Whenever used in this chapter unless expressly stated otherwise:

Terms Used In Virginia Code 46.2-2000

  • agent: means a person not less than 16 years of age charged by an entity with the responsibility of navigating and operating a personal delivery device. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Broker: means any person not included in the term "motor carrier" and not a bona fide employee or agent of any such carrier, who, as principal or agent, sells or offers for sale any transportation subject to this chapter except for transportation pursuant to Article 15 (§ 46. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Carrier by motor launch: means a common carrier, which carrier uses one or more motor launches operating on the waters within the Commonwealth to transport passengers. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Certificate: means a certificate of public convenience and necessity or a certificate of fitness. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Certificate of fitness: means a certificate issued by the Department to a contract passenger carrier, a sight-seeing carrier, a transportation network company, or a nonemergency medical transportation carrier. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Certificate of public convenience and necessity: means a certificate issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles to certain common carriers, but nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to mean that the Department can issue any such certificate authorizing intracity transportation. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Common carrier: means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by a lease or any other arrangement, to transport passengers for the general public by motor vehicle for compensation over the highways of the Commonwealth, whether over regular or irregular routes, including such motor vehicle operations of carriers by rail or water under this chapter. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decal: means a device to be attached to a license plate that validates the license plate for a predetermined registration period. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Department: means the Department of Motor Vehicles. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Digital platform: means any online-enabled application, software, website, or system offered or utilized by a transportation network company that enables the prearrangement of rides with TNC partners. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • driver: means every person who either (i) drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle on a highway or (ii) is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Highway: means every public highway or place of whatever nature open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth, including the streets and alleys in towns and cities. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Includes: means includes, but not limited to. See Virginia Code 1-218
  • Interstate: means transportation of passengers between states. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Intrastate: means transportation of passengers solely within a state. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: means a license issued by the Department to a broker or a TNC broker. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Motor carrier: means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by lease, to transport passengers for compensation over the highways of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Motor vehicle: means every vehicle as defined in this section that is self-propelled or designed for self-propulsion except as otherwise provided in this title. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Nonemergency medical transportation carrier: means a motor carrier that exclusively provides nonemergency medical transportation and provides such transportation only (i) through the Department of Medical Assistance Services; (ii) through a broker operating under a contract with the Department of Medical Assistance Services; or (iii) as a Medicaid Managed Care Organization or through a contractor of a Medicaid Managed Care Organization contracted with the Department of Medical Assistance Services to provide such transportation. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • operations: includes the operation of all motor vehicles, whether loaded or empty, whether for compensation or not, and whether owned by or leased to the motor carrier who operates them or causes them to be operated. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Operator: means the employer or person actually driving a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Permit: means a permit issued by the Department to carriers operating as employee haulers or nonprofit/tax-exempt passenger carriers or to operators of taxicabs or other vehicles performing taxicab service under this chapter. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Person: means any individual, firm, copartnership, corporation, company, association, or joint-stock association, and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee, or personal representative thereof. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Personal representative: includes the executor of a will or the administrator of the estate of a decedent, the administrator of such estate with the will annexed, the administrator of such estate unadministered by a former representative, whether there is a will or not, any person who is under the order of a circuit court to take into his possession the estate of a decedent for administration, and every other curator of a decedent's estate, for or against whom suits may be brought for causes of action that accrued to or against the decedent. See Virginia Code 1-234
  • Personal vehicle: means a motor vehicle that is not used to transport passengers for compensation except as a TNC partner vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Prearranged ride: includes the period of time that begins when a TNC partner accepts a ride requested through a digital platform, continues while the TNC partner transports a passenger in a TNC partner vehicle, and ends when the passenger exits the TNC partner vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Restricted common carrier: means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by a lease or other arrangement, to transport passengers for compensation, whereby such transportation service has been restricted. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Route: when used in connection with or with respect to a certificate of public convenience and necessity, means the road or highway, or segment thereof, operated over by the holder of a certificate of public convenience and necessity or proposed to be operated over by an applicant therefor, whether such road or highway is designated by one or more highway numbers. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Sight-seeing carrier: means a restricted common carrier authorized to transport passengers under the provisions of this chapter, whereby the primary purpose of the operation is the passengers' experience and enjoyment or the promotion of tourism. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • State: when applied to a part of the United States, includes any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-245
  • TNC broker: means any person who (i) is not a transportation network company or TNC partner and (ii) is not a bona fide employee or agent of a transportation network company or TNC partner, and who contracts or enters into an agreement or arrangement, with a transportation network company and who, in accordance with such contract, agreement or arrangement, arranges any transportation subject to Article 15 (§ 46. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • TNC partner: means a person authorized by a transportation network company to use a TNC partner vehicle to provide prearranged rides on an intrastate basis in the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • TNC partner vehicle: means a personal vehicle authorized by a transportation network company and used by a TNC partner to provide prearranged rides on an intrastate basis in the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • transportation: include the service of, and all transportation by, all vehicles operated by, for, or in the interest of any motor carrier irrespective of ownership or contract, expressed or implied, together with all facilities and property operated or controlled by any such carrier or carriers and used in the transportation of passengers or the performance of any service in connection therewith. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Transportation network company: means a person who provides prearranged rides using a digital platform that connects passengers with TNC partners. See Virginia Code 46.2-2000
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Vehicle: means every device in, on or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn on a highway, except personal delivery devices and devices moved by human power or used exclusively on stationary rails or tracks. See Virginia Code 46.2-100

“Authorized insurer” means, in the case of an interstate motor carrier whose operations may or may not include intrastate activity, an insurer authorized to transact business in any one state, or, in the case of a solely intrastate motor carrier, an insurer authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth.

“Broker” means any person not included in the term “motor carrier” and not a bona fide employee or agent of any such carrier, who, as principal or agent, sells or offers for sale any transportation subject to this chapter except for transportation pursuant to Article 15 (§ 46.2-2099.45 et seq.), or negotiates for, or holds himself out by solicitation, advertisement, or otherwise as one who sells, provides, furnishes, contracts, or arranges for such transportation.

“Carrier by motor launch” means a common carrier, which carrier uses one or more motor launches operating on the waters within the Commonwealth to transport passengers.

“Certificate” means a certificate of public convenience and necessity or a certificate of fitness.

“Certificate of fitness” means a certificate issued by the Department to a contract passenger carrier, a sight-seeing carrier, a transportation network company, or a nonemergency medical transportation carrier.

“Certificate of public convenience and necessity” means a certificate issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles to certain common carriers, but nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to mean that the Department can issue any such certificate authorizing intracity transportation.

“Common carrier” means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by a lease or any other arrangement, to transport passengers for the general public by motor vehicle for compensation over the highways of the Commonwealth, whether over regular or irregular routes, including such motor vehicle operations of carriers by rail or water under this chapter. “Common carrier” does not include nonemergency medical transportation carriers, transportation network companies, or TNC partners as defined in this section.

“Contract passenger carrier” means a motor carrier that transports groups of passengers under a single contract made with one person for an agreed charge for such transportation, regardless of the number of passengers transported, and for which transportation no individual or separate fares are solicited, charged, collected, or received by the carrier. “Contract passenger carrier” does not include a transportation network company or TNC partner as defined in this section.

“Department” means the Department of Motor Vehicles.

“Digital platform” means any online-enabled application, software, website, or system offered or utilized by a transportation network company that enables the prearrangement of rides with TNC partners.

“Employee hauler” means a motor carrier operating for compensation and exclusively transporting only bona fide employees directly to and from the factories, plants, office or other places of like nature where the employees are employed and accustomed to work.

“Excursion train” means any steam-powered train that carries passengers for which the primary purpose of the operation of such train is the passengers’ experience and enjoyment of this means of transportation, and does not, in the course of operation, carry (i) freight other than the personal luggage of the passengers or crew or supplies and equipment necessary to serve the needs of the passengers and crew, (ii) passengers who are commuting to work, or (iii) passengers who are traveling to their final destination solely for business or commercial purposes.

“Financial responsibility” means the ability to respond in damages for liability thereafter incurred arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or operation of a motor vehicle, in the amounts provided for in this chapter.

“Highway” means every public highway or place of whatever nature open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth, including the streets and alleys in towns and cities.

“Identification marker” means a decal or other visible identification issued by the Department to show one or more of the following: (i) that the operator of the vehicle has registered with the Department for the payment of the road tax imposed under Chapter 27 (§ 58.1-2700 et seq.) of Title 58.1; (ii) proof of the possession of a certificate or permit issued pursuant to this chapter; or (iii) proof of compliance with the insurance requirements of this chapter.

“Interstate” means transportation of passengers between states.

“Intrastate” means transportation of passengers solely within a state.

“License” means a license issued by the Department to a broker or a TNC broker.

“Minibus” means any motor vehicle having a seating capacity of not less than seven nor more than 31 passengers, including the driver, and used in the transportation of passengers.

“Motor carrier” means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by lease, to transport passengers for compensation over the highways of the Commonwealth.

“Motor launch” means a motor vessel that meets the requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard for the carriage of passengers for compensation, with a capacity of six or more passengers, but not in excess of 50 passengers. “Motor launch” does not include sight-seeing vessels, special or charter party vessels within the provisions of this chapter. A carrier by motor launch shall not be regarded as a steamship company.

“Nonemergency medical transportation carrier” means a motor carrier that exclusively provides nonemergency medical transportation and provides such transportation only (i) through the Department of Medical Assistance Services; (ii) through a broker operating under a contract with the Department of Medical Assistance Services; or (iii) as a Medicaid Managed Care Organization or through a contractor of a Medicaid Managed Care Organization contracted with the Department of Medical Assistance Services to provide such transportation.

“Nonprofit/tax-exempt passenger carrier” means a bona fide nonprofit corporation organized or existing under Chapter 10 (§ 13.1-801 et seq.) of Title 13.1, or a tax-exempt organization as defined in §§ 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, who undertakes, whether directly or by lease, to control and operate minibuses exclusively in the transportation, for compensation, of members of such organization if it is a membership corporation, or of elderly, disabled, or economically disadvantaged members of the community if it is not a membership corporation.

“Operation” or “operations” includes the operation of all motor vehicles, whether loaded or empty, whether for compensation or not, and whether owned by or leased to the motor carrier who operates them or causes them to be operated.

“Operation of a TNC partner vehicle” means (i) any time a TNC partner is logged into a digital platform and is available to pick up passengers; (ii) any time a passenger is in the TNC partner vehicle; and (iii) any time the TNC partner has accepted a prearranged ride request through the digital platform and is en route to a passenger.

“Operator” means the employer or person actually driving a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles.

“Permit” means a permit issued by the Department to carriers operating as employee haulers or nonprofit/tax-exempt passenger carriers or to operators of taxicabs or other vehicles performing taxicab service under this chapter.

“Person” means any individual, firm, copartnership, corporation, company, association, or joint-stock association, and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee, or personal representative thereof.

“Personal vehicle” means a motor vehicle that is not used to transport passengers for compensation except as a TNC partner vehicle.

“Prearranged ride” means passenger transportation for compensation in a TNC partner vehicle arranged through a digital platform. “Prearranged ride” includes the period of time that begins when a TNC partner accepts a ride requested through a digital platform, continues while the TNC partner transports a passenger in a TNC partner vehicle, and ends when the passenger exits the TNC partner vehicle.

“Restricted common carrier” means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by a lease or other arrangement, to transport passengers for compensation, whereby such transportation service has been restricted. “Restricted common carrier” does not include a transportation network company or TNC partner as defined in this section.

“Route,” when used in connection with or with respect to a certificate of public convenience and necessity, means the road or highway, or segment thereof, operated over by the holder of a certificate of public convenience and necessity or proposed to be operated over by an applicant therefor, whether such road or highway is designated by one or more highway numbers.

“Services” and “transportation” include the service of, and all transportation by, all vehicles operated by, for, or in the interest of any motor carrier irrespective of ownership or contract, expressed or implied, together with all facilities and property operated or controlled by any such carrier or carriers and used in the transportation of passengers or the performance of any service in connection therewith.

“Sight-seeing carrier” means a restricted common carrier authorized to transport passengers under the provisions of this chapter, whereby the primary purpose of the operation is the passengers’ experience and enjoyment or the promotion of tourism.

“Sight-seeing carrier by boat” means a restricted common carrier, which restricted common carrier uses a boat or boats operating on waters within the Commonwealth to transport passengers, and whereby the primary purpose of the operation is the passengers’ experience and enjoyment or the promotion of tourism. Sight-seeing carriers by boat shall not be regarded as steamship companies.

“Single state insurance receipt” means any receipt issued pursuant to 49 C.F.R. Part 367 evidencing that the carrier has the required insurance and paid the requisite fees to the Commonwealth and other qualified jurisdictions.

“Special or charter party carrier by boat” means a restricted common carrier which transports groups of persons under a single contract made with one person for an agreed charge for such movement regardless of the number of persons transported. Special or charter party carriers by boat shall not be regarded as steamship companies.

“Taxicab or other motor vehicle performing a taxicab service” means any motor vehicle having a seating capacity of not more than six passengers, excluding the driver, not operating on a regular route or between fixed terminals used in the transportation of passengers for hire or for compensation, and not a common carrier, restricted common carrier, transportation network company, TNC partner, or nonemergency medical transportation carrier as defined in this chapter.

“TNC broker” means any person who (i) is not a transportation network company or TNC partner and (ii) is not a bona fide employee or agent of a transportation network company or TNC partner, and who contracts or enters into an agreement or arrangement, with a transportation network company and who, in accordance with such contract, agreement or arrangement, arranges any transportation subject to Article 15 (§ 46.2-2099.45 et seq.) or negotiates for or holds himself out by solicitation, advertisement, or otherwise as one who arranges for such transportation but does not control the manner in which such transportation is provided.

“TNC broker insurance” means a motor vehicle liability insurance policy that specifically covers liabilities arising while the TNC partner is en route to a passenger pursuant to arrangements made by a TNC broker.

“TNC insurance” means a motor vehicle liability insurance policy that specifically covers liabilities arising from a TNC partner’s operation of a TNC partner vehicle.

“TNC partner” means a person authorized by a transportation network company to use a TNC partner vehicle to provide prearranged rides on an intrastate basis in the Commonwealth.

“TNC partner vehicle” means a personal vehicle authorized by a transportation network company and used by a TNC partner to provide prearranged rides on an intrastate basis in the Commonwealth.

“Trade dress” means a logo, insignia, or emblem attached to or visible from the exterior of a TNC partner vehicle that identifies a transportation network company or digital platform with which the TNC partner vehicle is affiliated.

“Transportation network company” means a person who provides prearranged rides using a digital platform that connects passengers with TNC partners.

Code 1950, § 56-273; 1950, p. 368; 1966, c. 543; 1973, cc. 306, 460; 1982, c. 257; 1989, c. 625; 1995, cc. 744, 803; 2001, c. 596; 2002, c. 861; 2004, c. 780; 2011, cc. 881, 889; 2012, cc. 22, 111; 2015, cc. 2, 3; 2017, cc. 554, 635, 694, 708.