§ 2101 Short title
§ 2102 Congressional statement of purpose
Subchapter I Negotiating and Other Authority
Subchapter II Relief From Injury Caused by Import Competition
Subchapter III Enforcement of United States Rights Under Trade Agreements and Response to Certain Foreign Trade Practices
Subchapter IV Trade Relations With Countries Not Receiving Nondiscriminatory Treatment
Subchapter V Generalized System of Preferences
Subchapter VI General Provisions
Subchapter VII Tariff Treatment of Products Of, and Other Sanctions Against, Uncooperative Major Drug Producing or Drug-Transit Countries
Subchapter VIII Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 19 > Chapter 12

  • Advisory Board: means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. See 7 USC 3103
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • affiliate: means a person that (directly or indirectly) owns or controls, is owned or controlled by, or is under common ownership or control with, another person. See 47 USC 153
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agricultural research: means research in the food and agricultural sciences. See 7 USC 3103
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • antitrust laws: means the antitrust laws, as such term is defined in section 12 of this title, and section 45 of this title (to the extent that section 45 of this title prohibits unfair methods of competition), and any State antitrust or unfair competition law,

    (7) the term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Commerce or his designee, and

    (8) the term "Attorney General" means the Attorney General of the United States or his designee. See 15 USC 4021

  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • apples: means fresh whole apples, whether or not the apples have been in storage. See 7 USC 589
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • aquaculture: means the propagation and rearing of aquacultural species, including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, or crustacean (or other aquatic invertebrate), amphibian, reptile, ornamental fish, or aquatic plant, in controlled or selected environments. See 7 USC 3103
  • Atomic Energy Act: shall mean the Act of August 1, 1946 (60 Stat. See 30 USC 530
  • Atomic Energy Commission: shall mean the United States Atomic Energy Commission established under the Atomic Energy Act or any amendments thereof. See 30 USC 530
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the National Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Board established under section 7104(b) of this title. See 7 USC 7102
  • cable service: has the meaning given such term in section 522 of this title. See 47 USC 153
  • cable system: has the meaning given such term in section 522 of this title. See 47 USC 153
  • carbonized wool: means wool that has been immersed in a bath, usually of mineral acids or acid salts, that destroys vegetable matter in the wool, but does not affect the wool fibres. See 7 USC 7102
  • carrier: means any person engaged as a common carrier for hire, in interstate or foreign communication by wire or radio or interstate or foreign radio transmission of energy, except where reference is made to common carriers not subject to this chapter. See 47 USC 153
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Coal: means any of the recognized classifications and ranks of coal, including anthracite, bituminous, semibituminous, subbituminous, and lignite. See 30 USC 552
  • Coal mine: means any underground, surface, or strip mine from which coal is obtained. See 30 USC 552
  • Commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 511
  • Commission: means any of the Commissions of the Organization that are established by the Convention. See 16 USC 3601
  • Commission: means the Pacific Salmon Commission established by the Treaty. See 16 USC 3631
  • Commissioner: means a United States Commissioner appointed under section 3602 of this title. See 16 USC 3601
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Common varieties: as used in this subchapter and sections 601 and 603 of this title does not include deposits of such materials which are valuable because the deposit has some property giving it distinct and special value and does not include so-called "block pumice" which occurs in nature in pieces having one dimension of two inches or more. See 30 USC 611
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • consumer information: means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and decisions regarding the purchase, preparation, or use of sheep products. See 7 USC 7102
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Convention: means the Convention for the Conservation of Salmon in the North Atlantic Ocean, signed at Reykjavik, Iceland, on March 2, 1982. See 16 USC 3601
  • cooperating forestry school: means an institution--

    (i) that is eligible to receive funds under Public Law 87-788 (commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act. See 7 USC 3103

  • Council: means the Council established by the Convention. See 16 USC 3601
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Customs Service: means United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury. See 7 USC 7102
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • degreased wool: means wool from which the bulk of impurities has been removed by processing. See 7 USC 7102
  • Department: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 7102
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3103
  • designated State agency: means the government agency, department, or division of any State that is empowered under the laws of the State to exercise the functions ordinarily exercised by a State fish and wildlife agency. See 16 USC 3743
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • education: means activities providing information relating to the sheep industry or sheep products to producers, feeders, importers, consumers, and other persons. See 7 USC 7102
  • enhancement: means manmade improvements to natural habitats, or the application of artificial fish culture technology, that will lead to the increase of salmon stocks. See 16 USC 3631
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executive Committee: means the Executive Committee established under section 7104(g) of this title. See 7 USC 7102
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • exploration: means the search for new or unexplored deposits of minerals, including related development work, within the United States, its Territories and possessions, whether conducted from the surface or underground, using recognized and sound procedures including standard geophysical and geochemical methods for obtaining mineralogical and geological information. See 30 USC 643
  • export trade: means trade or commerce in goods, wares, merchandise, or services exported, or in the course of being exported, from the United States or any territory thereof to any foreign nation,

    (2) the term "service" means intangible economic output, including, but not limited to--

    (A) business, repair, and amusement services,

    (B) management, legal, engineering, architectural, and other professional services, and

    (C) financial, insurance, transportation, informational and any other data-based services, and communication services,

    (3) the term "export trade activities" means activities or agreements in the course of export trade,

    (4) the term "methods of operation" means any method by which a person conducts or proposes to conduct export trade,

    (5) the term "person" means an individual who is a resident of the United States. See 15 USC 4021

  • exporter: means any person who exports domestic live sheep or greasy wool from the United States. See 7 USC 7102
  • extension: means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3103
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • feeder: means a person who feeds lambs until the lambs reach slaughter weight. See 7 USC 7102
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fish and wildlife: means wild members of the animal kingdom that are in an unconfined state. See 16 USC 3743
  • food and agricultural sciences: means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

    (A) Animal health, production, and well-being. See 7 USC 3103

  • foreign commerce: means commerce between any State, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside of the United States or its possessions. See 7 USC 589
  • foreign commerce: means commerce between any State, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside of the United States or its possessions. See 7 USC 599
  • Formation: means any vein, seam, stratum, bed, or other naturally occurring deposit. See 30 USC 552
  • Fund: means the Wildlife Conservation and Appreciation Fund established under section 3744(g) of this title. See 16 USC 3743
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • grapes: means vinifera species table grapes, European type, whether or not they have been in storage. See 7 USC 599
  • greasy wool: means wool that has not been washed or otherwise cleaned. See 7 USC 7102
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • handler: means any person who purchases and markets greasy wool. See 7 USC 7102
  • importer: means any person who imports sheep or sheep products into the United States. See 7 USC 7102
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • industry information: means information and programs that will lead to increased efficiency in processing and the development of new markets, marketing strategies, increased marketing efficiency, and activities to enhance the image of sheep or sheep products on a national or international basis. See 7 USC 7102
  • insane person: shall include every idiot, insane person, and person non compos mentis. See 1 USC 1
  • insular area: means --

    (A) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 3103

  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • land-grant colleges and universities: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. See 7 USC 3103
  • Leasing Act minerals: shall mean all minerals which, upon August 13, 1954, are provided in the mineral leasing laws to be disposed of thereunder and all geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources which, upon the effective date of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970, are provided in that Act to be disposed of thereunder. See 30 USC 530
  • Leasing Act minerals: shall mean all minerals which, upon August 11, 1955, are provided in the mineral leasing laws to be disposed of thereunder. See 30 USC 541e
  • Leasing Act operations: shall mean operations conducted under a lease, permit, or license issued under the mineral leasing laws in or incidental to prospecting for, drilling for, mining, treating, storing, transporting, or removing Leasing Act minerals. See 30 USC 530
  • license: means that instrument of authorization required by this chapter or the rules and regulations of the Commission made pursuant to this chapter, for the use or operation of apparatus for transmission of energy, or communications, or signals by radio, by whatever name the instrument may be designated by the Commission. See 47 USC 153
  • lignite: shall mean coal classified as ASTM designation: D 388-38, according to the standards established in the American Society for Testing Materials on Coal and Coke under standard specifications for Classification of Coals by Rank, contained in public-land deposits considered as valuable under the coal-land classification standards established by the Secretary of the Interior and prescribed in section 30, Code of Federal Regulations, part 201. See 30 USC 541e
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • mineral leasing laws: shall mean the Act of February 25, 1920 (41 Stat. See 30 USC 530
  • mineral leasing laws: shall mean the Act of October 20, 1914 (38 Stat. See 30 USC 541e
  • mining operations: shall mean operations under any unpatented or patented mining claim or millsite in or incidental to prospecting for, mining, treating, storing, transporting, or removing minerals other than Leasing Act minerals and any other use under any claim of right or title based upon such mining claim or millsite. See 30 USC 530
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • National Fish and Wildlife Foundation: means the charitable and nonprofit corporation established under section 3701 of this title. See 16 USC 3743
  • nonconsumptive activities: means fish and wildlife associated activities other than harvesting of fish and wildlife and includes, but is not limited to, photographing, observing, learning about, or associating with, fish and wildlife. See 16 USC 3743
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • order: means a sheep and wool promotion, research, education, and information order issued under section 7103 of this title. See 7 USC 7102
  • Organization: means the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization established under the Convention. See 16 USC 3601
  • Outcrop: means any place where a formation is visible or substantially exposed at the surface. See 30 USC 552
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • own: means to own an equity interest (or the equivalent thereof) of more than 10 percent. See 47 USC 153
  • Panel: means any of the Panels established by the Treaty. See 16 USC 3631
  • person: means any individual (whether or not a citizen or national of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity (whether or not organized or existing under the laws of any State). See 16 USC 3631
  • Person: means an individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, legal representative, or any organized group of persons. See 30 USC 552
  • Person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations, as well as individuals. See 7 USC 511
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 589
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 599
  • person: includes an individual, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust, or corporation. See 47 USC 153
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See 7 USC 7102
  • Petrified wood: as used in this subchapter and sections 601 and 603 of this title means agatized, opalized, petrified, or silicified wood, or any material formed by the replacement of wood by silica or other matter. See 30 USC 611
  • plums: means both European and Japanese type, whether or not they have been in storage, but does not mean Italian-type prunes, nor damson-type plums. See 7 USC 599
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • producer: means any person, other than a feeder, who owns or acquires ownership of sheep. See 7 USC 7102
  • producer information: means activities designed to provide producers, feeders, and importers with information relating to production or marketing efficiencies or developments, program activities, or other information that would facilitate an increase in the consumption of sheep or sheep products. See 7 USC 7102
  • promotion: means any action (including paid advertising) to advance the image and desirability of sheep or sheep products to improve the competitive position, and stimulate sales, of sheep products in the domestic and international marketplace. See 7 USC 7102
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • pulled wool: means wool that is pulled from the skin of a slaughtered sheep. See 7 USC 7102
  • qualified State sheep board: means a sheep and wool promotion entity that--

    (A) is authorized by State statute or is otherwise organized and operating within a State. See 7 USC 7102

  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • raw wool: means greasy wool, pulled wool, degreased wool, or carbonized wool. See 7 USC 7102
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means development projects and studies relating to the production (including the feeding of sheep), processing, distribution, or use of sheep or sheep products to encourage, expand, improve, or make more efficient the marketing of sheep or sheep products. See 7 USC 7102
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • salmon: means all species of salmon which migrate in or into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean north of 36 degrees north latitude. See 16 USC 3601
  • salmon: means any anadromous species of the family Salmonidae and genus Oncorhynchus, commonly known as Pacific salmon, including but not limited to:

    Popular namesScientific name
    Chinook or King Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
    Coho or Silver Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch
    Pink or Humpback Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
    Chum or Dog Salmon Oncorhynchus keta
    Sockeye or Red Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    and shall also include Steelhead (Salmo gairdneri). See 16 USC 3631

  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 7102
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 3103
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior except that it means the Secretary of Agriculture where the lands involved are administered by him for national forest purposes or for the purposes of title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act [7 U. See 30 USC 601
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 16 USC 2902
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 16 USC 3631
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. See 16 USC 3743
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 511
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 599
  • Secretary of Agriculture: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 589
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • sheep: means ovine animals of any age, including lambs. See 7 USC 7102
  • sheep products: means products produced, in whole or in part, from sheep, including wool and products containing wool fiber. See 7 USC 7102
  • source material: shall mean uranium, thorium, or any other material which is determined by the Atomic Energy Commission pursuant to the provisions of section 2091 of title 42 to be source material. See 30 USC 541e
  • State: means each of the 50 States. See 7 USC 7102
  • State: means --

    (A) a State. See 7 USC 3103

  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 16 USC 2902
  • State: means any of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, or American Samoa. See 16 USC 3743
  • State: means any State or Territory of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof. See 30 USC 552
  • State: includes Territory, the District of Columbia, possession of the United States, and foreign nations. See 7 USC 511
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the Territories and possessions. See 47 USC 153
  • station: means a station equipped to engage in radio communication or radio transmission of energy. See 47 USC 153
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Tobacco: means tobacco in its unmanufactured form. See 7 USC 511
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Treaty: means the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada Concerning Pacific Salmon, signed at Ottawa, January 28, 1985. See 16 USC 3631
  • treaty Indian tribe: means any of the federally recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia River basin, Washington coast or Puget Sound areas having reserved fishing rights to salmon stocks subject to the Treaty under treaties with the United States Government. See 16 USC 3631
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • unit: means each State, group of States, or class designation that is represented on the Board. See 7 USC 7102
  • United States: means the 50 States and the District of Columbia. See 7 USC 7102
  • United States: means the several States and Territories, the District of Columbia, and the possessions of the United States, but does not include the Canal Zone. See 47 USC 153
  • United States Section: means the four United States Commissioners appointed by the President pursuant to this chapter. See 16 USC 3631
  • university: include a research foundation maintained by a college or university described in subparagraph (A). See 7 USC 3103
  • uranium lease: shall mean a uranium mining lease issued by said Commission with respect to any such lands. See 30 USC 530
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • wildlife conservation and appreciation project: means a project which is directed toward nonconsumptive activities or toward the conservation of those species of fish and wildlife that--

    (A) are not ordinarily taken for recreation, fur, or food. See 16 USC 3743

  • wool: means the fiber from the fleece of a sheep. See 7 USC 7102