(a) Creation; principal, branch, and regional offices

In order to carry out the policies of this chapter there is created an agency under the name “Small Business Administration” (herein referred to as the Administration), which Administration shall be under the general direction and supervision of the President and shall not be affiliated with or be within any other agency or department of the Federal Government. The principal office of the Administration shall be located in the District of Columbia. The Administration may establish such branch and regional offices in other places in the United States as may be determined by the Administrator of the Administration. As used in this chapter, the term “United States” includes the several States, the Territories and possessions of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the District of Columbia.

(b) Appointment of Administrator, Deputy Administrator, and Associate Administrators; duties of Administrator: preparation of data base and publication of economic indices and annual report; risk management database; computer security and education program

Terms Used In 15 USC 633

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • United States: includes the several States, the Territories and possessions of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the District of Columbia. See 15 USC 633

(1) The management of the Administration shall be vested in an Administrator who shall be appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall be a person of outstanding qualifications known to be familiar and sympathetic with small-business needs and problems. The Administrator shall not engage in any other business, vocation, or employment than that of serving as Administrator. In carrying out the programs administered by the Small Business Administration including its lending and guaranteeing functions, the Administrator shall not discriminate on the basis of sex or marital status against any person or small business concern applying for or receiving assistance from the Small Business Administration, and the Small Business Administration shall give special consideration to veterans of the Armed Forces of the United States and their survivors or dependents. The President also may appoint a Deputy Administrator, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administrator is authorized to appoint Associate Administrators (including the Associate Administrator specified in section 671 of this title) to assist in the execution of the functions vested in the Administration. One such Associate Administrator shall be the Associate Administrator for Veterans Business Development, who shall administer the Office of Veterans Business Development established under section 657b of this title. One of the Associate Administrators shall be designated at the time of his appointment as the Associate Administrator for Minority Small Business and Capital Ownership Development who shall be an employee in the competitive service or in the Senior Executive Service and a career appointee and shall be responsible to the Administrator for the formulation and execution of the policies and programs under sections 636(j) and 637(a) of this title which provide assistance to minority small business concerns. The Deputy Administrator shall be Acting Administrator of the Administration during the absence or disability of the Administrator or in the event of a vacancy in the office of the Administrator. One such Associate Administrator shall be the Associate Administrator for International Trade, who shall be the head of the Office of International Trade established under section 649 of this title. One such Associate Administrator shall be the Chief Hearing Officer, who shall administer the Office of Hearings and Appeals established under section 634(i) of this title.

(2) The Administrator also shall be responsible for–

(A) establishing and maintaining an external small business economic data base for the purpose of providing the Congress and the Administration information on the economic condition and the expansion or contraction of the small business sector. To that end, the Administrator shall publish on a regular basis national small business economic indices and, to the extent feasible, regional small business economic indices, which shall include, but need not be limited to, data on–

(i) employment, layoffs, and new hires;

(ii) number of business establishments and the types of such establishments such as sole proprietorships, corporations, and partnerships;

(iii) number of business formations and failures;

(iv) sales and new orders;

(v) back orders;

(vi) investment in plant and equipment;

(vii) changes in inventory and rate of inventory turnover;

(viii) sources and amounts of capital investment, including debt, equity, and internally generated funds;

(ix) debt to equity ratios;

(x) exports;

(xi) number and dollar amount of mergers and acquisitions by size of acquiring and acquired firm; and

(xii) concentration ratios; and


(B) publishing annually a report giving a comparative analysis and interpretation of the historical trends of the small business sector as reflected by the data acquired pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this subsection.


(3) Risk management database.–

(A) Establishment.–The Administration shall establish, within the management system for the loan programs authorized by subsections (a) and (b) of section 636 of this title and title V of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 [15 U.S.C. 695 et seq.], a management information system that will generate a database capable of providing timely and accurate information in order to identify loan underwriting, collections, recovery, and liquidation problems.

(B) Information to be maintained.–In addition to such other information as the Administration considers appropriate, the database established under subparagraph (A) shall, with respect to each loan program described in subparagraph (A), include information relating to–

(i) the identity of the institution making the guaranteed loan or issuing the debenture;

(ii) the identity of the borrower;

(iii) the total dollar amount of the loan or debenture;

(iv) the total dollar amount of government exposure in each loan;

(v) the district of the Administration in which the borrower has its principal office;

(vi) the principal line of business of the borrower, as identified by Standard Industrial Classification Code (or any successor to that system);

(vii) the delinquency rate for each program (including number of instances and days overdue);

(viii) the number and amount of repurchases, losses, and recoveries in each program;

(ix) the number of deferrals or forbearances in each program (including days and number of instances);

(x) comparisons on the basis of loan program, lender, district and region of the Administration, for all the data elements maintained; and

(xi) underwriting characteristics of each loan that has entered into default, including term, amount and type of collateral, loan-to-value and other actual and projected ratios, line of business, credit history, and type of loan.


(C) Deadline for operational capability.–The database established under subparagraph (A) shall–

(i) be operational not later than June 30, 1997; and

(ii) capture data beginning on the first day of the second quarter of fiscal year 1997 beginning after such date and thereafter.


(4)(A) The Administrator shall establish a small business computer security and education program to–

(i) provide small business concerns information regarding–

(I) utilization and management of computer technology;

(II) computer crimes committed against small business concerns; and

(III) security for computers owned or utilized by small business concerns;


(ii) provide for periodic forums for small business concerns to improve their knowledge of the matters described in clause (i); and

(iii) provide training opportunities to educate small business users on computer security techniques.


(B) The Administrator, after consultation with the Director of the Institute of Computer Sciences and Technology within the Department of Commerce, shall develop information and materials to carry out the activities described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.

(c) Revolving funds; disaster loan fund; business loan and investment fund; payments into funds; appropriations; reports to Congress; business-type budgets; borrowing authority: terms and conditions of notes, interest rate, public debt transactions; payments into miscellaneous receipts; authorization of appropriations for losses and interest subsidies

(1) There are established in the Treasury the following revolving funds: (A) a disaster loan fund which shall be available for financing functions performed under sections 634(e), 636(b)(1), 636(b)(2), 636(b)(3), 636(b)(4), 636(d)(2), and 636(m) of this title; and (B) a business loan and investment fund which shall be available for financing functions performed under sections 634(g), 636(a) and 637(a) of this title, and titles III, IV and V of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 [15 U.S.C. 681 et seq., 692 et seq., 695 et seq.].

(2) All repayments of loans and debentures, payments of interest and other receipts arising out of transactions heretofore or hereafter entered into by the Administration (A) pursuant to sections 634(e), 636(b)(1), 636(b)(2), 636(b)(3), 636(b)(4), 636(b)(5), 636(b)(6), 636(b)(7), 636(b)(8), 636(d)(2), and 636(g) of this title, shall be paid into a disaster loan fund; and (B) pursuant to sections 634(g), 636(a), 636(h), 636(i), 636(l),1 636(m), and 637(a) of this title, and titles III, IV and V of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 [15 U.S.C. 681 et seq., 692 et seq., 695 et seq.], shall be paid into the business loan and investment fund.

(3) Unexpended balances of appropriations made to the fund pursuant to this subsection, as in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this paragraph, shall be allocated, together with related assets and liabilities, to the funds established by paragraph (1) in such amounts as the Administrator shall determine.

(4) The Administration shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations, Senate Select Committee on Small Business, and the Committee on Small Business of the House of Representatives, as soon as possible after the beginning of each calendar quarter, a full and complete report on the status of each of the funds established by paragraph (1). Business-type budgets for each of the funds established by paragraph (1) shall be prepared, transmitted to the Committees on Appropriations, the Senate Select Committee on Small Business, and the Committee on Small Business of the House of Representatives, and considered, and enacted in the manner prescribed by law (sections 9103 and 9104 of title 31) for wholly owned Government corporations.

(5)(A) The Administration is authorized to make and issue notes to the Secretary of the Treasury for the purpose of obtaining funds necessary for discharging obligations under the revolving funds created by paragraph (1) and for authorized expenditures out of the funds. Such notes shall be in such form and denominations and have such maturities and be subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Administration with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury. Such notes shall bear interest at a rate fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the current average market yield of outstanding marketable obligations of the United States having maturities comparable to the notes issued by the Administration under this paragraph. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to purchase any notes of the Administration issued hereunder, and, for that purpose, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to use as a public debt transaction the proceeds from the sale of any securities issued under chapter 31 of title 31, and the purposes for which such securities may be issued under such chapter are extended to include the purchase of notes issued by the Administration. All redemptions, purchases, and sales by the Secretary of the Treasury of such notes shall be treated as public debt transactions of the United States. All borrowing authority contained herein shall be effective only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(B)(i) Moneys in the funds established in paragraph (1) not needed for current operations may be paid into miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

(ii) Following the close of each fiscal year, the Administration shall pay into the miscellaneous receipts of the United States Treasury the actual interest that the Administration collects during that fiscal year on all financings made under this chapter.

(C) Except on those loan disbursements on which interest is paid under paragraph (5)(B)(ii), the Administration shall pay into miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury, following the close of each fiscal year, interest received by the Administration on financing functions performed under this chapter and titles III and V of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 [15 U.S.C. 681 et seq., 695 et seq.] providing the capital used to perform such functions originated from appropriated funds. Such payments shall be treated by the Department of the Treasury as interest income, not as retirement of indebtedness.

(D) There are authorized to be appropriated, in any fiscal year, such sums as may be necessary for losses and interest subsidies incurred by the funds established by paragraph (1), but not previously reimbursed.

(d) Creation and composition of Loan Policy Board; establishment of policies

There is created the Loan Policy Board of the Small Business Administration, which shall consist of the following members, all ex officio: The Administrator, as Chairman, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of Commerce. Either of the said Secretaries may designate an officer of his Department, who has been appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to act in his stead as a member of the Loan Policy Board with respect to any matter or matters. The Loan Policy Board shall establish general policies (particularly with reference to the public interest involved in the granting and denial of applications for financial assistance by the Administration and with reference to the coordination of the functions of the Administration with other activities and policies of the Government), which shall govern the granting and denial of applications for financial assistance by the Administration.

(e) Prohibition on provision of assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administration is prohibited from providing any financial or other assistance to any business concern or other person engaged in the production or distribution of any product or service that has been determined to be obscene by a court of competent jurisdiction.

(f) Certification of compliance with child support obligations

(1) In general

For financial assistance approved after the promulgation of final regulations to implement this section, each recipient of financial assistance under this chapter, including a recipient of a direct loan or a loan guarantee, shall certify that the recipient is not more than 60 days delinquent under the terms of any–

(A) administrative order;

(B) court order; or

(C) repayment agreement entered into between the recipient and the custodial parent or State agency providing child support enforcement services,


that requires the recipient to pay child support, as such term is defined in section 662(b) 1 of title 42.

(2) Enforcement

Not later than 6 months after October 22, 1994, the Administration shall promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to enforce compliance with the requirements of this subsection.

(g) Business Opportunity Specialists

(1) Duties

The exclusive duties of a Business Opportunity Specialist employed by the Administrator and reporting to the senior official appointed by the Administrator with responsibilities under sections 637, 644, 657a, and 657f of this title (or the designee of such official) shall be to implement sections 636, 637, and 657r of this title and to complete other duties related to contracting programs under this chapter. Such duties shall include–

(A) with respect to small business concerns eligible to receive contracts and subcontracts pursuant to section 637(a) of this title–

(i) providing guidance, counseling, and referrals for assistance with technical, management, financial, or other matters that will improve the competitive viability of such concerns;

(ii) identifying causes of success or failure of such concerns;

(iii) providing comprehensive assessments of such concerns, including identifying the strengths and weaknesses of such concerns;

(iv) monitoring and documenting compliance with the requirements of sections 636 and 637 of this title and any regulations implementing those sections;

(v) explaining the requirements of sections 636, 637, 644, 657a, 657f, and 657r of this title; and

(vi) advising on compliance with contracting regulations (including the Federal Acquisition Regulation) after award of such a contract or subcontract;


(B) reviewing and monitoring compliance with mentor-protege agreements under section 657r of this title;

(C) representing the interests of the Administrator and small business concerns in the award, modification, and administration of contracts and subcontracts awarded pursuant to section 637(a) of this title; and

(D) reporting fraud or abuse under section 636, 637, 644, 657a, 657f, or 657r of this title or any regulations implementing such sections.

(2) Certification requirements

(A) In general

Consistent with the requirements of subparagraph (B), a Business Opportunity Specialist described under section 636(j)(10)(D) of this title shall have a Level I Federal Acquisition Certification in Contracting (or any successor certification) or the equivalent Department of Defense certification.

(B) Delay of certification requirement

The certification described in subparagraph (A) is not required–

(i) for any person serving as a Business Opportunity Specialist on December 12, 2017, until the date that is one calendar year after the date such person was appointed as a Business Opportunity Specialist; or

(ii) for any person serving as a Business Opportunity Specialist on or before January 3, 2013, until January 3, 2020.

(3) Job posting requirements

The duties and certification requirements described in this subsection shall be included in any initial job posting for the position of a Business Opportunity Specialist.

(h) Commercial market representatives

(1) Duties

The principal duties of a commercial market representative employed by the Administrator and reporting to the senior official appointed by the Administrator with responsibilities under sections 637, 644, 657a, and 657f of this title (or the designee of the official) shall be to advance the policies established in section 637(d)(1) of this title relating to subcontracting, including–

(A) helping prime contractors to find small business concerns that are capable of performing subcontracts;

(B) for contractors awarded contracts containing the clause described in section 637(d)(3) of this title, providing–

(i) counseling on the responsibility of the contractor to maximize subcontracting opportunities for small business concerns;

(ii) instruction on methods and tools to identify potential subcontractors that are small business concerns; and

(iii) assistance to increase awards to subcontractors that are small business concerns through visits, training, and reviews of past performance;


(C) providing counseling on how a small business concern may promote the capacity of the small business concern to contractors awarded contracts containing the clause described in section 637(d)(3) of this title; and

(D) conducting periodic reviews of contractors awarded contracts containing the clause described in section 637(d)(3) of this title to assess compliance with subcontracting plans required under section 637(d)(6) of this title.

(2) Certification requirements

(A) In general

Consistent with the requirements of subparagraph (B), a commercial market representative referred to in section 644(q)(3) of this title shall have a Level I Federal Acquisition Certification in Contracting (or any successor certification) or the equivalent Department of Defense certification.

(B) Delay of certification requirement

The certification described in subparagraph (A) is not required–

(i) for any person serving as a commercial market representative on December 12, 2017, until the date that is one calendar year after the date on which the person was appointed as a commercial market representative; or

(ii) for any person serving as a commercial market representative on or before November 25, 2015, until November 25, 2020.

(3) Job posting requirements

The duties and certification requirements described in this subsection shall be included in any initial job posting for the position of a commercial market representative.