Article 4 Application of This Title
Article 5 Periodic Inspection of Motor Vehicles
Article 5-A Enacted Without Article Heading
Article 6 Motor Vehicle Financial Security Act
Article 7 Motor Vehicle Safety Responsibility Act
Article 8 Indemnity Bonds or Insurance Policies On Vehicles Transporting Passengers for Hire
Article 9 Equipment of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles
Article 10 Dimensions and Weights of Vehicles
Article 11 Civil Liability
Article 12 Other Provisions
Article 12-A Motor Vehicle Repair Shop Registration Act
Article 12-B Approval of Motor Vehicle Accident Prevention Courses
Article 12-C Accident Prevention Course Internet, and Other Technology Pilot Program
Article 12-D Pre-Licensing Course Internet Pilot Program

Terms Used In New York Laws > Vehicle and Traffic > Title 3 - Safety Responsibility; Financial Security; Equipment; Inspection; Size and Weight; and Other Provisions

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affidavit of publication: means the affidavit of the printer or publisher of a newspaper in which a publication pursuant to sections 121-201 and 121-902 of this article has been made. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • certificate of insurance: shall mean any evidence issued by or on behalf of an insurance company duly authorized to transact business in this state, stating in such form as the commissioner may prescribe or approve that such company has issued an owner's policy of liability insurance on the motor vehicle or vehicles designated therein. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • Certificate of limited partnership: means the certificate referred to in section 121-201 of this article, and the certificate as amended. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Certificate of publication: means a certificate presented on behalf of the applicable limited partnership to the department of state together with the affidavits of publication pursuant to section 121-201 or 121-902 of this article. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Contribution: means any cash, property, services rendered, or a promissory note or other binding obligation to contribute cash or property or to render services, which a partner contributes to a limited partnership in his capacity as a partner. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Distribution: means the transfer of property by a limited partnership to one or more of its partners in his capacity as a partner. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Dower: A widow
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Event of withdrawal of a general partner: means an event that causes a person to cease to be a general partner as provided in section 121-402 of this article. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • financial security bond: shall mean for each motor vehicle a bond executed by the owner and by a surety company duly authorized to transact business in this state. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • financial security deposit: shall mean for each motor vehicle the deposit with the commissioner of twenty-five thousand dollars in cash, or securities, such as may legally be purchased by savings banks or trust funds, of a market value of twenty-five thousand dollars and an additional deposit in an amount determined by the commissioner to be sufficient to satisfy the requirements of article fifty-one of the insurance law. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Foreign limited partnership: means a partnership formed under the laws of any jurisdiction, including any foreign country, other than the laws of this state and having as partners one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • General partner: means a person who has been admitted to a limited partnership as a general partner in accordance with the partnership agreement and, if required by the law of the jurisdiction under which the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership, as the case may be, is organized, is so named in the certificate of limited partnership or similar instrument. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Insurance Identification Card: shall mean a card issued by or on behalf of an insurance company or bonding company duly authorized to transact business in this state, stating in such form as the commissioner may prescribe or approve that such company has issued an owner's policy of liability insurance or a financial security bond on the motor vehicle or vehicles designated therein. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Limited partner: means a person who has been admitted to a limited partnership as a limited partner in accordance with the partnership agreement or as otherwise provided by the law of the jurisdiction under which the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership, as the case may be, is organized. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • manufactured home: means a mobile home or manufactured home as defined in section one hundred twenty-two-c of this chapter. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • merger: shall mean a procedure in which two or more limited partnerships merge into a single limited partnership which shall be one of the constituent limited partnerships and "consolidation" shall mean a procedure in which two or more limited partnerships consolidate into a single limited partnership which shall be a new limited partnership to be formed pursuant to the consolidation. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-1101
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • motor vehicle: shall include trailers and all vehicles included in the definition of the term "motor vehicle" contained in section one hundred twenty-five of this chapter except the following:

    N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 308
  • motor vehicle: shall mean motor vehicles as defined by section one hundred twenty-five and trailers as defined by section one hundred fifty-six of this chapter. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 398-B
  • motor vehicle repair shop: means any person who, for compensation, is wholly or partially engaged in the business of repairing or diagnosing motor vehicle malfunctions or repairing motor vehicle bodies, fenders or other components damaged by accident or otherwise, except that such term does not include:
    (a) an employee of a motor vehicle repair shop who engages in the business of repairing motor vehicles solely by reason of his employment;
    (b) any person who is solely engaged in the business of repairing the motor vehicles of a single commercial or industrial establishment, or of the federal, state or a local government or any agency thereof; or
    (c) any person whose activities consist solely of fueling, changing oil, water, batteries or tires, replacing fan belts, air filters or oil filters, installing windshield wiper blades or light bulbs, or such other minor repair and servicing functions as the commissioner shall by rule prescribe; or
    (d) any person solely engaged in the business of repairing farm or road building machines, or such other utility vehicles as the commissioner may by regulation designate. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 398-B
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Other business entity: means any person other than a natural person, general partnership (including any registered limited liability partnership or registered foreign limited liability partnership) or domestic limited partnership. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partner: means a limited or general partner. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Partnership agreement: means any written agreement of the partners as to the affairs of a limited partnership and the conduct of its business. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Partnership interest: means :
    (i) a partner's share of the profits and losses of a limited partnership; and (ii) a partner's right to receive distributions. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Person: means a natural person, partnership, limited partnership (domestic or foreign), limited liability company (domestic or foreign), trust, estate, custodian, nominee, association, corporation or any other individual or entity in its own or any representative capacity. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Process: means judicial process and all orders, demands, notices or other papers required or permitted by law to be personally served on a limited partnership (domestic or foreign), for the purpose of acquiring jurisdiction of such limited partnership in any action or proceeding, civil or criminal, whether judicial, administrative, arbitrative or otherwise, in this state or in the federal courts sitting in or for this state. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • proof of financial security: shall mean proof of ability to respond in damages for liability arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as evidenced by an owner's policy of liability insurance, a financial security bond, a financial security deposit, or qualifications as a self-insurer under section three hundred sixteen of this chapter or, in the case of a non-resident, under self-insurance provisions of the laws of the jurisdiction of such non-resident. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • self-insurer: shall mean a person who shall have been determined by the commissioner in accordance with section three hundred sixteen to be financially responsible. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • state: when used in this article shall unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, mean any state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia or any province of the Dominion of Canada. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • State: means a state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See N.Y. Partnership Law 121-101
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • superintendent: shall mean the superintendent of financial services of this state. See N.Y. Vehicle and Traffic Law 311
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC