Freedom of religion, speech, and press; right to assemble and petition. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

[Proposed by Congress in 1789 and ratified by the necessary number of states in 1791]