As used in this title, unless the context otherwise requires, the term:

Terms Used In Virginia Code 8.01-2

  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: shall include individuals, a trust, an estate, a partnership, an association, an order, a corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity;

    6. See Virginia Code 8.01-2

  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Supreme Court: means the Supreme Court of Virginia. See Virginia Code 1-249
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.

1. “Action” and “suit” may be used interchangeably and shall include all civil proceedings whether upon claims at law, in equity, or statutory in nature and whether in circuit courts or district courts;

2. “Decree” and “judgment” may be used interchangeably and shall include orders or awards;

3. “Fiduciary” shall include any one or more of the following:

a. guardian,

b. committee,

c. trustee,

d. executor,

e. administrator, and administrator with the will annexed,

f. curator of the will of any decedent, or

g. conservator;

4. “Rendition of a judgment” means the time at which the judgment is signed and dated;

5. “Person” shall include individuals, a trust, an estate, a partnership, an association, an order, a corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity;

6. “Person under a disability” shall include:

a. a person convicted of a felony during the period he is confined;

b. an infant;

c. an incapacitated person as defined in § 64.2-2000;

d. an incapacitated ex-service person under § 64.2-2016;

e. persons made defendants by the general description of “parties unknown” in suits involving real property; or

f. any other person who, upon motion to the court by any party to an action or suit or by any person in interest, is determined to be (i) incapable of taking proper care of his person, or (ii) incapable of properly handling and managing his estate, or (iii) otherwise unable to defend his property or legal rights either because of age or temporary or permanent impairment, whether physical, mental, or both. Such impairment may also include substance abuse as defined in § 37.2-100;

7. “Sheriff” shall include deputy sheriffs and such other persons designated in § 15.2-1603;

8. “Summons” and “subpoena” may be used interchangeably and shall include a subpoena duces tecum for the production of documents and tangible things;

9. “Court of equity,””law and equity court,””law and chancery court,””chancery court,” “corporation court,” “the chancery side,” “court exercising powers in chancery,” “court with equitable jurisdiction,” and “receivership court” shall mean the circuit court when entertaining equitable claims;

10. A “motion for judgment,” “bill,” “bill of complaint,” or “bill in equity” shall mean a complaint in a civil action, as provided in the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia;

11. “Equity practice,” “equity procedure,” “chancery practice,” and “chancery procedure” shall mean practice and procedure in a civil action as prescribed by this Code and the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia.

1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 37; 1997, c. 921; 2005, cc. 681, 716; 2022, c. 299.