§ 8-1701 Scope and effect of sections in article 17; unlawful acts
§ 8-1702 Approval or disapproval of equipment by secretary of transportation
§ 8-1703 When lighted lamps required
§ 8-1704 Visibility distance and mounted height of lamps; method and conditions of measuring
§ 8-1705 Head lamps on motor vehicles
§ 8-1706 Tail lamps
§ 8-1707 Reflectors
§ 8-1708 Stop lamps and turn signals
§ 8-1709 Application of 8-1710 to 8-1714
§ 8-1710 Additional lighting equipment required on certain vehicles
§ 8-1711 Color of clearance lamps, identification lamps, side marker lamps and reflectors
§ 8-1712 Mounting of reflectors, clearance lamps and side marker lamps
§ 8-1713 Visibility requirements for reflectors, clearance lamps, identification lamps and side marker lamps
§ 8-1714 Operation of obstructed lamps not required on combination of vehicles
§ 8-1715 Lamps or flags required on projecting loads
§ 8-1716 Parked vehicles; lamps required; color; location; time for display of lighted lamps; depressing or dimming of head lamps
§ 8-1717 Lights, lamps and reflectors on farm tractors; slow-moving vehicle and slow-moving vehicle emblem defined; requirements for slow-moving vehicles; unlawful acts; exception
§ 8-1718 Lamps and equipment required on implements of husbandry, road rollers, road machinery and animal-drawn vehicles
§ 8-1719 Spot lamps, fog lamps, auxiliary passing lamps and auxiliary driving lamps
§ 8-1720 Lamps and lights on authorized emergency vehicles; alternately or simultaneously flashing head lamps
§ 8-1721 Stop lamps and signal lamps; color; visibility
§ 8-1722 Vehicular hazard warning lamps; warning lamps on police vehicles; trash trucks
§ 8-1723 Additional lighting equipment permitted; neon ground effect lighting; lead vehicle of funeral procession
§ 8-1724 Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment; visibility; direction of beam; high beam indicator
§ 8-1725 Head lamps; use of; exception for alternately or simultaneously flashing head lamps
§ 8-1726 Single-beam road-lighting equipment permitted on certain vehicles
§ 8-1727 Alternate road-lighting equipment on certain vehicles; limitations on speed
§ 8-1728 Number of driving lamps required or permitted
§ 8-1729 Lights and signals; restrictions; exceptions for certain vehicles including school, church and day care buses
§ 8-1730 Lighting equipment and warning devices on school buses
§ 8-1730a Definitions of “church bus” and “day care program bus”; equipment and markings
§ 8-1731 Lights on highway construction and maintenance vehicles; rules and regulations of secretary
§ 8-1734 Braking systems for motor vehicles and combinations of vehicles; performance requirements; additional braking systems, when; antique vehicles exempted
§ 8-1738 Horns and warning devices
§ 8-1739 Mufflers and noise suppressing systems
§ 8-1740 Mirrors
§ 8-1741 Windshields and windows; damaged windshields prohibited; obstruction or impairment prohibited; wipers
§ 8-1742 Restrictions as to tire equipment
§ 8-1742a Sale of unsafe tires; misdemeanor
§ 8-1742b Wide-base single tires; prohibitions
§ 8-1743 Safety glazing material requirements; limitation on registration; misdemeanor
§ 8-1744 Flares or warning devices; vehicles subject to requirements; use, when required; unlawful acts; compliance with federal requirements
§ 8-1745 Display of vehicular hazard warning signal lamps and warning devices by certain stopped or disabled vehicles
§ 8-1746 Vehicles transporting hazardous materials; regulations by secretary, compliance; markings of and equipment on vehicles; misdemeanor
§ 8-1747 Air-conditioning equipment
§ 8-1749 Safety belts and shoulder harnesses
§ 8-1749a One-way glass and sun screening devices; requirements; exceptions; penalties
§ 8-1749b Sun screening devices; definitions
§ 8-1749c Unlawful installation of sun screening device; penalty
§ 8-1759 Spot inspections by highway patrol; penalties
§ 8-1759a Inspection by highway patrol upon reasonable cause; notice of defects; penalties
§ 8-1761 Improper compression release engine braking system

Terms Used In Kansas Statutes > Chapter 8 > Article 17

  • Accessible to individuals with a disability: means in conformance with Title I and Title III of the Americans with disabilities act of 1990, 42 USCA 12101 et seq. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,175
  • Administration services: include clerical, fund or shareholder accounting, participant record keeping, transfer agency, bookkeeping, data processing, custodial, internal auditing, legal and tax services performed for an investment company;

    (2) "distribution services" include the services of advertising, servicing, marketing, underwriting or selling shares of an investment company, but, in the case of advertising, servicing or marketing shares, only where such service is performed by a person who is, or in the case of a closed end company, was, either engaged in the services of underwriting or selling investment company shares or affiliated with a person who is engaged in the service of underwriting or selling investment company shares. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • average: shall mean that measure or measures of central tendency which the director shall determine best describes a group of individual ratios;

    (i) "ratio" shall mean the numerical relationship between the appraised or assessed value and the selling price; and

    (j) "study year" shall mean that twelve-month period beginning annually on January 1. See Kansas Statutes 79-1486

  • Aviation fuel: means motor fuels for use as fuel for aircraft;

    (b) "agricultural ethyl alcohol" means a motor-vehicle fuel component with a purity of at least 99%, exclusive of any added denaturants, denatured in conformity with one of the methods approved by the United States department of the treasury, bureau of alcohol, tobacco and firearms, and distilled in the United States of America from grain produced in the United States of America;

    (c) "bulk plant" means a motor fuels storage facility, other than a terminal, that is primarily used to redistribute motor fuels;

    (d) "dealer" means any person engaged in the retail sale of motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels;

    (e) "director" means the director of taxation, a duly authorized deputy, agent or representative;

    (f) "distributor" means any person, who:

    (1) Imports or causes to be imported from any other state or territory of the United States motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels for such person's own use in the state of Kansas, or for sale and delivery therein, after the same shall have come to rest or storage therein, whether or not in the original package, receptacle or container; or

    (2) imports or causes to be imported, from a foreign country, motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels for such person's own use in the state of Kansas, or for sale and delivery therein, after the same shall have come to rest or storage, whether or not in the original package, receptacle or container;

    (3) purchases or receives motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels in the original package, receptacle or container in the state of Kansas for such person's own use therein, or for sale and delivery therein, from any person who has imported the same from any other state or territory of the United States, or any other nation, in case such motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels have not, prior to such purchase or receipt, come to rest or storage in the state of Kansas; or

    (4) received and, in any manner, uses, sells or delivers motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels in the state of Kansas on which the tax provided for in this act has not been previously paid;

    (g) "exporter" means any person who exports or causes to be exported motor vehicle fuels or special fuels from Kansas to any other state or territory of the United States or to a foreign country, for such person's own use or for sale or delivery therein, whether or not in the original package, receptacle or container;

    (h) "importer" means any person who imports or causes to be imported motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels from any other state or territory of the United States or from a foreign country, for such person's own use in the state of Kansas or for sale or delivery therein, whether or not in the original package, receptacle or container;

    (i) "liquid fuels" or "motor fuels" means any inflammable liquid by whatever name such liquid shall be known or sold, which is used, or practically or commercially usable, either alone or when mixed or combined in an internal-combustion engine for the generation of power;

    (j) "manufacturer" or "refiner" means any person who or which produces, refines, prepares, blends, distills, manufactures or compounds motor-vehicle fuels or special fuels in the state of Kansas for such person's own use therein, or for sale or delivery therein. See Kansas Statutes 79-3401

  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • building: shall include only structures within which individuals are customarily employed or which are customarily used to house machinery, equipment or other property. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • Business firm: means any business entity authorized to do business in the state of Kansas which is subject to the state income tax imposed by the provisions of the Kansas income tax act, any individual subject to the state income tax imposed by the provisions of the Kansas income tax act, any national banking association, state bank, trust company or savings and loan association paying an annual tax on its net income pursuant to article 11 of chapter 79 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, or any insurance company paying the premium tax and privilege fees imposed pursuant to K. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,195
  • business income: means income arising from transactions and activity in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business and includes income from tangible and intangible property if the acquisition, management, and disposition of the property constitute integral parts of the taxpayer's regular trade or business operations, except that a taxpayer may elect that all income constitutes business income. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Claimant: means a person who has filed a claim under the provisions of this act and was, during the entire calendar year preceding the year in which such claim was filed for refund under this act, except as provided in K. See Kansas Statutes 79-4502
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • Commencement of commercial operations: shall be deemed to occur during the first taxable year for which the qualified business facility is first available for use by the taxpayer, or first capable of being used by the taxpayer, in the revenue producing enterprise in which the taxpayer intends to use the qualified business facility. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • Commercial domicile: means the principal place from which the trade or business of the taxpayer is directed or managed. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Commercial motor vehicle: means any of the following motor vehicles or combinations, if propelled by motor fuel and used, designed or maintained for the transportation of persons or property, and:

    (1) Has two axles and a gross vehicle weight or registered gross weight exceeding 26,000 pounds or 12,000 kilograms;

    (2) has three or more axles regardless of weight; or

    (3) is used in combination when the weight of such combination exceeds 26,000 pounds or 12,000 kilograms gross vehicle weight or registered gross weight. See Kansas Statutes 79-34,108

  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Community service organization: means any organization performing community services in Kansas and which:

    (1) Has obtained a ruling from the internal revenue service of the United States department of the treasury that such organization is exempt from income taxation under the provisions of section 501(c)(3) of the federal internal revenue code; or

    (2) is incorporated in the state of Kansas or another state as a nonstock, nonprofit corporation; or

    (3) has been designated as a community development corporation by the United States government under the provisions of title VII of the economic opportunity act of 1964; or

    (4) is chartered by the United States congress. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,195

  • Community services: means :

    (1) The conduct of activities which meet a demonstrated community need and which are designed to achieve improved educational and social services for Kansas children and their families, and which are coordinated with communities including, but not limited to, social and human services organizations that address the causes of poverty through programs and services that assist low income persons in the areas of employment, food, housing, emergency assistance and health care;

    (2) crime prevention;

    (3) health care services; and

    (4) youth apprenticeship and technical training. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,195

  • Compensation: means wages, salaries, commissions and any other form of remuneration paid to employees for personal services. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conservatee: means a person who has a conservator. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Conservator: means an individual or corporation appointed by the court to act on behalf of a conservatee and possessed of some or all of the powers and duties set out in K. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Contributions: shall mean and include the donation of cash, services or property other than used clothing in an amount or value of $250 or more. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,195
  • controlled substance: means any drug or substance, whether real or counterfeit, as defined by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-5201
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Crime prevention: means any nongovernmental activity which aids in the prevention of crime. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,195
  • Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • dealer: means any person who, in violation of Kansas law, manufactures, produces, ships, transports or imports into Kansas or in any manner acquires or possesses more than 28 grams of marijuana, or more than one gram of any controlled substance, or 10 or more dosage units of any controlled substance which is not sold by weight;

    (d) "domestic marijuana plant" means any cannabis plant at any level of growth which is harvested or tended, manicured, irrigated, fertilized or where there is other evidence that it has been treated in any other way in an effort to enhance growth. See Kansas Statutes 79-5201

  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: is a pplied to an instrument conveying lands but does not imply a sealed instrument. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: means the director of taxation. See Kansas Statutes 79-906
  • director: shall mean the director of property valuation;

    (g) "classification" shall mean those classifications which apply to real property contained in K. See Kansas Statutes 79-1486

  • Director: means the director of taxation. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Director: means the director of taxation or the director's duly authorized deputy, agent or representative. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • Director: means the director of taxation. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Disability: means :

    (1) Inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months, and an individual shall be determined to be under a disability only if the physical or mental impairment or impairments are of such severity that the individual is not only unable to do the individual's previous work but cannot, considering age, education and work experience, engage in any other kind of substantial gainful work which exists in the national economy, regardless of whether such work exists in the immediate area in which the individual lives or whether a specific job vacancy exists for the individual, or whether the individual would be hired if application was made for work. See Kansas Statutes 79-4502

  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Disruption of production: means , in the case of oil, a continuous 24-hour period during which a well is not producing. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Distressed area taxpayer: means a corporation which: (1) Is located in a county which has a population of not more than 45,000 persons and which, as certified by the department of commerce, has sustained an adverse economic impact due to the closure of a state hospital in such county pursuant to the recommendations of the hospital closure commission; and (2) which has a total annual payroll of $20,000,000 or more for employees employed within such county. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: includes an administrator where the subject matter applies to an administrator. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Expenditures for the purpose of making all or any portion of an existing facility accessible to individuals with a disability: includes only those expenditures specifically attributable to the: (1) Removal or equivalent facilitation of an existing architectural barrier, when removal or equivalent facilitation is for the purpose of making an existing facility accessible to individuals with a disability; or (2) new construction of a facility described by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,175
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Facility: shall mean any factory, mill, plant, refinery, warehouse, feedlot, building or complex of buildings located within the state, including the land on which such facility is located and all machinery, equipment and other real and tangible personal property located at or within such facility used in connection with the operation of such facility. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • federal internal revenue code: shall mean the provisions of the federal internal revenue code of 1986, and amendments thereto, and other provisions of the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, as the same may be or become effective at any time, or from time to time, for the taxable year. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Financial organization: means any bank, trust company, savings bank, industrial bank, land bank, safe deposit company, private banker, savings and loan association, credit union, cooperative bank, or any type of insurance company, but such term shall not be deemed to include any business entity, other than those hereinbefore enumerated, whose primary business activity is making consumer loans or purchasing retail installment contracts from one or more sellers. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gallon: means one United States standard gallon. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gas: means natural gas, and all other raw, unrefined gas or gases, all constituent parts of any such gas or gases and refined products derived from any such gas or gases, including, but not limited to, methane, ethane, propane, butane and helium, taken from below the surface of the earth or water in this state, regardless of whether from a gas well or from a well also productive of oil or any other product. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • General election: refers to the election required to be held on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November of each even-numbered year. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Governmental action: means any of the following actions by a state agency which may constitute a taking:

    (A) Proposed legislation;

    (B) proposed rules and regulations or directives; or

    (C) proposed agency guidelines and procedures concerning the process of issuing licenses or permits;

    (2) "Governmental action" does not include:

    (A) Activity in which the power of eminent domain is formally exercised;

    (B) the repeal of rules and regulations, elimination of governmental programs, or amendment of rules and regulations such that limitations on the use of private property are reduced or removed;

    (C) law enforcement activities involving seizure or forfeiture of private property for violations of law or as evidence in criminal proceedings; and

    (D) state agency action, authorized by statute or by valid court order, in response to a violation of state law. See Kansas Statutes 77-703

  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • Gross value: means the sale price of oil or gas at the time of removal of the oil or gas from the lease or production unit and if oil or gas is exchanged for something other than cash, or if no sale occurs at the time of removal or if the director determines that the relationship between the buyer and the seller is such that the consideration paid, if any, is not indicative of the true value or market price, then the director shall determine the value of the oil or gas subject to tax based on the cash price paid to one or more producers for the oil or gas or based on the cash price paid to producers for like quality oil or gas in the vicinity of the lease or production unit at the time of the removal of the oil or gas from the lease or production unit. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Guardian: means an individual or a nonprofit corporation certified in accordance with K. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Highways: means the entire width between the boundary of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel, including a toll highway, and notwithstanding that the same may be temporarily closed for the purpose of construction, reconstruction, maintenance or repair. See Kansas Statutes 79-34,108
  • Homestead: means the dwelling, or any part thereof, owned and occupied as a residence by the household and so much of the land surrounding it, as defined as a home site for ad valorem tax purposes, and may consist of a part of a multi-dwelling or multi-purpose building and a part of the land upon which it is built or a manufactured home or mobile home and the land upon which it is situated. See Kansas Statutes 79-4502
  • Household: means a claimant, a claimant and spouse who occupy the homestead or a claimant and one or more individuals not related as husband and wife who together occupy a homestead. See Kansas Statutes 79-4502
  • Household income: means all income received by all persons of a household in a calendar year while members of such household. See Kansas Statutes 79-4502
  • Income: means the sum of adjusted gross income under the Kansas income tax act effective for tax year 2013 and thereafter without regard to any modifications pursuant to K. See Kansas Statutes 79-4502
  • Income tax: means a tax imposed on or measured by net income including any tax imposed on or measured by an amount arrived at by deducting expenses from gross income, one or more forms of which expenses are not specifically and directly related to particular transactions. See Kansas Statutes 79-4301
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Interstate motor fuel user: means any person who operates or causes to be operated on highways within and without this state any commercial motor vehicle. See Kansas Statutes 79-34,108
  • investment company: means any person registered under the federal Investment Company Act of 1940, as in effect on the effective date of this act, or a company which would be required to register as an investment company under such act except that such person is exempt to such registration pursuant to § 80a-3(c)(1) of such act;

    (4) "investment funds service corporation" includes any corporation or S corporation headquartered in and doing business in this state which derives more than 50% of its gross income from the provision of management, distribution or administration services to or on behalf of an investment company or from trustees, sponsors and participants of employee benefit plans which have accounts in an investment company;

    (5) "management services" include the rendering of investment advice to an investment company making determinations as to when sales and purchases of securities are to be made on behalf of the investment company, or the selling or purchasing of securities constituting assets of an investment company, and related activities, but only where such activity or activities are performed:

    (A) Pursuant to a contract with the investment company entered into pursuant to 15 U. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271

  • investment funds service corporation: includes any corporation or S corporation headquartered in and doing business in this state which derives more than 50% of its gross income from the provision of management, distribution or administration services to or on behalf of an investment company or from trustees, sponsors and participants of employee benefit plans which have accounts in an investment company;

    (5) "management services" include the rendering of investment advice to an investment company making determinations as to when sales and purchases of securities are to be made on behalf of the investment company, or the selling or purchasing of securities constituting assets of an investment company, and related activities, but only where such activity or activities are performed:

    (A) Pursuant to a contract with the investment company entered into pursuant to 15 U. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271

  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lease number: means the number assigned by the director of taxation to identify each well, lease or combination of wells within a lease. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • LP-gas: means liquefied gasses, including liquefied natural gas and compressed natural gas, composed predominantly of the hydrocarbons which exist in the gaseous state at a temperature of 60° Fahrenheit and at a pressure of 14. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • LP-gas dealer: means any person in the business of handling LP-gas who delivers any part thereof into the fuel supply tank or tanks of a motor vehicle not then owned or controlled by such person. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • LP-gas user: means the person who is the owner or operator of a motor vehicle at the time LP-gas is placed in the fuel supply tank or tanks thereof while such vehicle is within this state. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • Manufactured home: means a structure which:

    (1) Is transportable in one or more sections which, in the traveling mode, is 8 body feet or more in width or 40 body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling, with or without permanent foundation, when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; and

    (2) is subject to the federal manufactured home construction and safety standards established pursuant to 42 U. See Kansas Statutes 77-201

  • Marijuana: means any marijuana, whether real or counterfeit, as defined by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-5201
  • Minor: means any person defined by K. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mobile home: means a structure which:

    (1) Is transportable in one or more sections which, in the traveling mode, is 8 body feet or more in width and 36 body feet or more in length and is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling, with or without a permanent foundation, when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; and

    (2) is not subject to the federal manufactured home construction and safety standards established pursuant to 42 U. See Kansas Statutes 77-201

  • Modified Kansas source income: means that part of a nonresident individual's Kansas adjusted gross income as set forth in K. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Money: means gold and silver coin, United States treasury notes, and other forms of currency in common use;

    (b) "notes and other evidence of debt" means certificates evidencing shares of stock otherwise taxable to the owner or holder, notes, bonds, debentures, claims secured by deed, liquidated claims and demands for money, accounts receivable, and all written instruments, contracts or other writings evidencing, calling for, fixing or showing a fixed obligation, determined or determinable, at present or in the future, in favor of the holder thereof. See Kansas Statutes 79-3109d

  • Month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Motor fuel: means any liquid, regardless of its composition or properties, used to propel a motor vehicle, and includes the following types: Motor-vehicle fuels as defined in K. See Kansas Statutes 79-34,108
  • motor vehicle: means a motor vehicle as defined by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-3401
  • motor vehicle: means and includes all motor vehicles required to be registered under the provisions of article 1 of chapter 8 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, except:

    (a) Motor vehicles assessed and taxed by the director of property valuation under the provisions of chapter 79, article 6a, of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto;

    (b) motor vehicles of public service companies whose property is assessed by the director of property valuation under the provisions of article 5a of chapter 79 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto;

    (c) motor vehicles registered for a gross weight of more than 12,000 pounds;

    (d) motor vehicles owned by a car rental company upon which the tax imposed under K. See Kansas Statutes 79-5101

  • motor-vehicle fuels: means gasoline, casinghead gasoline, natural gasoline, drip gasoline, aviation gasoline, gasohol, gasoline-oxygenate blend and any other spark-ignition motor fuel as defined by the 1995 United States department of commerce, national institute of standards and technology handbook 130 issued December of 1994, and as may subsequently be defined in rules and regulations which the director may adopt pursuant to K. See Kansas Statutes 79-3401
  • net income: shall mean the Kansas taxable income of corporations as defined in K. See Kansas Statutes 79-1109
  • Nonbusiness income: means all income other than business income. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Nonresident beneficiary: means a beneficiary other than a resident beneficiary. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Nonresident estate: means an estate other than a resident estate. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Oath: includes an affirmation in all cases where an affirmation may be substituted for an oath, and in similar cases "swear" includes affirm. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oil: means petroleum, or other crude oil, condensate, casinghead gasoline, or other mineral oil which is severed or withdrawn from below the surface of the soil or water in this state. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Operations: means the operation on any highway of one or more commercial motor vehicles, whether loaded or empty, whether for compensation or not for compensation, and whether owned by or leased to the operator thereof. See Kansas Statutes 79-34,108
  • Operator: means the person primarily responsible for the management and operation of coal, oil or gas productions from a lease, production unit or mine. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • organizations: shall mean : Every foreign or domestic car or car line company, every foreign or domestic joint-stock company, every foreign or domestic mercantile company, every foreign or domestic corporation of any other class, every foreign organization classed as a New England, Massachusetts, or business trust, every association for profit, every partnership, and every individual who shall own any passenger, sleeping, parlor, refrigerator, oil or gas tank, observation, dining or freight cars, other than a railroad company operating its own or leased lines. See Kansas Statutes 79-906
  • Original return: means the first return filed to report the income of a taxpayer for a taxable year or period, irrespective of whether such return is filed on a single entity basis or a combined basis. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • over-the-road motor vehicles and rolling equipment: shall include all motor-driven vehicles, trailers, semitrailers, buses and trucks owned, used or operated in the state of Kansas by such motor carriers in the transportation of persons or property other than motor vehicles and rolling equipment used solely or mainly for local transportation in a particular community or local area, or for local pickup and delivery, or passenger automobiles used for purposes other than transportation of persons or property for hire. See Kansas Statutes 79-6a01
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means any natural person, partnership, firm, association, joint stock company, syndicate or corporation, or any receiver, trustee, conservator or other officer appointed pursuant to law or by any court, state or federal. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • Person: means any natural person, firm, copartnership, joint venture, association, corporation, estate, trust or any other group or combination acting as a unit, and the plural as well as the singular number. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Person: means any individual, firm, partnership, joint adventure, association or corporation. See Kansas Statutes 79-305a
  • Personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, evidences of debt and things in action, and digital assets as defined in the revised uniform fiduciary access to digital assets act, K. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Personal property tax rendition form: means any list, schedule or statement required to be furnished pursuant to article 3 of chapter 79 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, disclosing personal property of a taxpayer. See Kansas Statutes 79-305a
  • Personal property tax rendition form preparer: means any person who prepares or assists in preparation for compensation, or who employs one or more persons to prepare or assist in preparation for compensation, any personal property tax rendition form. See Kansas Statutes 79-305a
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private property: means any real property or interest arising from or relating to any real property in this state that is protected by the fifth or 14th amendment of the constitution of the United States or section 18 of the bill of rights of the constitution of the state of Kansas. See Kansas Statutes 77-703
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Producer: means any person owning, controlling, managing or leasing any coal, oil or gas property or oil or gas well or coal or salt mine, and any person who serves in any manner any coal, oil or gas in this state, and shall include any person owning any direct and beneficial interest in any coal, oil or gas produced, whether severed by such person or some other person on their behalf, either by lease, contract or otherwise, including a royalty owner. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Property: includes personal and real property. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • property: when used alone in this act, shall mean and include every kind of property subject to ownership. See Kansas Statutes 79-102
  • Property taxes accrued: means property taxes, exclusive of special assessments, delinquent interest and charges for service, levied on a claimant's homestead in 1979 or any calendar year thereafter by the state of Kansas and the political and taxing subdivisions of the state. See Kansas Statutes 79-4502
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • public highways: means and includes every way or place, of whatever nature, generally open to the use of the public as a matter of right, for the purposes of vehicular travel and notwithstanding that the same shall have been temporarily closed for the purpose of construction, reconstruction or repair;

    (p) "received" means motor-vehicle fuel or special fuel produced, refined, prepared, distilled, manufactured, blended or compounded at any refinery or other place, in the state of Kansas by any person, or imported into this state from any other state, territory, or foreign country by pipeline or connecting pipeline at a pipeline terminal or pipeline tank farm for storage, shall be deemed to be "received" by such person thereat when the same shall have been loaded at such refinery, pipeline terminal, pipeline tank farm or other place, into tank cars, tank trucks or other container, or placed in any tank from which any withdrawals are made direct into tank cars, tank trucks or other types of transportation equipment, containers or facilities;

    (q) "retailer" means a person that engages in the business of selling or distributing motor fuels to the end user;

    (r) "school bus" means every bus, as defined by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-3401

  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • public utilities: means every individual, company, corporation, association of persons, brokers, marketers, lessees or receivers that now or hereafter own, broker or market natural gas inventories stored for resale in an underground formation in this state, or now or hereafter are in control, manage or operate a business of:

    (1) A railroad or railroad corporation if such railroad or railroad corporation owns or holds, by deed or other instrument, an interest in right-of-way, track, franchise, roadbed or trackage in this state;

    (2) transmitting to, from, through or in this state telegraphic messages;

    (3) transmitting to, from, through or in this state telephonic messages;

    (4) transporting or distributing to, from, through or in this state natural gas, oil or other commodities in pipes or pipelines, or engaging primarily in the business of storing natural gas in an underground formation;

    (5) generating, conducting or distributing to, from, through or in this state electric power;

    (6) transmitting to, from, through or in this state water if for profit or subject to regulation of the state corporation commission; and

    (7) transporting to, from, through or in this state cargo or passengers by means of any vessel or boat used in navigating any of the navigable watercourses within or bordering upon this state. See Kansas Statutes 79-5a01

  • Public utility: means any business entity which owns or operates for public use any plant, equipment, property, franchise, or license for the transmission of communications, transportation of goods or persons, or the production, storage, transmission, sale, delivery, or furnishing of electricity, water, steam, oil, oil products or gas. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Qualified business facility: shall mean a facility which satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • Qualified business facility employee: shall mean a person employed by the taxpayer in the operation of a qualified business facility during the taxable year for which the credit allowed by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • Qualified business facility income: shall mean the Kansas taxable income derived by the taxpayer from the operation of the qualified business facility. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • Qualified business facility investment: shall mean the value of the real and tangible personal property, except inventory or property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's business, which constitutes the qualified business facility, or which is used by the taxpayer in the operation of the qualified business facility, during the taxable year for which the credit allowed by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • real estate: shall include land, improvements and structures which are appraised as real property;

    (f) "director" shall mean the director of property valuation;

    (g) "classification" shall mean those classifications which apply to real property contained in K. See Kansas Statutes 79-1486

  • real property: include lands, tenements and hereditaments, and all rights to them and interest in them, equitable as well as legal. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Related taxpayer: shall mean : (1) A corporation, partnership, trust or association controlled by the taxpayer; (2) an individual, corporation, partnership, trust or association in control of the taxpayer; or (3) a corporation, partnership, trust or association controlled by an individual, corporation, partnership, trust or association in control of the taxpayer. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • removal: means the physical transportation of coal, oil or gas off of the lease or production unit or from the mine where severed; and if the manufacture or conversion of crude oil or natural gas into refined products occurs on the premises where severed, oil or gas shall be deemed to have been removed on the date such manufacture or conversion begins. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Residence: means the place which is adopted by a person as the person's place of habitation and to which, whenever the person is absent, the person has the intention of returning. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Resident beneficiary: means a beneficiary of an estate or trust which beneficiary is a resident individual, a resident estate, or a resident trust. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Resident estate: means the estate of a deceased person whose domicile was in this state at the time of such person's death. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Resident individual: means a natural person who is domiciled in this state. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Resident trust: means a trust which is administered in this state. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,109
  • Revenue producing enterprise: shall mean :

    (1) The assembly, fabrication, manufacture or processing of any agricultural, mineral or manufactured product;

    (2) the storage, warehousing, distribution or sale of any products of agriculture, aquaculture, mining or manufacturing;

    (3) the feeding of livestock at a feedlot;

    (4) the operation of laboratories or other facilities for scientific, agricultural, aquacultural, animal husbandry or industrial research, development or testing;

    (5) the performance of services of any type;

    (6) the feeding of aquatic plants and animals at an aquaculture operation;

    (7) the administrative management of any of the foregoing activities; or

    (8) any combination of any of the foregoing activities. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,154

  • road: include public bridges and may be construed to be equivalent to "county way" "county road" "common road" "state road" and "territorial road. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Rural community: means any city having a population of fewer than 15,000 located in a county that is not part of a standard metropolitan statistical area as defined by the United States department of commerce or its successor agency. See Kansas Statutes 79-32,195
  • sales: shall include all transfers of real estate for which a real estate sales validation questionnaire is required by K. See Kansas Statutes 79-1486
  • Sales: means , except as otherwise provided in K. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • seal: includes an impression of the seal upon the paper alone, as well as upon wax or a wafer affixed to the paper. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Secretary: means the secretary of revenue. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • severing: means : (1) The production of oil through extraction or withdrawal of the same from below the surface of the soil or water, whether such extraction or withdrawal shall be by natural flow, mechanical flow, forced flow, pumping or any other means employed to get the oil from below the surface of the soil or water and shall include the withdrawal by any means whatsoever of oil upon which the tax has not been paid, from any surface reservoir, natural or artificial, or from a water surface; (2) the production of gas through the extraction or withdrawal of the same by any means whatsoever, from below the surface of the earth or water; and (3) the physical removal of coal from the earth. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • special fuels: means all combustible liquids suitable for the generation of power for the propulsion of motor vehicles including, but not limited to, diesel fuel, alcohol and such fuels not defined under the motor-vehicle fuels definition, hereinafter referred to as motor-vehicle fuel;

    (t) "terminal" means a fuel storage and distribution facility that is supplied by motor vehicle, pipeline or marine vessel, and from which motor fuels may be removed at a rack. See Kansas Statutes 79-3401

  • Special LP-gas permit user: means any person causing the operation of one or more LP-gas motor vehicles in Kansas and who holds a special LP-gas user permit. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • State: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • State: means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States. See Kansas Statutes 79-4301
  • State: means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, and any foreign country or political subdivision thereof. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • State agency: means an officer, department, division or unit of the executive branch of the state of Kansas authorized to propose, adopt or enforce rules and regulations. See Kansas Statutes 77-703
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subdivision: means any governmental unit or special district of a state. See Kansas Statutes 79-4301
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • taking: means , due to a governmental action, private property is taken or its use is restricted or limited by a governmental action such that compensation to the owner of the property is required by the fifth or 14th amendment of the constitution of the United States or section 18 of the bill of rights of the constitution of the state of Kansas. See Kansas Statutes 77-703
  • Tax: means an income tax, capital stock tax, gross receipts tax, sales tax, use tax, and any other tax which has a multistate impact, except that the provisions of articles III, IV and V of this compact shall apply only to the taxes specifically designated therein and the provisions of article IX of this compact shall apply only in respect to determinations pursuant to article IV. See Kansas Statutes 79-4301
  • Taxpayer: means any person liable for the taxes imposed by this act. See Kansas Statutes 79-4216
  • Taxpayer: means any person contracting with a personal property tax rendition form preparer to prepare a personal property tax rendition form on[such person's behalf or to assist in the preparation of such form. See Kansas Statutes 79-305a
  • Telecommunications company: means any business entity or unitary group of entities whose primary business activity is the transmission of communications in the form of voice, data, signals or facsimile communications by wire or fiber optic cable. See Kansas Statutes 79-3271
  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • terminal operator: means the person who by ownership or contractual agreement is charged with the responsibility for, or physical control over, and operation of a terminal;

    (v) "transporter" means a person who has been issued a liquid-fuels carrier's license pursuant to K. See Kansas Statutes 79-3401

  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • This state: means the state in which the relevant tax return is filed or, in the case of application of this article to the apportionment and allocation of income for local tax purposes, the subdivision or local taxing district in which the relevant tax return is filed. See Kansas Statutes 79-4301
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Undertaking: means a promise or security in any form where required by law. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Use: means the placing of LP-gas by an LP-gas dealer or LP-gas user into the fuel supply tank or tanks of any motor vehicle while such vehicle is within this state. See Kansas Statutes 79-3490
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Ward: means a person who has a guardian. See Kansas Statutes 77-201
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.