Part A National Institutes of Health
Part B General Provisions Respecting National Research Institutes
Part C Specific Provisions Respecting National Research Institutes
Part D National Library of Medicine
Part E Other Agencies of Nih
Part F Research On Women’s Health
Part G Awards and Training
Part H General Provisions
Part I Foundation for the National Institutes of Health

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 42 > Chapter 6A > Subchapter III - National Research Institutes

  • accredited investor: shall mean --

    (i) a bank as defined in section 77c(a)(2) of this title whether acting in its individual or fiduciary capacity. See 15 USC 77b

  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See 42 USC 9102
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • affixed: means attached to the textile fiber product in any manner. See 15 USC 70
  • agency contract: means an oral or written agreement in which a student athlete authorizes a person to negotiate or solicit on behalf of the student athlete a professional sports contract or an endorsement contract. See 15 USC 7801
  • agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba: means an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section 1603(b) of title 28, with each reference in such section to "a foreign state" deemed to be a reference to "Cuba". See 22 USC 2295b
  • agricultural commodity: means any agricultural commodity, food, feed, fiber, or livestock (including livestock as it is defined in section 1471(2) of this title and insects), and any product thereof. See 7 USC 5602
  • agricultural property: as used in this subchapter means lands which are in regular use for agricultural, ranching, or dairying purposes as of January 1, 1978, together with residential and other structures related to the above uses of the property as such structures exist on said date. See 16 USC 460bb-2
  • Agriculture: includes aquaculture and fisheries. See 22 USC 2403
  • alcohol: means alcohol (including methanol and ethanol) which is produced from biomass and which is suitable for use by itself or in combination with other substances as a fuel or as a substitute for petroleum or petrochemical feedstocks. See 42 USC 8802
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • application: means any application submitted under this chapter (A) for issuance of a license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship. See 42 USC 9102
  • application for restructuring: means a written request--

    (A) from a borrower for the restructuring of a distressed loan in accordance with a preliminary restructuring plan proposed by the borrower as a part of the application. See 12 USC 2202a

  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate congressional committees: means the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate. See 22 USC 2295b
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Asset forfeiture: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • athlete agent: means an individual who enters into an agency contract with a student athlete, or directly or indirectly recruits or solicits a student athlete to enter into an agency contract, and does not include a spouse, parent, sibling, grandparent, or guardian of such student athlete, any legal counsel for purposes other than that of representative agency, or an individual acting solely on behalf of a professional sports team or professional sports organization. See 15 USC 7801
  • athletic director: means an individual responsible for administering the athletic program of an educational institution or, in the case that such program is administered separately, the athletic program for male students or the athletic program for female students, as appropriate. See 15 USC 7801
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • biomass: means any organic matter which is available on a renewable basis, including agricultural crops and agricultural wastes and residues, wood and wood wastes and residues, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and aquatic plants. See 42 USC 8802
  • biomass energy: means --

    (A) biomass fuel. See 42 USC 8802

  • biomass energy project: means any facility (or portion of a facility) located in the United States which is primarily for--

    (A) the production of biomass fuel (and byproducts). See 42 USC 8802

  • biomass fuel: means any gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel produced by conversion of biomass. See 42 USC 8802
  • Board: means the Board of Trustees of the James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation. See 20 USC 4514
  • Board of Directors: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation. See 12 USC 2277a
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies. See 22 USC 262r
  • Claims Fund: means the special fund established in the Treasury of the United States composed of such sums as may be paid to or realized by the United States pursuant to the terms of any agreement settling those claims described in section 1645b of this title that may be entered into between the Governments of the United States and Vietnam. See 22 USC 1645a
  • clinical research: means patient oriented clinical research conducted with human subjects, or research on the causes and consequences of disease in human populations involving material of human origin (such as tissue specimens and cognitive phenomena) for which an investigator or colleague directly interacts with human subjects in an outpatient or inpatient setting to clarify a problem in human physiology, pathophysiology or disease, or epidemiologic or behavioral studies, outcomes research or health services research, or developing new technologies, therapeutic interventions, or clinical trials. See 42 USC 284d
  • coastal State: means a State in, or bordering on, the Atlantic, Pacific, or Arctic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Long Island Sound, or one or more of the Great Lakes. See 42 USC 9102
  • commerce: means commerce among the several States or with foreign nations, or in any Territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia, or between any such Territory and another, or between any such Territory and any State or foreign nation, or between the District of Columbia and any State or Territory or foreign nation. See 15 USC 68
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 15 USC 69
  • commerce: means commerce among the several States or with foreign nations, or in any Territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia, or between any such Territory and another, or between any such Territory and any State or foreign nation or between the District of Columbia and any State or Territory or foreign nation. See 15 USC 70
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States, established, pursuant to Reorganization Plan Number 1 of 1954 (68 Stat. See 22 USC 1642
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States. See 22 USC 1644a
  • Commission: means the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States. See 22 USC 1645a
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See 15 USC 7801
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See 15 USC 68
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See 15 USC 69
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See 15 USC 70
  • Commission: means the Securities and Exchange Commission. See 15 USC 77b
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
  • construction: means --

    (i) the construction or acquisition of any biomass energy project. See 42 USC 8802

  • construction: means any activities conducted at sea to supervise, inspect, actually build, or perform other functions incidental to the building, repairing, or expanding of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any of its components, including but not limited to, piledriving, emplacement of mooring devices, emplacement of cables and pipelines, and deployment of the cold water pipe, and alterations, modifications, or additions to an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship. See 42 USC 9102
  • contact lens fitting: means the process that begins after the initial eye examination and ends when a successful fit has been achieved or, in the case of a renewal prescription, ends when the prescriber determines that no change in prescription is required, and such term may include--

    (A) an examination to determine lens specifications. See 15 USC 7610

  • contact lens prescription: means a prescription, issued in accordance with State and Federal law, that contains sufficient information for the complete and accurate filling of a prescription, including the following:

    (A) Name of the patient. See 15 USC 7610

  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative: means any agricultural association, as that term is defined in section 1141j(a) of title 12. See 42 USC 8802
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Corporation: means the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation established in section 2277a-1 of this title. See 12 USC 2277a
  • cost of foreclosure: includes --

    (A) the difference between the outstanding balance due on a loan made by a qualified lender and the liquidation value of the loan, taking into consideration the borrower's repayment capacity and the liquidation value of the collateral used to secure the loan. See 12 USC 2202a

  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Cuban Government: includes the government of any political subdivision of Cuba, and any agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba. See 22 USC 2295b
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • dealer: means any person who engages either for all or part of his time, directly or indirectly, as agent, broker, or principal, in the business of offering, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing or trading in securities issued by another person. See 15 USC 77b
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • distressed loan: means a loan that the borrower does not have the financial capacity to pay according to its terms and that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics:

    (A) The borrower is demonstrating adverse financial and repayment trends. See 12 USC 2202a

  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • emerging growth company: means an issuer that had total annual gross revenues of less than $1,000,000,000 (as such amount is indexed for inflation every 5 years by the Commission to reflect the change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, setting the threshold to the nearest 1,000,000) during its most recently completed fiscal year. See 15 USC 77b
  • endorsement contract: means an agreement under which a student athlete is employed or receives consideration for the use by the other party of that individual's person, name, image, or likeness in the promotion of any product, service, or event. See 15 USC 7801
  • energy product equivalent: means an energy carrier including, but not limited to, ammonia, hydrogen, or molten salts or an energy-intensive commodity, including, but not limited to, electrometals, fresh water, or nutrients for aquaculture. See 42 USC 9008
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executive department: means any executive department, agency, or independent establishment of the United States or any corporation wholly owned by the United States. See 42 USC 201
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • fabric: means any material woven, knitted, felted, or otherwise produced from, or in combination with, any natural or manufactured fiber, yarn, or substitute therefor. See 15 USC 70
  • facility: means an ocean thermal energy conversion facility. See 42 USC 9102
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Farmers: includes fishermen and other persons employed in cultivating and harvesting food resources from salt and fresh waters. See 22 USC 2403
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Federal Trade Commission Act: means the Act of Congress entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission, to define its powers and duties, and for other purposes" approved September 26, 1914, as amended, and the Federal Trade Commission Act approved March 21, 1938. See 15 USC 68
  • Federal Trade Commission Act: means the Act entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission, to define its powers and duties, and for other purposes" approved September 26, 1914, as amended [15 U. See 15 USC 69
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • financial assistance: means any of the following forms of financial assistance provided under this chapter, or any combination of such forms:

    (i) loans,

    (ii) loan guarantees,

    (iii) price guarantees, and

    (iv) purchase agreements. See 42 USC 8802

  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreclosure proceeding: means --

    (A) a foreclosure or similar legal proceeding to enforce a lien on property, whether real or personal, that secures a nonaccrual or distressed loan. See 12 USC 2202a

  • Foundation: means the James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation. See 20 USC 4514
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Function: includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, discretion, or activity. See 22 USC 2403
  • fur: means any animal skin or part thereof with hair, fleece, or fur fibers attached thereto, either in its raw or processed state, but shall not include such skins as are to be converted into leather or which in processing shall have the hair, fleece, or fur fiber completely removed. See 15 USC 69
  • fur product: means any article of wearing apparel made in whole or in part of fur or used fur. See 15 USC 69
  • Fur Products Name Guide: means the register issued by the Commission pursuant to section 69e of this title. See 15 USC 69
  • German Democratic Republic: includes the government of any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or under its control. See 22 USC 1644a
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Governor: means the Governor of a State or the person designated by law to exercise the powers granted to the Governor pursuant to this chapter. See 42 USC 9102
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • group: include any committee, subgroup, or representative of such entities. See 15 USC 77s
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • high seas: means that part of the oceans lying seaward of the territorial sea of the United States and outside the territorial sea, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation. See 42 USC 9102
  • household textile articles: means articles of wearing apparel, costumes and accessories, draperies, floor coverings, furnishings, beddings, and other textile goods of a type customarily used in a household regardless of where used in fact. See 15 USC 70
  • improved property: means a detached, one-family dwelling, construction of which--

    (1) was begun before December 31, 1964, or

    (2) for the purposes of section 460x-9(b) or (d) of this title, was begun on or after December 31, 1964, and before October 21, 1970, and has been openly and continuously used, at least during the summer months of each year when similar dwellings in the area are used, as a residential dwelling since such construction was completed, and with respect to the portion of such period after any acquisition of such property by the United States, by the owner, or a member of the immediate family of the owner, of such dwelling on the date of such acquisition,


    together with so much of the land on which the dwelling is situated, such land being in the same ownership as the dwelling, as the Secretary shall designate to be reasonably necessary for the enjoyment of the dwelling for the sole purpose of noncommercial residential use, together with any structures accessory to the dwelling which are situated on the lands so designated. See 16 USC 460x-10

  • improved residential property: means a single-family year-round dwelling, the construction of which began before March 1, 1975, and which serves as the owner's permanent place of abode at the time of its acquisition by the United States, together with not more than three acres of land on which the dwelling and appurtenant buildings are located that the Secretary finds is reasonably necessary for the owner's continued use and occupancy of the dwelling: Provided, That the Secretary may exclude from improved residential property any waters and adjoining land that the Secretary deems is necessary for public access to such waters. See 16 USC 460hh-1
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indian tribe: means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U. See 42 USC 8802
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • institution-affiliated party: means --

    (A) a director, officer, employee, shareholder, or agent of a System institution. See 12 USC 2271

  • insurance company: means a company which is organized as an insurance company, whose primary and predominant business activity is the writing of insurance or the reinsuring of risks underwritten by insurance companies, and which is subject to supervision by the insurance commissioner, or a similar official or agency, of a State or territory or the District of Columbia. See 15 USC 77b
  • insured obligation: means any note, bond, debenture, or other obligation issued under subsection (c) or (d) of section 2153 of this title--

    (A) on or before January 5, 1989, on behalf of any System bank. See 12 USC 2277a

  • insured System bank: means any System bank whose participation in notes, bonds, debentures, and other obligations issued under subsection (c) or (d) of section 2153 of this title is insured under this part. See 12 USC 2277a
  • intercollegiate sport: means a sport played at the collegiate level for which eligibility requirements for participation by a student athlete are established by a national association for the promotion or regulation of college athletics. See 15 USC 7801
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international financial institutions: means the International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, African Development Bank, African Development Fund, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank 2 Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,,3 and Inter-American Investment Corporation. See 22 USC 262r
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • interstate commerce: means trade or commerce in securities or any transportation or communication relating thereto among the several States or between the District of Columbia or any Territory of the United States and any State or other Territory, or between any foreign country and any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, or within the District of Columbia. See 15 USC 77b
  • invoice: means a written account, memorandum, list, or catalog, which is issued in connection with any commercial dealing in fur products or furs, and describes the particulars of any fur products or furs, transported or delivered to a purchaser, consignee, factor, bailee, correspondent, or agent, or any other person who is engaged in dealing commercially in fur products or furs. See 15 USC 69
  • issuer: means every person who issues or proposes to issue any security. See 15 USC 77b
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • loan: means a loan made to a farmer, rancher, or producer or harvester of aquatic products, for any agricultural or aquatic purpose and other credit needs of the borrower, including financing for basic processing and marketing directly related to the borrower's operations and those of other eligible farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products. See 12 USC 2202a
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • manufactured fiber: means any fiber derived by a process of manufacture from any substance which, at any point in the manufacturing process, is not a fiber. See 15 USC 70
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
  • medical library: means a library related to the sciences related to health. See 42 USC 286b-1
  • member of the immediate family: means spouse, brother, sister, or child, including persons bearing such relationships through adoption, and step-child. See 16 USC 460x-9
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • multilateral development banks: means the multilateral development institutions other than the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. See 22 USC 262r
  • municipal waste: means any organic matter, including sewage, sewage sludge, and industrial or commercial waste, and mixtures of such matter and inorganic refuse--

    (i) from any publicly or privately operated municipal waste collection or similar disposal system, or

    (ii) from similar waste flows (other than such flows which constitute agricultural wastes or residues, or wood wastes or residues from wood harvesting activities or production of forest products). See 42 USC 8802

  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • national of the United States: means --

    (a) a natural person who is a citizen of the United States. See 22 USC 1644a

  • nonmarket based trade: includes exports, imports, exchanges, or other arrangements that are provided for goods and services (including oil and other petroleum products) on terms more favorable than those generally available in applicable markets or for comparable commodities, including--

    (A) exports to the Cuban Government on terms that involve a grant, concessional price, guaranty, insurance, or subsidy. See 22 USC 2295b

  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • ocean thermal energy conversion: means a method of converting part of the heat from the Sun which is stored in the surface layers of a body of water into electrical energy or energy product equivalent. See 42 USC 9008
  • ocean thermal energy conversion facility: means any facility which is standing, fixed or moored in whole or in part seaward of the highwater mark and which is designed to use temperature differences in ocean water to produce electricity or another form of energy capable of being used directly to perform work, and includes any equipment installed on such facility to use such electricity or other form of energy to produce, process, refine, or manufacture a product, and any cable or pipeline used to deliver such electricity, fresh water, or product to shore, and all other associated equipment and appurtenances of such facility, to the extent they are located seaward of the highwater mark. See 42 USC 9102
  • ocean thermal energy conversion plantship: means any vessel which is designed to use temperature differences in ocean water while floating unmoored or moving through such water, to produce electricity or another form of energy capable of being used directly to perform work, and includes any equipment installed on such vessel to use such electricity or other form of energy to produce, process, refine, or manufacture a product, and any equipment used to transfer such product to other vessels for transportation to users, and all other associated equipment and appurtenances of such vessel. See 42 USC 9102
  • offer: shall include every attempt or offer to dispose of, or solicitation of an offer to buy, a security or interest in a security, for value. See 15 USC 77b
  • Office of Alcohol Fuels: means the Office of Alcohol Fuels established under section 8820 of this title. See 42 USC 8802
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • Officer or employee: means civilian personnel and members of the Armed Forces of the United States Government. See 22 USC 2403
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or any other form of business enterprise, plural or singular, as the case demands. See 15 USC 68
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, business trust, or any organized group of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 69
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association or any other form of business enterprise. See 15 USC 70
  • person: includes partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 15 USC 71
  • person: means an individual, a corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint-stock company, a trust, any unincorporated organization, or a government or political subdivision thereof. See 15 USC 77b
  • person: means any individual (whether or not a citizen of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity organized or existing under the laws of any nation, and any Federal, State, local or foreign government or any entity of any such government. See 42 USC 9102
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • plantship: means an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship. See 42 USC 9102
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • prescriber: means , with respect to contact lens prescriptions, an ophthalmologist, optometrist, or other person permitted under State law to issue prescriptions for contact lenses in compliance with any applicable requirements established by the Food and Drug Administration. See 15 USC 7610
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Property: means any property, right, or interest. See 22 USC 1642
  • property: means any property, right, or interest, including any leasehold interest, and debts owed by enterprises which have been nationalized, expropriated, or taken by the German Democratic Republic for which no restoration or no adequate compensation has been made to the former owners of such property. See 22 USC 1644a
  • property: means --

    (A) any property, right, or interest, including any leasehold interest,

    (B) any debt owed by Vietnam or by any enterprise which has been nationalized, expropriated, or otherwise taken by Vietnam, and

    (C) any debt which is a charge on property which has been nationalized, expropriated, or otherwise taken by Vietnam. See 22 USC 1645a

  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • prospectus: means any prospectus, notice, circular, advertisement, letter, or communication, written or by radio or television, which offers any security for sale or confirms the sale of any security. See 15 USC 77b
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • qualified lender: means --

    (A) a System institution that makes loans (as defined in paragraph (5)) except a bank for cooperatives. See 12 USC 2202a

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • recycled wool: means (1) the resulting fiber when wool has been woven or felted into a wool product which, without ever having been utilized in any way by the ultimate consumer, subsequently has been made into a fibrous state, or (2) the resulting fiber when wool or reprocessed wool has been spun, woven, knitted, or felted into a wool product which, after having been used in any way by the ultimate consumer, subsequently has been made into a fibrous state. See 15 USC 68
  • registration statement: means the statement provided for in section 77f of this title, and includes any amendment thereto and any report, document, or memorandum filed as part of such statement or incorporated therein by reference. See 15 USC 77b
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research report: means a written, electronic, or oral communication that includes information, opinions, or recommendations with respect to securities of an issuer or an analysis of a security or an issuer, whether or not it provides information reasonably sufficient upon which to base an investment decision. See 15 USC 77b
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • restructuring: include rescheduling, reamortization, renewal, deferral of principal or interest, monetary concessions, and the taking of any other action to modify the terms of, or forbear on, a loan in any way that will make it probable that the operations of the borrower will become financially viable. See 12 USC 2202a
  • Right of rescission: Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Source: OCC
  • sciences related to health: includes medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, and public health, and fundamental and applied sciences when related thereto. See 42 USC 286b-1
  • Secretaries: means the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting jointly. See 7 USC 5302
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 42 USC 201
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 5602
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 42 USC 9008
  • security: means any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, security-based swap, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate, preorganization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate, certificate of deposit for a security, fractional undivided interest in oil, gas, or other mineral rights, any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security, certificate of deposit, or group or index of securities (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof), or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currency, or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a "security" or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, guarantee of, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 77b
  • sell: shall include every contract of sale or disposition of a security or interest in a security, for value. See 15 USC 77b
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • separate account: means an account established and maintained by an insurance company pursuant to the laws of any State or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, or of Canada or any province thereof, under which income, gains and losses, whether or not realized, from assets allocated to such account, are, in accordance with the applicable contract, credited to or charged against such account without regard to other income, gains, or losses of the insurance company. See 15 USC 77b
  • Service: means the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • Service: means the Foreign Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 5602
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Services: include any service, repair, training of personnel, or technical or other assistance or information used for the purposes of furnishing nonmilitary assistance. See 22 USC 2403
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State: shall include the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See
  • State: includes , in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • State: includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See 15 USC 7801
  • State: means any of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, any Territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or the Virgin Islands. See 12 USC 2277a
  • State: means any of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 8802
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession over which the United States has jurisdiction. See 42 USC 9102
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • student athlete: means an individual who engages in, is eligible to engage in, or may be eligible in the future to engage in, any intercollegiate sport. See 15 USC 7801
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Territory: includes the insular possessions of the United States and also any Territory of the United States. See 15 USC 68
  • Territory: includes the insular possessions of the United States, and also any Territory of the United States. See 15 USC 70
  • Territory: means Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the insular possessions of the United States. See 15 USC 77b
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • textile fiber: means a unit of matter which is capable of being spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by bonding or by interlacing in a variety of methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, twisting, or webbing, and which is the basic structural element of textile products. See 15 USC 70
  • textile fiber product: means --

    (1) any fiber, whether in the finished or unfinished state, used or intended for use in household textile articles. See 15 USC 70

  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • trust: shall include only a trust where the interest or interests of the beneficiary or beneficiaries are evidenced by a security. See 15 USC 77b
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
  • ultimate consumer: means a person who obtains a textile fiber product by purchase or exchange with no intent to sell or exchange such textile fiber product in any form. See 15 USC 70
  • underwriter: means any person who has purchased from an issuer with a view to, or offers or sells for an issuer in connection with, the distribution of any security, or participates or has a direct or indirect participation in any such undertaking, or participates or has a participation in the direct or indirect underwriting of any such undertaking. See 15 USC 77b
  • unfair trade practice: means any act, policy, or practice of a foreign country that--

    (i) violates, or is inconsistent with, the provisions of, or otherwise denies benefits to the United States under, any trade agreement to which the United States is a party. See 7 USC 5602

  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • United States: means the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Territories and possessions of the United States. See 15 USC 69
  • United States: includes each of the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. See 7 USC 5602
  • United States citizen: means (A) any individual who is a citizen of the United States by law, birth, or naturalization. See 42 USC 9102
  • used fur: means fur in any form which has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer. See 15 USC 69
  • Value: means --

    (1) with respect to an excess defense article, the actual value of the article plus the gross cost incurred by the United States Government in repairing, rehabilitating, or modifying the article, except that for purposes of section 2392(d) of this title such actual value shall not be taken into account. See 22 USC 2403

  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, exclusive of aircraft and amphibious contrivances. See 42 USC 201
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Vietnam: means --

    (A) the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,

    (B) any predecessor governing authority operating in South Vietnam on or after April 29, 1975, including the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam,

    (C) the Government of the former Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and

    (D) any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality of any of the entities referred to in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C). See 22 USC 1645a

  • violation: includes without limitation any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation. See 12 USC 2271
  • waste fur: means the ears, throats, or scrap pieces which have been severed from the animal pelt, and shall include mats or plates made therefrom. See 15 USC 69
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
  • wool: means the fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of the Angora or Cashmere goat (and may include the so-called specialty fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna) which has never been reclaimed from any woven or felted wool product. See 15 USC 68
  • wool product: means any product, or any portion of a product, which contains, purports to contain, or in any way is represented as containing wool or recycled wool. See 15 USC 68
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1
  • written: shall include printed, lithographed, or any means of graphic communication. See 15 USC 77b
  • yarn: means a strand of textile fiber in a form suitable for weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, webbing, or otherwise fabricating into a fabric. See 15 USC 70