§ 1701 Definitions
Subchapter I Funding
Subchapter II Interagency Information Sharing
Subchapter III Visa Issuance
Subchapter IV Inspection and Admission of Aliens
Subchapter V Foreign Students and Exchange Visitors
Subchapter VI Miscellaneous Provisions

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 8 > Chapter 15

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • advocates: includes , but is not limited to, advises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and admits belief in. See
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • affiliate: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841(k) of this title. See
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agency: means the Federal Housing Finance Agency, established under section 4511 of this title. See
  • agency: has the meaning given that term in section 551(1) of title 5. See
  • agricultural commodity: includes , in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producer of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine and gum rosin, as defined in section 92 of title 7. See
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate Federal banking agency: means --

    (1) the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of--

    (A) any national banking association. See

  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bank: means a bank established under the authority of this chapter. See
  • bank holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board of Directors: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation. See
  • Board of Directors: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation. See
  • bridge depository institution: means a new national bank or Federal savings association organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(n) of this title. See
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • clerk of court: means a clerk of a naturalization court. See
  • community financial institution: means a member--

    (i) the deposits of which are insured under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U. See

  • Community Reinvestment Act: The Act is intended to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. It was enacted by the Congress in 1977. Source: OCC
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • control: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See
  • conventional mortgage: means a mortgage other than a mortgage as to which the Corporation has the benefit of any guaranty, insurance or other obligation by the United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities. See
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: means the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation created by this chapter. See
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See
  • Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
  • default: means , with respect to an insured depository institution, any adjudication or other official determination by any court of competent jurisdiction, the appropriate Federal banking agency, or other public authority pursuant to which a conservator, receiver, or other legal custodian is appointed for an insured depository institution or, in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, for such branch. See
  • deposit: means --

    (1) the unpaid balance of money or its equivalent received or held by a bank or savings association in the usual course of business and for which it has given or is obligated to give credit, either conditionally or unconditionally, to a commercial, checking, savings, time, or thrift account, or which is evidenced by its certificate of deposit, thrift certificate, investment certificate, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar name, or a check or draft drawn against a deposit account and certified by the bank or savings association, or a letter of credit or a traveler's check on which the bank or savings association is primarily liable: Provided, That, without limiting the generality of the term "money or its equivalent" any such account or instrument must be regarded as evidencing the receipt of the equivalent of money when credited or issued in exchange for checks or drafts or for a promissory note upon which the person obtaining any such credit or instrument is primarily or secondarily liable, or for a charge against a deposit account, or in settlement of checks, drafts, or other instruments forwarded to such bank or savings association for collection. See

  • Deposit Insurance Fund: means the Deposit Insurance Fund established under section 1821(a)(4) of this title. See
  • depository institution: means any bank or savings association. See
  • depository institution holding company: means a bank holding company or a savings and loan holding company. See
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Director: means the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. See
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • employee: means any individual who is an officer, employee, partner, director, or proprietor of a person or entity, but does not include--

    (A) independent contractors. See

  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal banking agency: means the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. See
  • Federal branch: has the meaning given to such term by section 1(b)(6) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See
  • Federal depository institution: means any national bank, any Federal savings association, and any Federal branch. See
  • Federal Home Loan Bank System: means the Federal Home Loan Banks under the supervision of the Director. See
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Federal savings association: means any Federal savings association or Federal savings bank which is chartered under section 1464 of this title. See
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • foreign bank: has the meaning given to such term by section 1(b)(7) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • home mortgage: means a mortgage upon real estate, in fee simple, or on a leasehold (1) under a lease for not less than ninety-nine years which is renewable or (2) under a lease having a period of not less than fifty years to run from the date the mortgage was executed, upon which is located, or which comprises or includes, one or more homes or other dwelling units, all of which may be defined by the Director and shall include, in addition to first mortgages, such classes of first liens as are commonly given to secure advances on real estate by institutions authorized under this chapter to become members, under the laws of the State in which the real estate is located, together with the credit instruments, if any, secured thereby. See
  • immigration judge: means an attorney whom the Attorney General appoints as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review, qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title. See
  • in danger of default: means an insured depository institution with respect to which (or in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, with respect to such insured branch) the appropriate Federal banking agency or State chartering authority has advised the Corporation (or, if the appropriate Federal banking agency is the Corporation, the Corporation has determined) that--

    (A) in the opinion of such agency or authority--

    (i) the depository institution or insured branch is not likely to be able to meet the demands of the institution's or branch's depositors or pay the institution's or branch's obligations in the normal course of business. See

  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • ineligible to citizenship: when used in reference to any individual, means, notwithstanding the provisions of any treaty relating to military service, an individual who is, or was at any time permanently debarred from becoming a citizen of the United States under section 3(a) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended (54 Stat. See
  • institution-affiliated party: means --

    (1) any director, officer, employee, or controlling stockholder (other than a bank holding company or savings and loan holding company) of, or agent for, an insured depository institution. See

  • insured bank: means any bank (including a foreign bank having an insured branch) the deposits of which are insured in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. See
  • insured branch: means any branch (as defined in section 1(b)(3) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See
  • insured deposit: means the net amount due to any depositor for deposits in an insured depository institution as determined under sections 1817(i) and 1821(a) of this title. See
  • insured depository institution: means --

    (A) an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U. See

  • insured depository institution: includes any uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank or a commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank for purposes of section 1818 of this title. See
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • law: includes any law of the United States or of any State (including any rule of law or of equity). See
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • member: means any institution which has subscribed for the stock of a Federal Home Loan Bank. See
  • mortgage: includes such classes of liens as are commonly given or are legally effective to secure advances on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real estate under the laws of the State in which the real estate is located or a manufactured home that is personal property under the laws of the State in which the manufactured home is located together with the credit instruments, if any, secured thereby, and includes interests in mortgages. See
  • mortgage insurance program: includes , in the case of a residential mortgage secured by a manufactured home, any manufactured home lending program under title I of the National Housing Act [12 U. See
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • mother: include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother. See
  • mutual savings bank: means a bank without capital stock transacting a savings bank business, the net earnings of which inure wholly to the benefit of its depositors after payment of obligations for any advances by its organizers. See
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Bank Examiner: An employee of the Comptroller of the Currency whose function is to examine national banks periodically to determine the financial position of a bank and the security of its deposits. The examiner also verifies that the bank maintains procedures consistent with federal banking laws and regulations. Source: OCC
  • national member bank: means any national bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See
  • new depository institution: means a new national bank or Federal savings association, other than a bridge depository institution, organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(m) of this title. See
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • organization: means any corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity. See
  • organization: means a person or entity other than an individual. See
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • outlying possessions of the United States: means American Samoa and Swains Island. See
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • prescribe: means to prescribe by regulations or otherwise. See
  • Pretrial conference: A meeting of the judge and lawyers to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review evidence and witnesses, to set a timetable, and to discuss the settlement of the case.
  • property: includes any property, whether real, personal, mixed, or otherwise, including without limitation on the generality of the foregoing choses in action and mortgages, and includes any interest in any of the foregoing. See
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • receiver: includes a receiver, liquidating agent, conservator, commission, person, or other agency charged by law with the duty of winding up the affairs of a bank or savings association or of a branch of a foreign bank. See
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • reserve ratio: when used with regard to the Deposit Insurance Fund other than in connection with a reference to the designated reserve ratio, means the ratio of the net worth of the Deposit Insurance Fund to the value of the aggregate estimated insured deposits, or such comparable percentage of the assessment base set forth in section 1817(b)(2)(C) 2 of this title. See
  • residential mortgage: is a lso deemed to include a secured loan or advance of credit the proceeds of which are intended to finance the rehabilitation, renovation, modernization, refurbishment, or improvement of properties as to which the Corporation may purchase a "residential mortgage" as defined under the first sentence of this subsection. See
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • savings and loan holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1467a of this title. See
  • savings association: has the meaning given to such term in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U. See
  • savings association: means --

    (A) any Federal savings association. See

  • savings bank: means a bank (including a mutual savings bank) which transacts its ordinary banking business strictly as a savings bank under State laws imposing special requirements on such banks governing the manner of investing their funds and of conducting their business. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See
  • security: has the meaning ascribed to it by section 77b of title 15. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. See
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See
  • State bank: means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, industrial bank (or similar depository institution which the Board of Directors finds to be operating substantially in the same manner as an industrial bank), or other banking institution which--

    (A) is engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than trust funds (as defined in this section). See

  • State bank supervisor: means any officer, agency, or other entity of any State which has primary regulatory authority over State banks or State savings associations in such State. See
  • State depository institution: means any State bank, any State savings association, and any insured branch which is not a Federal branch. See
  • State member bank: means any State bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See
  • State nonmember bank: means any State bank which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. See
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplemental appropriation: Budget authority provided in an appropriations act in addition to regular or continuing appropriations already provided. Supplemental appropriations generally are made to cover emergencies, such as disaster relief, or other needs deemed too urgent to be postponed until the enactment of next year's regular appropriations act.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • totalitarian party: means an organization which advocates the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship or totalitarianism. See
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • transferred deposit: means a deposit in a new bank or other insured depository institution made available to a depositor by the Corporation as payment of the insured deposit of such depositor in a closed bank, and assumed by such new bank or other insured depository institution. See
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • trust funds: means funds held by an insured depository institution in a fiduciary capacity and includes, without being limited to, funds held as trustee, executor, administrator, guardian, or agent. See
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See
  • unpaid principal: when used in respect of a loan secured by a home mortgage means the principal thereof less the sum of (1) payments made on such principal, and (2) in cases where shares or stock are pledged as security for the loan, the payments made on such shares or stock plus earnings or dividends apportioned or credited thereon. See
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • VAWA self-petitioner: means an alien, or a child of the alien, who qualifies for relief under--

    (A) clause (iii), (iv), or (vii) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title. See

  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
  • violation: includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation. See
  • world communism: means a revolutionary movement, the purpose of which is to establish eventually a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in any or all the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist political movement. See