§ 51A.01 Citation
§ 51A.02 Definitions
§ 51A.03 Incorporation
§ 51A.04 Organization of Mutual Associations
§ 51A.041 Organization of Capital Stock Associations
§ 51A.05 Name; Office
§ 51A.06 Conversion
§ 51A.065 Mutual and Capital Stock Conversions
§ 51A.07 Power to Reorganize, Merge, or Consolidate
§ 51A.08 Dissolution
§ 51A.09 Meetings of Members of Mutual Associations
§ 51A.10 Membership Charges Prohibited
§ 51A.11 Access to Books and Records; Communication With Members or Stockholders
§ 51A.12 Financial Statement; Mutual Associations
§ 51A.13 Directors of Mutual Associations
§ 51A.131 Directors of Capital Stock Associations
§ 51A.14 Indemnity Bonds
§ 51A.15 Transactions of Officers and Directors
§ 51A.16 Depositories
§ 51A.17 Indemnification of Officers, Directors and Employees
§ 51A.19 Records
§ 51A.20 Reserve Accounts; Surplus and Undivided Profits
§ 51A.21 Powers of Association
§ 51A.22 Savings Liability
§ 51A.23 Savings Account
§ 51A.24 Contracts for School Savings Programs
§ 51A.251 Married Persons and Minors
§ 51A.261 Deposits in Name of Minor
§ 51A.262 Multiparty Accounts
§ 51A.27 Pledge to Association of Savings Accounts in Joint Tenancy
§ 51A.28 Accounts of Administrators, Executors, Guardians, Custodians, Trustees, and Other Fiduciaries
§ 51A.29 Accounts of Incompetents
§ 51A.30 Accounts of Deceased Nonresidents
§ 51A.31 Savings Accounts as Legal Investments
§ 51A.32 Earnings
§ 51A.33 Withdrawal
§ 51A.34 Redemption
§ 51A.35 Investment in Securities
§ 51A.361 Reserves
§ 51A.37 Investment in Loans
§ 51A.38 Loan Plans
§ 51A.386 Terms and Conditions of Loans, Contracts, and Extensions of Credit
§ 51A.40 Dealing With Successors in Interest
§ 51A.41 Right to Act to Avoid Loss
§ 51A.42 Savings Associations
§ 51A.43 Supervisory Power of Commissioner
§ 51A.44 Reports and Examinations
§ 51A.45 Enforcement and Conservatorship
§ 51A.46 Receivership
§ 51A.47 Correction of Wrongdoings by Unimpaired Institution
§ 51A.48 Right to Declaratory Judgment
§ 51A.50 Federal Associations
§ 51A.51 Fees
§ 51A.52 Directors, Employees, Members, and Stockholders of Association May Acknowledge Instruments to Which It Is a Party
§ 51A.53 Powers of Federal Associations; Approval
§ 51A.54 Insolvent Associations Liquidated
§ 51A.55 Conformity
§ 51A.56 Act Controlling
§ 51A.57 Separability
§ 51A.58 Interstate Branching

Terms Used In Minnesota Statutes > Chapter 51A

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Administrative agency: means either a governing body of a municipality or an administrative agency under its jurisdiction to which any powers have been delegated by such governing body. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Aeronautics: means transportation by aircraft; the operation, construction, repair, or maintenance of aircraft, aircraft power plants, and accessories; the design, establishment, construction, extension, operation, improvement, repair, or maintenance of airports, restricted landing areas, or other air navigation facilities, and air instruction. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Aeronautics instructor: means any individual engaged in giving instruction, or offering to give instruction, in aeronautics, either in flying or ground subjects, or both, for hire or reward, without advertising such occupation, without calling facilities an "air school" or anything equivalent thereto, and without employing or using other instructors. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Air instruction: means the imparting of aeronautical information by any aeronautics instructor or in or by any air school or flying club. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Air navigation: means the operation or navigation of aircraft in the air space over this state, or upon any airport or restricted landing area within this state. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Air navigation facility: means any facility other than one owned or controlled by the federal government, used in, available for use in, or designed for use in, aid of air navigation, including airports, restricted landing areas, and any structures, mechanisms, lights, beacons, marks, communicating systems, electronic device, or other instrumentalities or devices used or useful as an aid, or constituting an advantage or convenience, to the safe takeoff, navigation, and landing of aircraft, or the safe and efficient operation or maintenance of an airport or restricted landing area, and any combination of any or all of such facilities. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Air school: means any person engaged in giving, or offering to give, instruction in aeronautics, either in flying or ground subjects, or both, for or without hire or reward, and advertising, representing, or holding out as giving or offering to give such instructions. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Aircraft: means any contrivance now known or hereafter invented, used, or designed for navigation of or flight in the air, but excluding parachutes. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Airman: means any individual who engages, as the person in command, or as pilot, mechanic, or member of the crew, in the navigation of aircraft while under way and (excepting individuals employed outside the United States, any individual employed by a manufacturer of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances to perform duties as inspector or mechanic in connection therewith, and any individual performing inspection or mechanical duties in connection with aircraft owned or operated by that individual) any individual who is directly in charge of the inspection, maintenance, overhauling, or repair of aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances; and any individual who serves in the capacity of aircraft dispatcher or air-traffic control tower operator. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Airport: means any area of land or water, except a restricted landing area, which is designed for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, surfacing, or repair of aircraft, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo, and all appurtenant areas used or suitable for airport buildings or other airport facilities, and all appurtenant rights-of-way, whether heretofore or hereafter established. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Airport hazard: means any structure, object of natural growth, or use of land, which obstructs the air space required for the flight of aircraft in landing or taking off at any airport or restricted landing area or is otherwise hazardous to such landing or taking off. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Airport hazard area: means any area of land or water upon which an airport hazard might be established if not prevented as provided in this chapter. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Airport protection privileges: means easements through or other interest in air space over land or water, interest in airport hazards outside the boundaries of airports or restricted landing areas, and other protection privileges, the acquisition or control of which is necessary to insure safe approaches to the landing areas of airports and restricted landing areas and the safe and efficient operation thereof. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Airport purposes: means and includes airport, restricted landing area, and other air navigation facility purposes. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Civil aircraft: means any aircraft other than a public aircraft. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Commercial operations: means any operations of an aircraft for compensation or hire; or any services performed incidental to the operation of any aircraft for which a fee is charged or compensation received; including, but not limited to, the servicing, maintaining, and repairing of aircraft, the rental or charter of aircraft, the operation of flight or ground schools, the operation of aircraft for the application or distribution of chemicals or other substances, aerial photography and surveys, air shows or expositions, and the operation of aircraft for fishing. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of transportation of the state of Minnesota. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Comprehensive plan: has the meaning given in section 394. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Department: means the Minnesota Department of Transportation. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Dominant in its field of operation: means having more than 20 full-time employees and more than $1,000,000 in annual gross revenues or $2,500,000 in annual gross revenues if a technical or professional service. See Minnesota Statutes 645.445
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • estimated market value: has the meaning given in section 273. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • Flying club: means any person other than an individual, which, neither for profit nor reward, owns, leases, or uses one or more aircraft for the purpose of instruction or pleasure, or both. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Folio: means 100 words, counting as a word each number necessarily used; if there be fewer than 100 words in all, the paper shall be computed as one folio; likewise any excess over the last full folio. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • full age: means 18 years of age or older. See Minnesota Statutes 645.451
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Governing body: means the council, board of trustees, board of commissioners, board of supervisors, or other body, board, commission, or other authority charged with governing any municipality, and in municipalities in which the board of park commissioners or other body in charge of the park system of the municipality controls airports owned by the municipality includes such board or other body. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Holiday: includes New Year's Day, January 1; Martin Luther King's Birthday, the third Monday in January; Washington's and Lincoln's Birthday, the third Monday in February; Memorial Day, the last Monday in May; Independence Day, July 4; Labor Day, the first Monday in September; Christopher Columbus Day, the second Monday in October; Veterans Day, November 11; Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November; and Christmas Day, December 25; provided, when New Year's Day, January 1; or Independence Day, July 4; or Veterans Day, November 11; or Christmas Day, December 25; falls on Sunday, the following day shall be a holiday and, provided, when New Year's Day, January 1; or Independence Day, July 4; or Veterans Day, November 11; or Christmas Day, December 25; falls on Saturday, the preceding day shall be a holiday. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint meeting: An occasion, often ceremonial, when the House and Senate each adopt a unanimous consent agreement
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Joint session: When both chambers of a legislature adopt a concurrent resolution to meet together.
  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Majority: means with respect to an individual the period of time after the individual reaches the age of 18. See Minnesota Statutes 645.451
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Month: means a calendar month and "year" means a calendar year, unless otherwise expressed; and "year" is equivalent to the expression "year of our Lord. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Municipality: means a city of any class, including a city organized under a charter framed pursuant to the Constitution of the state of Minnesota, article 4, section 36, article XI, section 4, or article XII, section 5, a county, a town, or a statutory city in this state, the regents of the University of Minnesota, and any other political subdivision, public corporation, authority, or district in this state which is or may be authorized by law to acquire, establish, construct, maintain, improve, and operate airports and other air navigation facilities. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Navigable air space: means air space above the minimum altitudes of flight prescribed by the laws of this state or by rules of the commissioner consistent therewith. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Oath: includes "affirmation" in all cases where by law an affirmation may be substituted for an oath; and in like cases "swear" includes "affirm" and "sworn" "affirmed. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
  • operate aircraft: means the use of aircraft for the purpose of air navigation and includes the navigation or piloting of aircraft. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means any individual, firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint stock association, or body politic; and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee, or other similar representative thereof. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public aircraft: means an aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government or of any political subdivision thereof, including the government of any state, territory or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, but not including any government-owned aircraft engaged in carrying persons or property for commercial purposes. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Public waters: means public waters as defined in section 103G. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Restricted landing area: means any area of land, water, or both, which is used or is made available for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, the use of which shall, except in case of emergency, be only as provided from time to time by the commissioner. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • seal: includes an impression thereof upon the paper alone, as well as an impression on a wafer, wax, or other substance thereto attached. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Structure: means any object constructed or installed, including, but without limitation, buildings, towers, smokestacks, and overhead transmission lines. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Tax: means any fee, charge, exaction, or assessment imposed by a governmental entity on an individual, person, entity, transaction, good, service, or other thing. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • this state: means the state of Minnesota. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Tree: means any object of natural growth. See Minnesota Statutes 360.013
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • verified: when used in reference to writings, means supported by oath or affirmation. See Minnesota Statutes 645.45
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Wetlands: means lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. See Minnesota Statutes 645.44
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.