For the purpose of this chapter–
Terms Used In 15 USC 3603
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
(1) “affiliate of a developer” means any person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with a developer. A person “controls” a developer if the person (A) is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of the developer, (B) directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more then 20 per centum of the voting interests of the developer, (C) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the developer, or (D) has contributed more than 20 per centum of the capital of the developer. A person “is controlled by” a developer if the developer (i) is a general partner, officer, director or employer of the person, (ii) directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than 20 per centum of the voting interests of the person, (iii) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors, or (iv) has contributed more than 20 per centum of the capital of the person;
(2) “automatic rent increase clause” means a provision in a lease permitting periodic increases in the fee under the lease which is effective automatically or at the sole option of the lessor, and which provides that the fee shall increase at the rate of an economic, commodity, or consumer price index or at a percentage rate such that the actual increases in the rental payment over the lease term cannot be established with specificity at the time the lease is entered into;
(3) “common elements” means all portions of the cooperative or condominium project, other than the units designated for separate ownership or for exclusive possession or use;
(4) “condominium association” means the organization, whose membership consists exclusively of all the unit owners in the condominium project, which is, or will be responsible for the operation, administration, and management of the condominium project;
(5) “condominium project” means real estate (A) which has five or more residential condominium units, in each residential structure, and the remaining portions of the real estate are designated for common ownership solely by the owners of those units, each owner having an undivided interest in the common elements, and (B) where such units are or have been offered for sale or sold, directly or indirectly, through the use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication of interstate commerce, or the mails;
(6) “condominium unit” means a portion of a condominium project designated for separate ownership;
(7) “conversion project” means a project, which has five or more residential units, which was used primarily for residential rental purposes immediately prior to being converted to a condominium or cooperative project;
(8) “convey or conveyance” means (A) a transfer to a purchaser of legal title in a unit at settlement, other than as security for an obligation, or (B) the acquisition by a purchaser of a leasehold interest for more than five years;
(9) “cooperative association” means an organization that owns the record interest in the residential cooperative property; or a leasehold of the residential property of a cooperative project and that is responsible for the operation of the cooperative project;
(10) “cooperative project” means real estate (A) which has five or more residential cooperative units, in each residential structure, subject to separate use and possession by one or more individual cooperative unit owners whose interest in such units and in the undivided assets of the cooperative association which are appurtenant to the unit are evidenced by a membership or share interest in a cooperative association and a lease or other muniment of title or possession granted by the cooperative association as the owner of all the cooperative property, and (B) an interest in which is or has been offered for sale or lease or sold, or leased directly or indirectly, through use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails;
(11) “cooperative property” means the real estate and personal property subject to cooperative ownership and all other property owned by the cooperative association;
(12) “cooperative unit” means a part of the cooperative property which is subject to exclusive use and possession by a cooperative unit owner. A unit may be improvements, land, or land and improvements together, as specified in the cooperative documents;
(13) “cooperative unit owner” means the person having a membership or share interest in the cooperative association and holding a lease, or other muniment of title or possession, of a cooperative unit that is granted by the cooperative association as the owner of the cooperative property;
(14) “developer” means (A) any person who offers to sell or sells his interest in a cooperative or condominium unit not previously conveyed, or (B) any successor of such person who offers to sell or sells his interests in units in a cooperative or condominium project and who has the authority to exercise special developer control in the project including the right to: add, convert, or withdraw real estate from the cooperative or condominium project, and maintain sales offices, management offices and rental units; exercise easements through common elements for the purpose of making improvements within the cooperative or condominium; or exercise control of the owners’ association;
(15) “interstate commerce” means trade, traffic, transportation, communication, or exchange among the States, or between any foreign country and a State, or any transaction which affects such trade, traffic, transportation, communication, or exchange;
(16) “lease” includes any agreement or arrangement containing a condominium or cooperative unit owner’s obligation, individually, collectively, or through an association to make payments for a leasehold interest or for other rights to use or possess real estate, or personal property (which rights may include the right to receive services with respect to such real estate or personal property), except a lease does not include mortgages or other such agreements for the purchase of real estate;
(17) “person” means a natural person, corporation, partnership, association, trust or other entity, or any combination thereof;
(18) “purchaser” means any person, other than a developer, who by means of a voluntary transfer acquires a legal or equitable interest in a unit other than (A) a leasehold interest (including renewal options) of less than five years, or (B) as security for an obligation;
(19) “real estate” means any leasehold or other estate or interest in, over or under land, including structures, fixtures, and other improvements and interests which by custom, usage, or law pass with a conveyance of land though not described in the contract of sale or instrument of conveyance. “Real estate” includes parcels with or without upper or lower boundaries, and spaces that may be filled with air or water;
(20) “residential” means used as a dwelling;
(21) “sale”, “sale of a cooperative unit” or “sale of a condominium unit” means any obligation or arrangement for consideration for conveyance to a purchaser of a cooperative or condominium unit, excluding options or reservations not binding on the purchaser;
(22) “special developer control” means any right arising under State law, cooperative or condominium instruments, the association’s bylaws, charter or articles of association or incorporation, or power of attorney or similar agreement, through which the developer may control or direct the unit owners’ association or its executive board. A developer’s right to exercise the voting share allocated to any condominium or cooperative unit which he owns is not deemed a right of special developer control if the voting share allocated to that condominium or cooperative unit is the same voting share as would be allocated to the same condominium or cooperative unit were that unit owned by any other unit owner at that time;
(23) “State” includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States; and
(24) “tenants’ organization” means a bona fide organization of tenants who represent a majority of the occupied rental units in a rental housing project.