Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 16 > Chapter 6
- account: means a demand deposit, savings deposit, or other asset account (other than an occasional or incidental credit balance in an open end credit plan as defined in section 1602(i) 1 of this title), as described in regulations of the Bureau, established primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, but such term does not include an account held by a financial institution pursuant to a bona fide trust agreement. See 15 USC 1693a
- Administration: means the Small Business Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Small Business Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See 15 USC 2602
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- articles: means articles of incorporation for an incorporated body and means the functional equivalent or other similar documents specified by the Administrator for other business entities. See 15 USC 662
- bid bond: means a bond conditioned upon the bidder on a contract entering into the contract, if he receives the award thereof, and furnishing the prescribed payment bond and performance bond. See 15 USC 694a
- Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 15 USC 1693a
- Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
- Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 15 USC 1692a
- Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 15 USC 1693a
- business day: means any day on which the offices of the consumer's financial institution involved in an electronic fund transfer are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of its business functions. See 15 USC 1693a
- chemical substance: means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including--
(i) any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature, and
(ii) any element or uncombined radical. See 15 USC 2602
- commerce: means trade, traffic, transportation, or other commerce (A) between a place in a State and any place outside of such State, or (B) which affects trade, traffic, transportation, or commerce described in clause (A). See 15 USC 2602
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- communication: means the conveying of information regarding a debt directly or indirectly to any person through any medium. See 15 USC 1692a
- conditions of use: means the circumstances, as determined by the Administrator, under which a chemical substance is intended, known, or reasonably foreseen to be manufactured, processed, distributed in commerce, used, or disposed of. See 15 USC 2602
- consumer: means any natural person obligated or allegedly obligated to pay any debt. See 15 USC 1692a
- consumer: means a natural person. See 15 USC 1693a
- Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
- Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
- creditor: means any person who offers or extends credit creating a debt or to whom a debt is owed, but such term does not include any person to the extent that he receives an assignment or transfer of a debt in default solely for the purpose of facilitating collection of such debt for another. See 15 USC 1692a
- debt: means any obligation or alleged obligation of a consumer to pay money arising out of a transaction in which the money, property, insurance, or services which are the subject of the transaction are primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment. See 15 USC 1692a
- debt collector: means any person who uses any instrumentality of interstate commerce or the mails in any business the principal purpose of which is the collection of any debts, or who regularly collects or attempts to collect, directly or indirectly, debts owed or due or asserted to be owed or due another. See 15 USC 1692a
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- discharged: means released from an appointment as a Reserve officer. See 14 USC 3731
- distribution in commerce: when used to describe an action taken with respect to a chemical substance or mixture or article containing a substance or mixture mean to sell, or the sale of, the substance, mixture, or article in commerce. See 15 USC 2602
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- electronic fund transfer: means any transfer of funds, other than a transaction originated by check, draft, or similar paper instrument, which is initiated through an electronic terminal, telephonic instrument, or computer or magnetic tape so as to order, instruct, or authorize a financial institution to debit or credit an account. See 15 USC 1693a
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- electronic terminal: means an electronic device, other than a telephone operated by a consumer, through which a consumer may initiate an electronic fund transfer. See 15 USC 1693a
- Energy Saving qualified investment: means investment in a small business concern that is primarily engaged in researching, manufacturing, developing, or providing products, goods, or services that reduce the use or consumption of non-renewable energy resources. See 15 USC 662
- environment: includes water, air, and land and the interrelationship which exists among and between water, air, and land and all living things. See 15 USC 2602
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Federal question: Jurisdiction given to federal courts in cases involving the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties.
- Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
- financial institution: means a State or National bank, a State or Federal savings and loan association, a mutual savings bank, a State or Federal credit union, or any other person who, directly or indirectly, holds an account belonging to a consumer. See 15 USC 1693a
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- Fraud Alert: A key provision of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 is the consumer's ability to place a fraud alert on their credit record. A consumer would use this option if they believe they were a victim of identity theft. Source: OCC
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- guidance: means any significant written guidance of general applicability prepared by the Administrator. See 15 USC 2602
- Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- leverage: includes --
(A) debentures purchased or guaranteed by the Administration. See 15 USC 662
- license: means a license issued by the Administration as provided in section 681 of this title. See 15 USC 662
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- limited liability company: means a business entity that is organized and operating in accordance with a State limited liability company statute approved by the Administration. See 15 USC 662
- location information: means a consumer's place of abode and his telephone number at such place, or his place of employment. See 15 USC 1692a
- manufacture: means to import into the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States), produce, or manufacture. See 15 USC 2602
- member: means , with respect to a licensee that is a limited liability company, a holder of an ownership interest or a person otherwise admitted to membership in the limited liability company. See 15 USC 662
- Minimum finance charge: The minimum, or fixed, finance charge that will be imposed during a billing cycle. A minimum finance charge usually applies only when a finance charge is imposed, that is, when you carry over a balance. Source: Federal Reserve
- mixture: means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction. See 15 USC 2602
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
- new chemical substance: means any chemical substance which is not included in the chemical substance list compiled and published under section 2607(b) of this title. See 15 USC 2602
- obligee: means (A) in the case of a bid bond, the person requesting bids for the performance of a contract, or (B) in the case of a payment bond or performance bond, the person who has contracted with a principal for the completion of the contract and to whom the obligation of the surety runs in the event of a breach by the principal of the conditions of a payment bond or performance bond. See 15 USC 694a
- Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
- payment bond: means a bond conditioned upon the payment by the principal of money to persons under contract with him. See 15 USC 694a
- performance bond: means a bond conditioned upon the completion by the principal of a contract in accordance with its terms. See 15 USC 694a
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation: means a group of individuals within the general population identified by the Administrator who, due to either greater susceptibility or greater exposure, may be at greater risk than the general population of adverse health effects from exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, such as infants, children, pregnant women, workers, or the elderly. See 15 USC 2602
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- preauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. See 15 USC 1693a
- Preauthorized electronic fund transfers: An EFT authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- prime contractor: means the person with whom the obligee has contracted to perform the contract. See 15 USC 694a
- principal: means (A) in the case of a bid bond, a person bidding for the award of a contract, or (B) the person primarily liable to complete a contract for the obligee, or to make payments to other persons in respect of such contract, and for whose performance of his obligation the surety is bound under the terms of a payment or performance bond. See 15 USC 694a
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- process: means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce--
(A) in the same form or physical state as, or in a different form or physical state from, that in which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture, or
(B) as part of an article containing the chemical substance or mixture. See 15 USC 2602
- processor: means any person who processes a chemical substance or mixture. See 15 USC 2602
- protocols and methodologies for the development of information: means a prescription of--
(i) health and environmental effects, and
(ii) information relating to toxicity, persistence, and other characteristics which affect health and the environment,
for which information for a chemical substance or mixture are to be developed and any analysis that is to be performed on such information, and
(B) to the extent necessary to assure that information respecting such effects and characteristics are reliable and adequate--
(i) the manner in which such information are 2 to be developed,
(ii) the specification of any test protocol or methodology to be employed in the development of such information, and
(iii) such other requirements as are necessary to provide such assurance. See 15 USC 2602
- Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act: Federal law that, among other things, requires lenders to provide "good faith" estimates of settlement costs and make other disclosures regarding the mortgage loan. RESPA also limits the amount of funds held in escrow for real estate taxes and insurance. Source: OCC
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Reserve officer: means a commissioned officer in the Reserve, except an officer excluded by section 3732 of this title or a commissioned warrant officer. See 14 USC 3731
- Right of rescission: Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Source: OCC
- small business concern: means a business concern that meets the size standard for the primary industry in which such business concern, and the affiliates of such business concern, is engaged, as determined by the Administrator in accordance with the North American Industry Classification System. See 15 USC 694a
- smaller enterprise: means any small business concern that, together with its affiliates--
(i) a net financial worth of not more than $6,000,000, as of the date on which assistance is provided under this chapter to that business concern. See 15 USC 662
- State: includes the several States, the territories and possessions of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. See 15 USC 662
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States. See 15 USC 2602
- State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 1692a
- State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 1693a
- subcontractor: means a person who has contracted with a prime contractor or with another subcontractor to perform a contract. See 15 USC 694a
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
- surety: means the person who (A) under the terms of a bid bond, undertakes to pay a sum of money to the obligee in the event the principal breaches the conditions of the bond, (B) under the terms of a performance bond, undertakes to incur the cost of fulfilling the terms of a contract in the event the principal breaches the conditions of the contract, (C) under the terms of a payment bond, undertakes to make payment to all persons supplying labor and material in the prosecution of the work provided for in the contract if the principal fails to make prompt payment, or (D) is an agent, independent agent, underwriter, or any other company or individual empowered to act on behalf of such person. See 15 USC 694a
- third party debt: means any indebtedness for borrowed money, other than indebtedness owed to the Administration. See 15 USC 662
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- unauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer from a consumer's account initiated by a person other than the consumer without actual authority to initiate such transfer and from which the consumer receives no benefit, but the term does not include any electronic fund transfer (A) initiated by a person other than the consumer who was furnished with the card, code, or other means of access to such consumer's account by such consumer, unless the consumer has notified the financial institution involved that transfers by such other person are no longer authorized, (B) initiated with fraudulent intent by the consumer or any person acting in concert with the consumer, or (C) which constitutes an error committed by a financial institution. See 15 USC 1693a
- underlicensed State: means a State in which the number of licensees per capita is less than the median number of licensees per capita for all States, as calculated by the Administrator. See 15 USC 662
- United States: when used in the geographic sense, means all of the States. See 15 USC 2602
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.