Sections
Part 1 General Provisions 2-A-101 – 2-A-109
Part 2 Formation and Construction of Lease Contract 2-A-201 – 2-A-221
Part 3 Effect of Lease Contract 2-A-301 – 2-A-311
Part 4 Performance of Lease Contract: Repudiated, Substituted and Excused 2-A-401 – 2-A-407
Part 5 Default 2-A-501 – 2-A-532

Terms Used In New York Laws > Uniform Commercial Code > Article 2-A - Leases

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • applicable standard rate: shall mean a combination of (a) the standard wage rate; and (b) the standard benefits supplemental rate. See N.Y. Labor Law 696-A
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Building: means any building regularly occupied in whole or in part as a habitation for human beings, and any church, school house, railway station or other building or place where people are accustomed to live, work or assemble, but does not mean or include any of the buildings of a manufacturing plant where the business of manufacturing explosives is carried on. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • child care provider: shall mean :

    1. See N.Y. Labor Law 695-B

  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Commercial unit: means such a unit of goods as by commercial

    usage is a single whole for purposes of lease and division of

    which materially impairs its character or value on the market

    or in use. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Commissioner: means the industrial commissioner. See N.Y. Labor Law 651
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Consumer lease: means a lease that a lessor regularly

    engaged in the business of leasing or selling makes to a

    lessee who is an individual and who takes under the lease

    primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Covered airport location: means John F. See N.Y. Labor Law 696-A
  • Covered airport worker: means any person employed to perform work at a covered airport location provided at least one-half of the employee's time during any workweek is performed at a covered airport location and who works in one of the following covered categories:

    (i) Cleaning and related services, which shall mean:

    (1) building cleaning, including warehouse, kitchen, and terminal cleaning, including common areas, gateways, gates, lounges, clubs, concession areas, terminal entryways from ramp and where planes park at the gate, and other nearby facilities used for the preparation, packaging, and storage of inflight meals and supplies; and

    (2) aircraft and cabin cleaning, including lavatory and water disposal and replenishment, lift truck driving and helping, dispatching, cleaning crew driving, and sorting and packing of inflight materials, such as blankets, pillows, and magazines;

    (ii) Security related services, including catering security, escorting, escort security, passenger aircraft security, fire guarding, terminal security, baggage security, traffic security, cargo screening, including guarding, warehouse security, concessions and airport lounge security, security dispatch, and security at nearby facilities used for the preparation, packaging, and storage of inflight meals; or

    (iii) In terminal and passenger handling services, including baggage handling, sky cap services, wheelchair attending, wheelchair dispatching, customer and passenger services, line queue, identification checking, porter services for baggage, and passenger and employee shuttle driving. See N.Y. Labor Law 696-A

  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the labor department. See N.Y. Labor Law 651
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Efficient barricade: means natural features of the ground, a dense woods, an artificial mound or a properly revetted wall of earth not less than three feet thick at the top, spaced at least three feet at the bottom from any explosives factory or magazine, the height of which is such that any straight line drawn from the top of any side wall of the explosives factory or magazine to the top of a building or to a point twelve feet above the center of a railroad or highway to be protected will pass through such intervening barricade. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • Employee: includes any individual employed or permitted to work by an employer in any occupation, but shall not include any individual who is employed or permitted to work: (a) on a casual basis in service as a part time baby sitter in the home of the employer; (b) in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity; (c) as an outside salesman; (d) as a driver engaged in operating a taxicab; (e) as a volunteer, learner or apprentice by a corporation, unincorporated association, community chest, fund or foundation organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable or educational purposes, no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual; (f) as a member of a religious order, or as a duly ordained, commissioned or licensed minister, priest or rabbi, or as a sexton, or as a christian science reader; (g) in or for such a religious or charitable institution, which work is incidental to or in return for charitable aid conferred upon such individual and not under any express contract of hire; (h) in or for such a religious, educational or charitable institution if such individual is a student; (i) in or for such a religious, educational or charitable institution if the earning capacity of such individual is impaired by age or by physical or mental deficiency or injury; (j) in or for a summer camp or conference of such a religious, educational or charitable institution for not more than three months annually; (k) as a staff counselor in a children's camp; (l) in or for a college or university fraternity, sorority, student association or faculty association, no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual, and which is recognized by such college or university, if such individual is a student; (m) by a federal, state or municipal government or political subdivision thereof; (n) as a volunteer at a recreational or amusement event run by a business that operates such events, provided that no single such event lasts longer than eight consecutive days and no more than one such event concerning substantially the same subject matter occurs in any calendar year, where (1) any such volunteer shall be at least eighteen years of age, (2) a business seeking coverage under this paragraph shall notify every volunteer in writing, in language acceptable to the commissioner, that by volunteering his or her services, such volunteer is waiving his or her right to receive the minimum wage pursuant to this article, and (3) such notice shall be signed and dated by a representative of the business and the volunteer and kept on file by the business for thirty-six months; or (o) in the delivery of newspapers or shopping news to the consumer by a person who is not performing commercial goods transportation services for a commercial goods transportation contractor within the meaning of article twenty-five-C of this chapter. See N.Y. Labor Law 651
  • Employee: includes any individual employed or permitted to work by an employer on a farm but shall not include: (a) domestic service in the home of the employer; (b) the parent, spouse, child or other member of the employer's immediate family; (c) a minor under seventeen years of age employed as a hand harvest worker on the same farm as his parent or guardian and who is paid on a piece-rate basis at the same piece rate as employees seventeen years of age or over; or (d) an individual employed or permitted to work for a federal, state, or a municipal government or political subdivision thereof. See N.Y. Labor Law 671
  • Employer: means any person who either directly or through an employee, agent, independent contractor, or any other person, delivers or causes to be delivered to another person, any materials to be manufactured in a home, and which are thereafter to be returned to him, not for the personal use of himself or of a member of his family, or to be delivered, mailed, or shipped to others. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Employer: includes any individual, partnership, association, corporation, limited liability company, business trust, legal representative, or any organized group of persons acting as employer. See N.Y. Labor Law 651
  • Employer: includes any individual, partnership, association, corporation, cooperative, business trust, legal representative, or any organized group of persons acting as an employer of an individual employed or permitted to work on a farm. See N.Y. Labor Law 671
  • Employer: means any person, corporation, limited liability company, or association employing any individual in an occupation, industry, trade, business or service. See N.Y. Labor Law 696-A
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Explosives: means gunpowder, powders used for blasting, high explosives, blasting materials, detonating fuses, detonators, pyrotechnics and other detonating agents, fireworks and dangerous fireworks as defined in section 270. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • Explosives factory: means any building or other structure in which the manufacture of explosives or any part of the manufacture thereof is carried on. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • Farm: includes stock, dairy, poultry, furbearing animal, fruit and truck farms, plantations, orchards, nurseries, greenhouses, or other similar structures, used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities. See N.Y. Labor Law 671
  • Farm labor contractor: includes : a. See N.Y. Labor Law 671
  • Fault: means wrongful act, omission, breach, or default. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103
  • Fee: includes any money or other valuable consideration paid or promised to be paid to a farm labor contractor for the performance of any of the services enumerated in this definition. See N.Y. Labor Law 671
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Finance lease: means a lease with respect to which: (i) the

    lessor does not select, manufacture, or supply the goods;

    (ii) the lessor acquires the goods or the right to possession

    and use of the goods in connection with the lease; and (iii)

    one of the following occurs: (A) the lessee receives a copy

    of the contract by which the lessor acquired the goods or the

    right to possession and use of the goods before signing the

    lease contract; (B) the lessee's approval of the contract by

    which the lessor acquired the goods or the right to

    possession and use of the goods is a condition to

    effectiveness of the lease contract; (C) the lessee, before

    signing the lease contract, receives an accurate and complete

    statement designating the promises and warranties, and any

    disclaimers of warranties, limitations or modifications of

    remedies, or liquidated damages, including those of any third

    party, such as the manufacturer of the goods, provided to the

    lessor by the person supplying the goods in connection with

    or as part of the contract by which the lessor acquired the

    goods or the right to possession and use of the goods; or (D)

    if the lease is not a consumer lease, the lessor, before the

    lessee signs the lease contract, informs the lessee in

    writing (a) of the identity of the person supplying the goods

    to the lessor, unless the lessee has selected that person and

    directed the lessor to acquire the goods or the right to

    possession and use of the goods from that person, (b) that

    the lessee is entitled under this Article to the promises and

    warranties, including those of any third party, provided to

    the lessor by the person supplying the goods in connection

    with or as part of the contract by which the lessor acquired

    the goods or the right to possession and use of the goods,

    and (c) that the lessee may communicate with the person

    supplying the goods to the lessor and receive an accurate and

    complete statement of those promises and warranties,

    including any disclaimers and limitations of them or of

    remedies. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Food service worker: means any employee primarily engaged in the serving of food or beverages to guests, patrons or customers in the hotel or restaurant industries, including, but not limited to, wait staff, bartenders, captains and bussing personnel; and who regularly receive tips from such guests, patrons or customers. See N.Y. Labor Law 651
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Goods: means all things that are movable at the time of

    identification to the lease contract, or are fixtures

    (Section 2-A-309), but the term does not include money,

    documents, instruments, accounts, chattel paper, general

    intangibles, or minerals or the like, including oil and gas,

    before extraction. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Highway: means any public street, public highway, public alley or navigable waterway, which is open for traffic. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • Home: means a room or an apartment in any house. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Hours worked: means the time that a farm worker is permitted to work in the fields or at his assigned place of work, and shall include time spent on a single farm in going from one field to another, or in waiting for baskets, pick-up, or for similar purposes; provided, however, that time not worked because of weather conditions shall not be considered as hours worked. See N.Y. Labor Law 671
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Industrial homework: means the manufacturing in a home, in whole or in part, with or of material which has been furnished by an employer, of any article or articles to be returned to the said employer, or to be delivered, mailed, or shipped to others. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Installment lease contract: means a lease contract that

    authorizes or requires the delivery of goods in separate lots

    to be separately accepted, even though the lease contract

    contains a clause "each delivery is a separate lease" or its

    equivalent. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Lease: means a transfer of the right to possession and use

    of goods for a term in return for consideration, but a sale,

    including a sale on approval or a sale or return, or

    retention or creation of a security interest is not a lease. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Lease agreement: means the bargain, with respect to the

    lease, of the lessor and the lessee in fact as found in their

    language or by implication from other circumstances including

    course of dealing or usage of trade or course of performance

    as provided in this Article. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Lease contract: means the total legal obligation that

    results from the lease agreement as affected by this Article

    and any other applicable rules of law. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Leasehold interest: means the interest of the lessor or the

    lessee under a lease contract. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Lessee: means a person who acquires the right to possession

    and use of goods under a lease. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Lessor: means a person who transfers the right to possession

    and use of goods under a lease. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Lien: means a charge against or interest in goods to secure

    payment of a debt or performance of an obligation, but the

    term does not include a security interest. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Lot: means a parcel or a single article that is the subject

    matter of a separate lease or delivery, whether or not it is

    sufficient to perform the lease contract. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Magazine: means any building or other structure, other than an explosives factory, used to store explosives. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • making: includes preparation, alteration, repair or finishing, in whole or in part, or handling in any way. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Merchant lessee: means a lessee that is a merchant with

    respect to goods of the kind subject to the lease. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Occupation: means an industry, trade, business or class of work in which employees are gainfully employed. See N.Y. Labor Law 651
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Original bill: A bill which is drafted by a committee. It is introduced by the committee or subcommittee chairman after the committee votes to report it.
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Person: includes a corporation, a copartnership or a joint stock association. See N.Y. Labor Law 350
  • Person: includes any natural person, partnership, association or corporation. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Present value: means the amount as of a date certain of one

    or more sums payable in the future, discounted to the date

    certain. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Purchase: includes taking by sale, lease, mortgage, security

    interest, pledge, gift, or any other voluntary transaction

    creating an interest in goods. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Pyrotechnics: means any combustible or explosive compositions of manufactured articles designed and prepared for the purpose of producing audible or visible effects that are commonly referred to as fireworks. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • railway: means any railroad that carries passengers or freight for hire, but shall not include auxiliary tracks, spurs and sidings installed and primarily used in serving any mine, quarry or plant. See N.Y. Labor Law 451
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • standard wage rate: means the greater of:

    (a) any minimum wage rate that would be otherwise applicable to covered airport workers established by article nineteen of this chapter; or

    (b) any otherwise applicable minimum wage rate established through a policy of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. See N.Y. Labor Law 696-A

  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Sublease: means a lease of goods the right to possession and

    use of which was acquired by the lessor as a lessee under an

    existing lease. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplier: means a person from whom a lessor buys or leases

    goods to be leased under a finance lease. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Supply contract: means a contract under which a lessor buys

    or leases goods to be leased. See N.Y. Uniform Commercial Code 2-A-103

  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Wage: includes allowances, in the amount determined in accordance with the provisions of this article, for gratuities and, when furnished by the employer to employees, for meals, lodging, apparel, and other such items, services and facilities. See N.Y. Labor Law 651
  • Wage: includes allowances in the amount determined in accordance with the provisions of this article for meals, lodging, and other items, service and facilities when furnished by the employer to his employees. See N.Y. Labor Law 671
  • wage board: means a board created as provided in this article. See N.Y. Labor Law 651