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Article 45 Penalties and Disposition of Fines and Forfeitures 1800 – 1810

Terms Used In New York Laws > Vehicle and Traffic > Title 9 - Penalties and Disposition of Fines and Forfeitures

  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Charitable purpose: means the relief of poverty, the advancement of education or religion, the promotion of health, the promotion of a governmental purpose, or any other purpose the achievement of which is beneficial to the community including any purpose that is charitable under the laws of the state of New York. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Donor: means the person who grants or transfers property to an institution pursuant to a gift instrument, or a person designated in the applicable gift instrument to act in the place of the donor, but does not otherwise include the person's executors, heirs, successors, assigns, transferees, or distributees. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • dwelling unit: has the meaning ascribed to such term in the housing maintenance code. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-1201
  • Endowment fund: means an institutional fund or part thereof that, under the terms of a gift instrument, is not wholly expendable by the institution on a current basis. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • External agent: means an independent investment advisor, investment counsel or manager, bank, or trust company. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Gift instrument: means a record or records, including an institutional solicitation, under which property is granted to, transferred to, or held by an institution as an institutional fund. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • Institution: means : (1) a person, other than an individual, organized and operated exclusively for charitable purposes; (2) a trust that had both charitable and noncharitable interests, after all noncharitable interests have terminated; or (3) any corporation described in subparagraph five of paragraph (a) of section 102 (Definitions). See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • Institutional fund: means a fund held by an institution. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • medical treatment: means any medical care, whether or not such care is provided by a licensed medical practitioner, including but not limited to any activity intended to further examination, diagnosis, counseling, physical or psychotherapy, preventive care, prescription or administration of medication, prescription or administration of prostheses, surgery, referral to a medical provider, any procedure to cure or abate any injury, illness, physical or mental condition or any treatment for substance abuse addiction. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-1201
  • Notice: means information given by an institution as required by this article. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, or any other legal entity. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See N.Y. Not-For-Profit Corporation Law 551
  • relative: means , with respect to a person, (i) a spouse, domestic partner, parent, grandparent, child, stepchild or stepparent of such person or (ii) any individual who is the direct descendant of the grandparents of such person or of the spouse or domestic partner of such person. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 26-1201
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • school district: shall mean any common, union free, central, central high or city school district, or a board of cooperative educational services. See N.Y. Education Law 1980
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.