
  • Person: shall include individuals, a trust, an estate, a partnership, an association, an order, a corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity;

    6. See Virginia Code 8.01-2

  • Person: means any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, or other legal or commercial entity. See Virginia Code 6.2-2200
  • Person: means any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or other legal or commercial entity. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Person: means any individual, corporation, government, political subdivision of the Commonwealth, or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, two or more of any of the foregoing having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity. See Virginia Code 5.1-1
  • Person under a disability: shall include :

    a. See Virginia Code 8.01-2

  • Personal interest: means a financial benefit or liability accruing to an officer or employee or to a member of his immediate family. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Personal interest in a contract: means a personal interest that an officer or employee has in a contract with a governmental agency, whether due to his being a party to the contract or due to a personal interest in a business that is a party to the contract. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Personal interest in a transaction: means a personal interest of an officer or employee in any matter considered by his agency. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Personal representative: includes the executor of a will or the administrator of the estate of a decedent, the administrator of such estate with the will annexed, the administrator of such estate unadministered by a former representative, whether there is a will or not, any person who is under the order of a circuit court to take into his possession the estate of a decedent for administration, and every other curator of a decedent's estate, for or against whom suits may be brought for causes of action that accrued to or against the decedent. See Virginia Code 1-234
  • Pet shop: means a retail establishment where companion animals are bought, sold, exchanged, or offered for sale or exchange to the general public. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Poultry: includes all domestic fowl and game birds raised in captivity. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Primary enclosure: means any structure used to immediately restrict an animal or animals to a limited amount of space, such as a room, pen, cage, compartment, or hutch. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Principal: means any person who, directly or indirectly, owns or controls (i) 10 percent or more of the outstanding stock of a stock corporation or (ii) a 10 percent or greater interest in any other type of entity. See Virginia Code 6.2-2200
  • Private animal shelter: means a facility operated for the purpose of finding permanent adoptive homes for animals that is used to house or contain animals and that is owned or operated by an incorporated, nonprofit, and nongovernmental entity, including a humane society, animal welfare organization, society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, or any other similar organization. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Process: includes subpoenas, the summons and complaint in a civil action, and process in statutory actions. See Virginia Code 1-237
  • Properly cleaned: means that carcasses, debris, food waste, and excrement are removed from the primary enclosure with sufficient frequency to minimize the animals' contact with the above-mentioned contaminants; the primary enclosure is sanitized with sufficient frequency to minimize odors and the hazards of disease; and the primary enclosure is cleaned so as to prevent the animals confined therein from being directly or indirectly sprayed with the stream of water, or directly or indirectly exposed to hazardous chemicals or disinfectants. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Public aircraft: includes any fighter or attack jet that is leased or owned by a private entity, provided that the aircraft operations are conducted exclusively for the purpose of military combat training in service to the federal government. See Virginia Code 5.1-1
  • Public animal shelter: means a facility operated by the Commonwealth, or any locality, for the purpose of impounding or sheltering seized, stray, homeless, abandoned, unwanted, or surrendered animals or a facility operated for the same purpose under a contract with any locality. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • public safety officer: includes a law-enforcement officer of the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions; a correctional officer as defined in § Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Refund anticipation loan fee: means any fee, charge, or other consideration imposed by a lender or a facilitator for a refund anticipation loan. See Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Refund anticipation loan fee schedule: means a list or table of refund anticipation loan fees that (i) includes three or more representative refund anticipation loan amounts; (ii) lists separately each fee or charge imposed, as well as a total of all fees imposed, related to the making of a refund anticipation loan; and (iii) includes, for each representative loan amount, the estimated annual percentage rate calculated under the guidelines established by the federal Truth in Lending Act (15 U. See Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Registrant: means a person registered under this chapter. See Virginia Code 6.2-2100
  • Registration: means a registration filed under this chapter. See Virginia Code 6.2-2100
  • Regularly scheduled work hours: means those hours that are recurring and fixed within the work period and for which an employee receives a salary or hourly compensation. See Virginia Code 9.1-700
  • relative: means the donee's spouse, child, uncle, aunt, niece, nephew, or first cousin; a person to whom the donee is engaged to be married; the donee's or his spouse's parent, grandparent, grandchild, brother, sister, step-parent, step-grandparent, step-grandchild, step-brother, or step-sister; or the donee's brother's or sister's spouse or the donee's son-in-law or daughter-in-law. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Releasing agency: means (i) a public animal shelter or (ii) a private animal shelter, humane society, animal welfare organization, society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, or other similar entity or home-based rescue that releases companion animals for adoption. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Repeatability: means the range of values within which the repeat results of cigarette test trials from a single laboratory will fall 95 percent of the time. See Virginia Code 9.1-209
  • Residence: means any building or part of a building or structure where a person resides, but does not include any part of a building which is not actually and exclusively used as a private residence, nor any part of a hotel or club other than a private guest room thereof. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Restaurant: means , for a beer, or wine and beer license or a limited mixed beverage restaurant license, any establishment provided with special space and accommodation, where, in consideration of payment, meals or other foods prepared on the premises are regularly sold. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Retailer: means a person who (i) sells cigarettes to consumers through vending machines on fewer than 40 premises; (ii) otherwise sells cigarettes to consumers; or (iii) holds cigarettes for sale to consumers. See Virginia Code 9.1-209
  • safe deposit box: means any safe or box that is available for rent within the vaults of a company. See Virginia Code 6.2-2300
  • Sangria: means a drink consisting of red or white wine mixed with some combination of sweeteners, fruit, fruit juice, soda, or soda water that may also be mixed with brandy, triple sec, or other similar spirits. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Securitization transaction: means a transaction relating to the issuance or transfer by a special purpose entity of beneficial interests or undivided interests, which entitle their holders to receive payments or other distributions that depend primarily on the cash flow from assets, including financial assets and other credit exposures, in which that special purpose entity has rights or the power to transfer rights. See Virginia Code 6.2-2400
  • sell: includes soliciting or receiving an order for; keeping, offering or exposing for sale; peddling, exchanging or bartering; or delivering otherwise than gratuitously, by any means, alcoholic beverages. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sore: means , when referring to an equine, that an irritating or blistering agent has been applied, internally or externally, by a person to any limb or foot of an equine; any burn, cut, or laceration that has been inflicted by a person to any limb or foot of an equine; any tack, nail, screw, or chemical agent that has been injected by a person into or used by a person on any limb or foot of an equine; any other substance or device that has been used by a person on any limb or foot of an equine; or a person has engaged in a practice involving an equine, and as a result of such application, infliction, injection, use, or practice, such equine suffers, or can reasonably be expected to suffer, physical pain or distress, inflammation, or lameness when walking, trotting, or otherwise moving, except that such term does not include such an application, infliction, injection, use, or practice in connection with the therapeutic treatment of an equine by or under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Special agent: means an employee of the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority whom the Board has designated as a law-enforcement officer pursuant to § Virginia Code 3.2-5900
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • sterilization: means a surgical or chemical procedure performed by a licensed veterinarian that renders a dog or cat permanently incapable of reproducing. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • sworn: means "affirm" or "affirmed. See Virginia Code 1-250
  • Tax return: means a return, declaration, statement, refund claim, or other document required to be made or filed in connection with state or federal income taxes. See Virginia Code 6.2-2500
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • title loan: means a loan secured by a non-purchase money security interest in a motor vehicle. See Virginia Code 6.2-2200
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July 1, 1971, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-254
  • Transaction: means any matter considered by any governmental or advisory agency, whether in a committee, subcommittee, or other entity of that agency or before the agency itself, on which official action is taken or contemplated. See Virginia Code 2.2-3101
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Treasurer: includes the treasurer and his assistants of each county or city or other officer designated by law to collect taxes in such county or city. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
  • United States: includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-255
  • Vending machine operator: means a person who (i) holds cigarettes for sale to consumers through vending machines on 40 or more premises or (ii) sells cigarettes to consumers through vending machines on 40 or more premises. See Virginia Code 9.1-209
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Veterinary treatment: means treatment by or on the order of a duly licensed veterinarian. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Viticulture: means the cultivation and study of grapes and grapevines. See Virginia Code 3.2-3000
  • VRS: means the Virginia Retirement System. See Virginia Code 9.1-400
  • Warehouse: means any person authorized by law to conduct auction sales of loose-leaf tobacco. See Virginia Code 3.2-2400
  • Weaned: means that an animal is capable of and physiologically accustomed to ingestion of solid food or food customary for the adult of the species and has ingested such food, without nursing, for a period of at least five days. See Virginia Code 3.2-6500
  • Wholesaler: means a person who (i) holds cigarettes for sale to another person for resale or (ii) sells cigarettes to another person for resale. See Virginia Code 9.1-209
  • Wine: includes any wine to which wine spirits have been added, as provided in the Internal Revenue Code, to make products commonly known as "fortified wine" which do not exceed an alcohol content of 21 percent by volume. See Virginia Code 4.1-100
  • Wine: means an alcoholic beverage as defined in § 4. See Virginia Code 3.2-3000
  • winery: means an "establishment" as defined in § 4. See Virginia Code 3.2-3000