Article 1 General and Miscellaneous 46.2-800 – 46.2-818.1
Article 1 1. Toll Violations and Enforcement 46.2-819 – 46.2-819.10
Article 2 Right-of-Way 46.2-820 – 46.2-829
Article 3 Traffic Signs, Lights, and Markings 46.2-830 – 46.2-836
Article 4 Passing 46.2-837 – 46.2-844
Article 5 Turning 46.2-845 – 46.2-847
Article 6 Signals by Drivers 46.2-848 – 46.2-851
Article 7 Reckless Driving and Improper Driving 46.2-852 – 46.2-869
Article 8 Speed 46.2-870 – 46.2-883
Article 9 Railroad Crossings 46.2-884 – 46.2-887
Article 10 Stopping on Highways 46.2-888 – 46.2-893
Article 11 Accidents 46.2-894 – 46.2-902.1
Article 12 Bicycles 46.2-903 – 46.2-908.1:1
Article 12 1. Low-Speed Vehicles 46.2-908.2 – 46.2-908.3
Article 13 Motorcycles and Mopeds and All-Terrain Vehicles 46.2-909 – 46.2-916
Article 13 1. Golf Cart and Utility Vehicle Operation 46.2-916.1 – 46.2-916.3
Article 14 School Buses 46.2-917 – 46.2-919.1
Article 15 Emergency Vehicles 46.2-920 – 46.2-922
Article 16 Pedestrians 46.2-923 – 46.2-935
Article 17 Legal Procedures and Requirements 46.2-936 – 46.2-943
Article 18 Arrest of Nonresidents 46.2-944.1 – 46.2-947

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 46.2 > Subtitle III > Chapter 8

  • Adult: means a person 18 years of age or more. See Virginia Code 1-203
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affiliated with: means that a person directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with the other specified person. See Virginia Code 55-525.1
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agent: means any person who represents or acts for or on behalf of a developer in the disposition of any lot or lots in a subdivision; but shall not include an attorney-at-law whose representation of another person consists solely of rendering legal services. See Virginia Code 55-337
  • agent: means a person not less than 16 years of age charged by an entity with the responsibility of navigating and operating an electric personal delivery device. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • All-terrain vehicle: means a motor vehicle having three or more wheels that is powered by a motor and is manufactured for off-highway use. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney-at-law: A person who is legally qualified and licensed to practice law, and to represent and act for clients in legal proceedings.
  • Autocycle: means a three-wheeled motor vehicle that has a steering wheel and seating that does not require the operator to straddle or sit astride and is manufactured to comply with federal safety requirements for motorcycles. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Ballistic knife: means any knife with a detachable blade that is propelled by a spring-operated mechanism. See Virginia Code 18.2-307.1
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bicycle: means a device propelled solely by human power, upon which a person may ride either on or astride a regular seat attached thereto, having two or more wheels in tandem, including children's bicycles, except a toy vehicle intended for use by young children. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Blanket encumbrance: means a trust, deed, mortgage, judgment or any other lien or encumbrance, securing or evidencing the payment of money and affecting the land in toto comprising the subdivision to be offered and sold or leased or affecting more than ten lots or parcels of such lands, or an agreement affecting more than ten lots or parcels of such lands by which the developer holds said subdivision under option, contract, sale or trust agreement. See Virginia Code 55-337
  • Camping trailer: means every vehicle that has collapsible sides and contains sleeping quarters but may or may not contain bathing and cooking facilities and is designed to be drawn by a motor vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Capital offense: A crime punishable by death.
  • Circular intersection: means an intersection that has an island, generally circular in design, located in the center of the intersection, where all vehicles pass to the right of the island. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • City: means an independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on July 1, 1971, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-208
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • Commingle: means to mix together exchange funds with operating and other nonexchange funds belonging to or under control of the exchange facilitator in such a manner that a client's exchange funds cannot be distinguished from operating or other nonexchange funds belonging to or under control of the exchange facilitator. See Virginia Code 55-525.1
  • Commission: means the State Corporation Commission. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Committee membership: Legislators are assigned to specific committees by their party. Seniority, regional balance, and political philosophy are the most prominent factors in the committee assignment process.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • counterfeit controlled substance: means a controlled substance that, without authorization, bears, is packaged in a container or wrapper that bears, or is otherwise labeled to bear, the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint or device or any likeness thereof, of a drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor other than the manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor who did in fact so manufacture, process, pack or distribute such drug. See Virginia Code 18.2-247
  • Crosswalk: means that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway; or any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decal: means a device to be attached to a license plate that validates the license plate for a predetermined registration period. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Default: means the failure to perform on time any obligation or duty set forth in the rental agreement or this chapter. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of State Police. See Virginia Code 18.2-265.6
  • Department: means the Department of Motor Vehicles of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Developer: means any person who offers, directly or indirectly, for disposition, any lots in a subdivision, but shall not include a trustee under a deed of trust securing an indebtedness or other obligation who sells lots within such subdivision under foreclosure proceedings provided the purpose in so doing is not to evade the provisions of this chapter. See Virginia Code 55-337
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dextromethorphan: means the dextrorotatory isomer of 3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan and its salts. See Virginia Code 18.2-265.19
  • Disbursement of settlement proceeds: means the payment of all proceeds of the transaction by the settlement agent to the persons entitled thereto. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • driver: means every person who either (i) drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle on a highway or (ii) is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • drug paraphernalia: means all equipment, products, and materials of any kind which are either designed for use or which are intended by the person charged with violating § Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electric personal delivery device: means an electrically powered device that (i) is operated on sidewalks, shared-use paths, and crosswalks and intended primarily to transport property; (ii) weighs less than 50 pounds, excluding cargo; (iii) has a maximum speed of 10 miles per hour; and (iv) is equipped with technology to allow for operation of the device with or without the active control or monitoring of a natural person. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electric personal delivery device operator: means an entity or its agent who exercises direct physical control or monitoring over the navigation system and operation of an electric personal delivery device. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electric power-assisted bicycle: means a vehicle that travels on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and is equipped with (i) pedals that allow propulsion by human power and (ii) an electric motor with an input of no more than 1,000 watts that reduces the pedal effort required of the rider and ceases to provide assistance when the bicycle reaches a speed of no more than 20 miles per hour. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • electronic system: means a real-time electronic recordkeeping and monitoring system for the sale of ephedrine or related compounds. See Virginia Code 18.2-265.6
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Ephedrine or related compounds: means ephedrine and pseudoephedrine base or their salts, isomers, or salts of isomers. See Virginia Code 18.2-265.6
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Exchange client: means the taxpayer with whom the exchange facilitator enters into an agreement described in subdivision 1 of the definition of exchange facilitator. See Virginia Code 55-525.1
  • Exchange facilitator: means a person that:

    1. See Virginia Code 55-525.1

  • Exchange funds: means the funds received by the exchange facilitator from or on behalf of the exchange client for the purpose of facilitating an exchange of like-kind property. See Virginia Code 55-525.1
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fee: means , for purposes of subdivision 1 of the definition of exchange facilitator, compensation of any nature, direct or indirect, monetary or in-kind, that is received by a person or a related person as described in Internal Revenue Code § 267(b) or 707(b) for any services relating to or incidental to the exchange of like-kind property under Internal Revenue Code § 1031. See Virginia Code 55-525.1
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Financial institution: means any bank, credit union, savings and loan association, savings bank, or trust company chartered under the laws of the Commonwealth or the United States whose accounts are insured by the full faith and credit of the United States of America, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, or other similar or successor programs and any direct or indirect subsidiary of such bank, credit union, savings and loan association, savings bank, or trust company. See Virginia Code 55-525.1
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Golf cart: means a self-propelled vehicle that is designed to transport persons playing golf and their equipment on a golf course. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Governing body: means the board of supervisors of a county, council of a city, or council of a town, as context may require. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross weight: means the aggregate weight of a vehicle or combination of vehicles and the load thereon. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Handgun: means any pistol or revolver or other firearm, except a machine gun, originally designed, made, and intended to fire a projectile by means of an explosion of a combustible material from one or more barrels when held in one hand. See Virginia Code 18.2-307.1
  • Highway: means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth, including the streets and alleys, and, for law-enforcement purposes, (i) the entire width between the boundary lines of all private roads or private streets that have been specifically designated "highways" by an ordinance adopted by the governing body of the county, city, or town in which such private roads or streets are located and (ii) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place used for purposes of vehicular travel on any property owned, leased, or controlled by the United States government and located in the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • imitation controlled substance: when used in this article means (i) a counterfeit controlled substance or (ii) a pill, capsule, tablet, or substance in any form whatsoever which is not a controlled substance subject to abuse, and:

    1. See Virginia Code 18.2-247

  • in writing: include any representation of words, letters, symbols, numbers, or figures, whether (i) printed or inscribed on a tangible medium or (ii) stored in an electronic or other medium and retrievable in a perceivable form and whether an electronic signature authorized by Chapter 42. See Virginia Code 1-257
  • Includes: means includes, but not limited to. See Virginia Code 1-218
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • inhabitants: means with reference to any county, city, town, political subdivision of the Commonwealth or any combination thereof, the natural persons in such county, city, town, political subdivision or combination as shown by the unadjusted United States decennial census last preceding the time at which any provision dependent upon population is being applied or the time as of which it is being construed. See Virginia Code 1-235
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Intersection: means (i) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways that join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling on different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict; (ii) where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection, in the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection; or (iii) for purposes only of authorizing installation of traffic-control devices, every crossing of a highway or street at grade by a pedestrian crosswalk. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • lane: means that portion of a roadway designed or designated to accommodate the forward movement of a single line of vehicles. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Lane-use control signal: means a signal face displaying indications to permit or prohibit the use of specific lanes of a roadway or to indicate the impending prohibition of such use. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Last known address: means that address or electronic mail address provided by the occupant in the rental agreement or the address or electronic mail address provided by the occupant in a subsequent written notice of a change of address. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Law-enforcement officer: means any officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of this title or local ordinances authorized by law. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Law-enforcement officer: means those individuals defined as a law-enforcement officer in § 9. See Virginia Code 18.2-307.1
  • Lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See Virginia Code 18.2-307.1
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Leased space: means the individual storage space at the self-service facility which is leased or rented to an occupant pursuant to a rental agreement. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Lender: means any person regularly engaged in making loans secured by mortgages or deeds of trust on real estate. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • License plate: means a device containing letters, numerals, or a combination of both, attached to a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer to indicate that the vehicle is properly registered with the Department. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
  • Light: means a device for producing illumination or the illumination produced by the device. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Loan closing: means the time agreed upon by the borrower and lender, when the execution of the loan documents by the borrower occurs. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Loan documents: means the note evidencing the debt due the lender, the deed of trust, or mortgage securing the debt due the lender, and any other documents required by the lender to be executed by the borrower as a part of the transaction. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Loan funds: means the gross or net proceeds of the loan to be disbursed by the lender at loan closing. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Locality: means a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 1-221
  • Lot: means any unit, parcel, division, or piece of land or interest in land except utility easements if such interest carries with it the exclusive right to use a specific portion of property. See Virginia Code 55-337
  • Low-speed vehicle: means any four-wheeled electrically powered or gas-powered vehicle, except a motor vehicle or low-speed vehicle that is used exclusively for agricultural or horticultural purposes or a golf cart, whose maximum speed is greater than 20 miles per hour but not greater than 25 miles per hour and is manufactured to comply with safety standards contained in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, § 571. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • marijuana: when used in this article means any part of a plant of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not, its seeds or resin; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds, or its resin. See Virginia Code 18.2-247
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Month: means a calendar month and "year" means a calendar year. See Virginia Code 1-223
  • Moped: means every vehicle that travels on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground that (i) has a seat that is no less than 24 inches in height, measured from the middle of the seat perpendicular to the ground; (ii) has a gasoline, electric, or hybrid motor that (a) displaces 50 cubic centimeters or less or (b) has an input of 1500 watts or less; (iii) is power-driven, with or without pedals that allow propulsion by human power; and (iv) is not operated at speeds in excess of 35 miles per hour. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Motor vehicle: means every vehicle as defined in this section that is self-propelled or designed for self-propulsion except as otherwise provided in this title. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Motor-driven cycle: means every motorcycle that has a gasoline engine that (i) displaces less than 150 cubic centimeters; (ii) has a seat less than 24 inches in height, measured from the middle of the seat perpendicular to the ground; and (iii) has no manufacturer-issued vehicle identification number. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Motorcycle: means every motor vehicle designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and is capable of traveling at speeds in excess of 35 miles per hour. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Motorized skateboard or scooter: includes vehicles with or without handlebars but does not include "electric personal assistive mobility devices. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Nonresident: means every person who is not domiciled in the Commonwealth, except: (i) any foreign corporation that is authorized to do business in the Commonwealth by the State Corporation Commission shall be a resident of the Commonwealth for the purpose of this title; in the case of corporations incorporated in the Commonwealth but doing business outside the Commonwealth, only such principal place of business or branches located within the Commonwealth shall be dealt with as residents of the Commonwealth; (ii) a person who becomes engaged in a gainful occupation in the Commonwealth for a period exceeding 60 days shall be a resident for the purposes of this title except for the purposes of Chapter 3 (§ Virginia Code 55-517.1
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See Virginia Code 1-228
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Occupant: means a person, his sublessee, successor, or assign, entitled to the use of a leased space at a self-service storage facility under a rental agreement. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Off-road motorcycle: means every motorcycle designed exclusively for off-road use by an individual rider with not more than two wheels in contact with the ground. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Option payment: means the amount paid by the purchaser in a residential executory real estate contract in exchange for the right to purchase the property that is the subject of such contract at a specific price within a specified time. See Virginia Code 55-252.1
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means a person who holds the legal title to a vehicle; however, if a vehicle is the subject of an agreement for its conditional sale or lease with the right of purchase on performance of the conditions stated in the agreement and with an immediate right of possession vested in the conditional vendee or lessee or if a mortgagor of a vehicle is entitled to possession, then the conditional vendee or lessee or mortgagor shall be the owner for the purpose of this title. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Owner: means the owner, operator, lessor, or sublessor of a self-service storage facility, his agent, or any other person authorized to manage the facility or to receive rent from any occupant under a rental agreement. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: means any individual, corporation, government or governmental agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, unincorporated association, two or more of any of the foregoing having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity. See Virginia Code 55-337
  • Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
  • Person: means , in addition to the singular, persons, groups of persons, cooperative associations, limited liability companies, firms, partnerships, corporations, or other legal entities and includes the agents and employees of any such person. See Virginia Code 55-525.1
  • Personal knowledge: means knowledge of a fact that a person has himself gained through his own senses, or knowledge that was gained by a law-enforcement officer or prosecutor through the performance of his official duties. See Virginia Code 18.2-307.1
  • Personal property: means movable property, not affixed to land and includes, but is not limited to, goods, wares, merchandise, and household items and furnishings. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Personal representative: includes the executor of a will or the administrator of the estate of a decedent, the administrator of such estate with the will annexed, the administrator of such estate unadministered by a former representative, whether there is a will or not, any person who is under the order of a circuit court to take into his possession the estate of a decedent for administration, and every other curator of a decedent's estate, for or against whom suits may be brought for causes of action that accrued to or against the decedent. See Virginia Code 1-234
  • Pharmacy: means any establishment or institution from which drugs, medicines, or medicinal chemicals are dispensed or offered for sale or on which a sign is displayed bearing the words "apothecary" "druggist" "drugs" "drug store" "drug sundries" "medicine store" "pharmacist" "pharmacy" or "prescriptions filled" or any similar words intended to indicate that the practice of pharmacy is being conducted pursuant to a license issued under Chapter 33 (§ 54. See Virginia Code 18.2-265.6
  • Pharmacy: means any establishment or institution from which drugs, medicines, or medicinal chemicals are dispensed or offered for sale or on which a sign is displayed bearing the words "apothecary" "druggist" "drugs" "drug store" "drug sundries" "medicine store" "pharmacist" "pharmacy" "prescriptions filled" or any similar words intended to indicate that the practice of pharmacy is being conducted pursuant to a license issued under Chapter 33 (§ 54. See Virginia Code 18.2-265.19
  • Pickup or panel truck: means (i) every motor vehicle designed for the transportation of property and having a registered gross weight of 7,500 pounds or less or (ii) every motor vehicle registered for personal use, designed to transport property on its own structure independent of any other vehicle, and having a registered gross weight in excess of 7,500 pounds but not in excess of 10,000 pounds. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Private road or driveway: means every way in private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Process: includes subpoenas, the summons and complaint in a civil action, and process in statutory actions. See Virginia Code 1-237
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Purchaser: means a person who enters into a residential executory real estate contract. See Virginia Code 55-252.1
  • Purchaser: means a person who acquires or attempts to acquire any lot or lots in a subdivision. See Virginia Code 55-337
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ratification: means the full execution of a real estate purchase contract by all parties. See Virginia Code 55-517.1
  • real estate: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments, and all rights and appurtenances thereto and interests therein, other than a chattel interest. See Virginia Code 1-219
  • Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act: Federal law that, among other things, requires lenders to provide "good faith" estimates of settlement costs and make other disclosures regarding the mortgage loan. RESPA also limits the amount of funds held in escrow for real estate taxes and insurance. Source: OCC
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rental agreement: means any agreement or lease that establishes or modifies the terms, conditions, or rules concerning the use and occupancy of a self-service storage facility. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Residence district: means the territory contiguous to a highway, not comprising a business district, where 75 percent or more of the property abutting such highway, on either side of the highway, for a distance of 300 feet or more along the highway consists of land improved for dwelling purposes, or is occupied by dwellings, or consists of land or buildings in use for business purposes, or consists of territory zoned residential or territory in residential subdivisions created under Chapter 22 (§ Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Self-service storage facility: means any real property designed and used for renting or leasing individual storage spaces, other than storage spaces which are leased or rented as an incident to the lease or rental of residential property or dwelling units, to which the occupants thereof have access for storing or removing their personal property. See Virginia Code 55-417
  • Semitrailer: means every vehicle of the trailer type so designed and used in conjunction with a motor vehicle that some part of its own weight and that of its own load rests on or is carried by another vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: means the time when the settlement agent has received the duly executed deed, loan funds, loan documents, and other documents and funds required to carry out the terms of the contract between the parties and the settlement agent reasonably determines that prerecordation conditions of such contracts have been satisfied. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Settlement agent: means the person responsible for conducting the settlement and disbursement of the settlement proceeds and includes any individual, corporation, partnership, or other entity conducting the settlement and disbursement of loan proceeds. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Settlement service provider: means any person providing settlement services, as that term is defined under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (12 U. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Shared-use path: means a bikeway that is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within a separate right-of-way. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Shoulder: means that part of a highway between the portion regularly traveled by vehicular traffic and the lateral curbline or ditch. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Sidewalk: means the portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Spring stick: means a spring-loaded metal stick activated by pushing a button that rapidly and forcefully telescopes the weapon to several times its original length. See Virginia Code 18.2-307.1
  • State: when applied to a part of the United States, includes any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-245
  • state agency: means the same as that term is defined in § 2. See Virginia Code 1-206
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subdivision: means :

    a. See Virginia Code 55-337

  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Superintendent: means the Superintendent of the Department of State Police of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Supreme Court: means the Supreme Court of Virginia. See Virginia Code 1-249
  • suspension: means that the document or privilege suspended has been temporarily withdrawn, but may be reinstated following the period of suspension unless it has expired prior to the end of the period of suspension. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • sworn: means "affirm" or "affirmed. See Virginia Code 1-250
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Thing of value: means any payment, advance, funds, loan, service, or other consideration. See Virginia Code 55-525.8
  • Tow truck: means a motor vehicle for hire (i) designed to lift, pull, or carry another vehicle by means of a hoist or other mechanical apparatus and (ii) having a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of at least 10,000 pounds. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July 1, 1971, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-254
  • Toy vehicle: means any motorized or propellant-driven device that has no manufacturer-issued vehicle identification number that is designed or used to carry any person or persons, on any number of wheels, bearings, glides, blades, runners, or a cushion of air. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Tractor truck: means every motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the load and weight of the vehicle attached thereto. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Traffic control device: means a sign, signal, marking, or other device used to regulate, warn, or guide traffic placed on, over, or adjacent to a street, highway, private road open to public travel, pedestrian facility, or shared-use path by authority of a public agency or official having jurisdiction, or in the case of a private road open to public travel, by authority of the private owner or private official having jurisdiction. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Traffic infraction: means a violation of law punishable as provided in §