Part A National Institutes of Health
Part B General Provisions Respecting National Research Institutes
Part C Specific Provisions Respecting National Research Institutes
Part D National Library of Medicine
Part E Other Agencies of Nih
Part F Research On Women’s Health
Part G Awards and Training
Part H General Provisions
Part I Foundation for the National Institutes of Health

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 42 > Chapter 6A > Subchapter III

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Advisory Committee: means the Advisory Committee established under section 7704(a)(5) of this title. See 42 USC 7703
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • appropriate committees of Congress: includes the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arctic: means all United States and foreign territory north of the Arctic Circle and all United States territory north and west of the boundary formed by the Porcupine, Yukon, and Kuskokwim Rivers. See 15 USC 4111
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of the Census. See 13 USC 1
  • Centers: means the Cooperative Research Centers established under section 3705 or 3707 of this title. See 15 USC 3703
  • Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies. See 22 USC 262r
  • Chairperson: means the Chairperson of the Council. See 12 USC 5311
  • Clearinghouse: means the Clearinghouse for State and Local Initiatives on Productivity, Technology, and Innovation established by section 3704a of this title. See 15 USC 3703
  • clinical research: means patient oriented clinical research conducted with human subjects, or research on the causes and consequences of disease in human populations involving material of human origin (such as tissue specimens and cognitive phenomena) for which an investigator or colleague directly interacts with human subjects in an outpatient or inpatient setting to clarify a problem in human physiology, pathophysiology or disease, or epidemiologic or behavioral studies, outcomes research or health services research, or developing new technologies, therapeutic interventions, or clinical trials. See 42 USC 284d
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established pursuant to Reorganization Plan Numbered 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. See 22 USC 1641
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established, pursuant to Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. See 22 USC 1642
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Community Reinvestment Act: The Act is intended to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. It was enacted by the Congress in 1977. Source: OCC
  • community resilience: means the ability of a community to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse seismic events. See 42 USC 7703
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of State. See 22 USC 1433
  • Department: means the Department of Energy or any component thereof, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. See 42 USC 7101
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Discretionary spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays)controlled in annual appropriations acts.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • domestic company: means a company which is substantially involved in the United States domestic production, processing, or use of steel, aluminum, copper, or other metals and has a substantial percentage of its operations located within the United States. See 15 USC 5102
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equal Credit Opportunity Act: Prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or because an applicant receives income from a public assistance program. Source: OCC
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executive department: means any executive department, agency, or independent establishment of the United States or any corporation wholly owned by the United States. See 42 USC 201
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a set of United States statutes added as Title VIII of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Its purpose is to ensure ethical practices in the collection of consumer debts and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. It is often used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal agency: means any executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5 and the military departments as defined in section 102 of such title, as well as any agency of the legislative branch of the Federal Government. See 15 USC 3703
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal laboratory: means any laboratory, any federally funded research and development center, or any center established under section 3705 or 3707 of this title that is owned, leased, or otherwise used by a Federal agency and funded by the Federal Government, whether operated by the Government or by a contractor. See 15 USC 3703
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign nonbank financial company: means a company (other than a company that is, or is treated in the United States as, a bank holding company) that is--

    (i) incorporated or organized in a country other than the United States. See 12 USC 5311

  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Government agency: means any executive department, board, bureau, commission, or other agency of the Federal Government, or independent establishment, or any corporation wholly owned (either directly or through one or more corporations) by the United States. See 22 USC 1433
  • hazardous financial condition: means that, based on its present or reasonably anticipated financial condition, a risk retention group is unlikely to be able--

    (A) to meet obligations to policyholders with respect to known claims and reasonably anticipated claims. See 15 USC 3901

  • health services research: means research endeavors that study the impact of the organization, financing and management of health services on the quality, cost, access to and outcomes of care. See 42 USC 284d
  • incumbent domestic licensee: means a licensee as provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47 that was broadcasting a television signal as of January 1, 1989. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • insurance: means primary insurance, excess insurance, reinsurance, surplus lines insurance, and any other arrangement for shifting and distributing risk which is determined to be insurance under applicable State or Federal law. See 15 USC 3901
  • Interagency Coordinating Committee: means the Interagency Coordinating Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction established under section 7704(a) of this title. See 42 USC 7703
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international energy program: means the Agreement on an International Energy Program, signed by the United States on November 18, 1974, including (A) the annex entitled "Emergency Reserves" (B) any amendment to such Agreement which includes another nation as a party to such Agreement, and (C) any technical or clerical amendment to such Agreement. See 42 USC 6202
  • Invention: means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protected under title 35 or any novel variety of plant which is or may be protectable under the Plant Variety Protection Act (7 U. See 15 USC 3703
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • licensee: has the meaning provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • lifeline infrastructure: means public works and utilities, including transportation facilities and infrastructure, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power and communication facilities and infrastructure, and water supply and sewage treatment facilities. See 42 USC 7703
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Litvinov Assignment: means (A) the communication dated November 16, 1933, from Maxim Litvinov to President Franklin D. See 22 USC 1641
  • Made: when used in conjunction with any invention means the conception or first actual reduction to practice of such invention. See 15 USC 3703
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • medical library: means a library related to the sciences related to health. See 42 USC 286b-1
  • Memorandum of Understanding: means the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Italy regarding Italian assets in the United States and certain claims of nationals of the United States, signed at Washington, District of Columbia, August 14, 1947 (61 Stat. See 22 USC 1641
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • nonbank financial company: means a U. See 12 USC 5311
  • Nonprofit institution: means an organization owned and operated exclusively for scientific or educational purposes, no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual. See 15 USC 3703
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means a natural person, partnership, association, other unincorporated body, corporation, or body politic. See 22 USC 1631
  • Person: means a natural person, partnership, association, other unincorporated body, corporation, or body politic. See 22 USC 1641
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • personal risk liability: means liability for damages because of injury to any person, damage to property, or other loss or damage resulting from any personal, familial, or household responsibilities or activities, rather than from responsibilities or activities referred to in paragraphs (2)(A) and (2)(B). See 15 USC 3901
  • petroleum: includes crude oil, gases (including natural gas), natural gasoline, and other related hydrocarbons, oil shale, and the products of any of such resources. See 42 USC 6501
  • petroleum product: means crude oil, residual fuel oil, or any refined petroleum product (including any natural liquid and any natural gas liquid product). See 42 USC 6202
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Program: means the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program established under section 7704 of this title. See 42 USC 7703
  • Program agencies: means the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the United States Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. See 42 USC 7703
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 22 USC 1631
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 22 USC 1641
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 22 USC 1642
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • purchasing group: means any group which--

    (A) has as one of its purposes the purchase of liability insurance on a group basis. See 15 USC 3901

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research plan: means the Steel Initiative Research Plan issued in April 1988 by the Department of Energy, and updates to that plan. See 15 USC 5102
  • respondent: includes a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, proprietorship, society, joint stock company, individual, or other organization or entity which reported information, or on behalf of which information was reported, in response to a questionnaire, inquiry, or other request of the Bureau. See 13 USC 1
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • risk retention group: means any corporation or other limited liability association--

    (A) whose primary activity consists of assuming, and spreading all, or any portion, of the liability exposure of its group members. See 15 USC 3901

  • Russian national: includes any corporation or business association organized under the laws, decrees, ordinances, or acts of the former Empire of Russia or of any government successor thereto, and subsequently nationalized or dissolved or whose assets were taken over by the Soviet Government or which was merged with any other corporation or organization by the Soviet Government. See 22 USC 1641
  • sciences related to health: includes medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, and public health, and fundamental and applied sciences when related thereto. See 42 USC 286b-1
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 42 USC 6202
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of State. See 22 USC 1433
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 15 USC 3703
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 15 USC 5102
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 42 USC 201
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 13 USC 1
  • Service: means the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Soviet Government: means the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including any of its present or former constituent republics, other political subdivisions, and any territories thereof, as constituted on or prior to November 16, 1933. See 22 USC 1641
  • State: means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 42 USC 6202
  • State: means each of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See 42 USC 7703
  • State: means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia. See 15 USC 3901
  • State: includes , in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
  • temporary: shall be construed to mean not in excess of one year, or not in excess of the specific period during which appropriations are available for the conduct of a particular census, whichever is longer. See 13 USC 24
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Training technology: means computer software and related materials which are developed by a Federal agency to train employees of such agency, including but not limited to software for computer-based instructional systems and for interactive video disc systems. See 15 USC 3703
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
  • United States: when used in the geographical sense means all of the States and the Outer Continental Shelf. See 42 USC 6202
  • United States: means , when used in a geographical sense, all of the States as defined in paragraph (4). See 42 USC 7703
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, exclusive of aircraft and amphibious contrivances. See 42 USC 201
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1