Article 1 General Provisions
Article 2 Additional Provisions Relating to Election of Directors

Terms Used In California Codes > Corporations Code > Title 1 > Division 2 > Part 2 > Chapter 5

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affinity: signifies the connection existing in consequence of marriage, between each of the married persons and the blood relatives of the other when applied to the marriage relation. See California Education Code 17389
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Alternative energy equipment: means alternative energy equipment, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 15814. See California Government Code 14710
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • assessed value: means 25 percent of full value to, and including, the 1980-81 fiscal year, and 100 percent of full value for the 1981-82 fiscal year and fiscal years thereafter. See California Education Code 19460.5
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • at-risk: means there is evidence of, or there are indications of, any of the following:

    California Government Code 14669.17

  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Authority: means the Capitol Area Development Authority created by the joint powers agreement executed pursuant to Section 8169. See California Government Code 14706
  • average daily attendance: means the average daily attendance used to compute a school district's second principal apportionment. See California Education Code 41860
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • book: signifies the recordation of an arrest in official police records, and the taking by the police of fingerprints and photographs of the person arrested, or any of these acts following an arrest. See California Education Code 1012
  • Capitol area: includes both of the following:

    California Government Code 14679.5

  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • center: means the Violent Crime Information Center. See California Government Code 14669.17
  • Central city: means that area of the City of Sacramento bounded on the north by the American River, on the west by the Sacramento River, and on the south and east by Interstate Highway 80. See California Government Code 14679.5
  • child: is a ny person under 18 years of age. See California Government Code 14669.17
  • City: includes "city and county" and "incorporated town" but does not include "unincorporated town" or "village. See California Education Code 19429
  • Cogeneration equipment: means equipment used for cogeneration, as defined in Section 216. See California Government Code 14710
  • Commission: means the California Transportation Commission. See California Government Code 14556.41
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contractor: means the department, division, or other unit of a person or organization responsible for the performance under the contract. See California Government Code 14856
  • Controlled substance: means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of Section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U. See California Government Code 14856
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Core area: means that area of the City of Sacramento within the area bounded by "G" Street on the north, "R" Street on the south, 5th Street on the west, and 17th Street on the east. See California Government Code 14679.5
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • county: includes "city and county". See California Education Code 1012
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Education Code 17491
  • Criminal justice agency: means the Department of Justice and any district attorney's office, sheriff's department, police department, or city attorney's office of this state. See California Government Code 14556.52
  • Currency: means United States currency or coin, the currency or coin of any foreign country, and any legal tender or coin defined as currency by Section 103. See California Government Code 14556.52
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of General Services. See California Government Code 14837
  • Department: means the Department of Transportation. See California Government Code 14556.41
  • Department: means the Department of Justice. See California Government Code 14556.52
  • Department: means the Department of General Services. See California Government Code 14679.5
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Director: means the Director of General Services. See California Government Code 14837
  • Director: means the Director of General Services. See California Government Code 14679.5
  • director: refer to the Department of General Services and the Director of General Services, respectively, unless the context otherwise requires. See California Government Code 20963
  • directors: means natural persons, designated in the articles or bylaws or elected by the incorporators, and their successors and natural persons designated, elected, or appointed by any other name or title to act as members of the governing body of the corporation. See California Government Code 31831.2
  • Disabled veteran business enterprise: means an enterprise that has been certified as meeting the qualifications established by paragraph (7) of subdivision (b) of Section 999 of the Military and Veterans Code. See California Government Code 14837
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Drug-free workplace: means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific grant or contract described in Article 2 (commencing with Section 8355) of an entity at which employees of the entity are prohibited from engaging in the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. See California Government Code 14856
  • Electronic transmission by the corporation: means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, for that recipient on record with the corporation, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network which the corporation has designated for those communications, together with a separate notice to the recipient of the posting, which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the later of the posting or delivery of the separate notice thereof, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) to a recipient who has provided an unrevoked consent to the use of those means of transmission for communications under or pursuant to this code, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. See California Education Code 17498
  • Electronic transmission to the corporation: means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, which the corporation has provided from time to time to shareholders or members and directors for sending communications to the corporation, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network which the corporation has designated for those communications, and which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the posting, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) as to which the corporation has placed in effect reasonable measures to verify that the sender is the shareholder or member (in person or by proxy) or director purporting to send the transmission, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. See California Education Code 17499
  • Employee: means the employee of a grantee or contractor directly engaged in the performance of work pursuant to the grant or contract described in Article 2 (commencing with Section 8355) . See California Government Code 14856
  • Employee: means a public officer and any individual who performs services subject to the right of the employer to control both what shall be done and how it shall be done. See California Code of Civil Procedure 706.011
  • Employer: means a person for whom an individual performs services as an employee. See California Code of Civil Procedure 706.011
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executed: when used with respect to the documents filed pursuant to this code or pursuant to regulations adopted under this code, and presented to the Secretary of State, include a document bearing a signature under subdivision (a). See California Education Code 17495
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Feasible: means capable of being accomplished in a successful manner within a reasonable period of time, taking into account life-cycle costing analyses, and environmental, social, and technological factors, however, renewable technologies shall not be exempt based solely on cost considerations. See California Government Code 14710
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Financial institution: means , when located or doing business in this state, any national bank or banking association, state bank or banking association, commercial bank or trust company organized under the laws of the United States or any state, any private bank, industrial savings bank, savings bank or thrift institution, savings and loan association, or building and loan association organized under the laws of the United States or any state, any insured institution as defined in Section 401 of the National Housing Act, any credit union organized under the laws of the United States or any state, any national banking association or corporation acting under Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 601) of Title 12 of the United States Code, any foreign bank, any currency dealer or exchange, any person or business engaged primarily in the cashing of checks, any person or business who regularly engages in the issuing, selling, or redeeming of traveler's checks, money orders, or similar instruments, any broker or dealer in securities registered or required to be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, any licensed sender of money, any investment banker or investment company, any insurance company, any dealer in coins, precious metals, stones, or jewelry, any pawnbroker, any telegraph company, any person or business engaged in controlled gambling within the meaning of subdivision (e) of Section 19805 of the Business and Professions Code, whether registered or licensed to do so or not, and any person or business defined as a "bank" "financial agency" or "financial institution" by Section 5312 of Title 31 of the United States Code or Section 103. See California Government Code 14556.52
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • general assignment for the benefit of creditors: means an assignment which satisfies all of the following requirements:

    California Government Code 14672.85

  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantee: means the department, division, or other unit of a person or organization responsible for the performance under the grant. See California Government Code 14856
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • home-to-school transportation: includes all of the following:

    California Education Code 41850

  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • knowingly: import s only a knowledge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission within the provisions of this code. See California Education Code 1012
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • license: shall include a permit or a certificate issued by a state agency. See California Education Code 1097
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • magistrate: signifies any one of the officers mentioned in Section 808. See California Education Code 1012
  • maliciously: import a wish to vex, annoy, or injure another person, or an intent to do a wrongful act, established either by proof or presumption of law. See California Education Code 1012
  • Metropolitan area: means the greater metropolitan Sacramento area, including the City of Sacramento, the County of Sacramento, and the eastern part of Yolo County. See California Government Code 14679.5
  • Microbusiness: is a small business which, together with affiliates, has average annual gross receipts of two million five hundred thousand dollars ($2,500,000) or less over the previous three years, or is a manufacturer, as defined in subdivision (c), with 25 or fewer employees. See California Government Code 14837
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • missing person: includes , but is not limited to, any of the following:

    California Government Code 14669.17

  • Monetary instrument: means United States currency and coin. See California Government Code 14556.52
  • month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See California Education Code 1012
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Oath: includes an affirmation or declaration. See California Education Code 17389
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • peace officer: signify any one of the officers mentioned in Chapter 4. See California Education Code 1012
  • Person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Education Code 17389
  • person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Education Code 1012
  • Person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Education Code 17496
  • Person: includes an individual, a corporation, a partnership or other unincorporated association, a limited liability company, and a public entity. See California Code of Civil Procedure 706.011
  • personal property: include money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt. See California Education Code 1012
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Pretrial conference: A meeting of the judge and lawyers to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review evidence and witnesses, to set a timetable, and to discuss the settlement of the case.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Process: signifies a writ or summons issued in the course of a judicial proceeding. See California Education Code 17389
  • project: includes equipment purchase, construction, right-of-way acquisition, and project delivery costs. See California Government Code 14556.41
  • Project area: includes both of the following:

    California Government Code 14706

  • property: includes property real and personal. See California Education Code 17413
  • Property: includes both personal and real property. See California Education Code 17389
  • property: includes both real and personal property. See California Education Code 1012
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public building: means a public building, as defined in Section 15802. See California Government Code 14710
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • records: means all papers, maps, exhibits, magnetic or paper tapes, photographic films and prints, punched cards, and other documents produced, received, owned or used by an agency, regardless of physical form or characteristics. See California Government Code 14741
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Redevelopment plan: means the Capitol Area Plan approved by the Director of General Services on March 15, 1977, and referred to in Section 8160, and the plan prepared pursuant to Section 8182. See California Government Code 14706
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • seal: includes an impression of such seal upon the paper alone, or upon any substance attached to the paper capable of receiving a visible impression. See California Education Code 1012
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sheriff: includes marshal. See California Education Code 17389
  • Signature: includes mark when the signer cannot write, such signer's name being written near the mark by a witness who writes his own name near the signer's name. See California Education Code 17494
  • Small business: means an independently owned and operated business that is not dominant in its field of operation, the principal office of which is located in California, the officers of which are domiciled in California, and which, together with affiliates, has 100 or fewer employees, and average annual gross receipts of ten million dollars ($10,000,000) or less over the previous three years, or is a manufacturer, as defined in subdivision (c), with 100 or fewer employees. See California Government Code 14837
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 17389
  • spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 1012
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 19407
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Education Code 77
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the territories when applied to the different parts of the United States, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Education Code 17389
  • state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Education Code 1012
  • State: means the State of California and includes any officer, department, board, or agency thereof. See California Code of Civil Procedure 706.070
  • state agency: shall include any state board, commission, bureau, or division created pursuant to the provisions of the Business and Professions Code, the Education Code, or the Chiropractic Initiative Act to license and regulate individuals who engage in certain businesses and professions. See California Education Code 1097
  • state agency: includes every state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, and commission. See California Government Code 11000
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which the term appears unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Education Code 17486
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testify: includes any mode of oral statement made under oath or affirmation. See California Education Code 17389
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transaction: includes the deposit, withdrawal, transfer, bailment, loan, payment, or exchange of currency, or a monetary instrument, as defined by subdivision (c), by, through, or to, a financial institution, as defined by subdivision (a). See California Government Code 14556.52
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
  • unidentified person: means a person, living or deceased, whose identity the local investigative agency is unable to determine. See California Government Code 14669.17
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: means a vessel as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 651 of the Harbors and Navigation Code. See California Education Code 1012
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • willfully: when applied to the intent with which an act is done or omitted, implies simply a purpose or willingness to commit the act, or make the omission referred to. See California Education Code 1012
  • Writ: means an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer. See California Education Code 17389
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writing: includes printing and typewriting. See California Education Code 17389