Terms Used In Wisconsin Statutes 401.201
- Acquire: when used in connection with a grant of power to any person, includes the acquisition by purchase, grant, gift or bequest. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Following: when used by way of reference to any statute section, means the section next following that in which the reference is made. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Person: includes all partnerships, associations and bodies politic or corporate. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- Property: includes real and personal property. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- State: when applied to states of the United States, includes the District of Columbia, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the several territories organized by Congress. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- United States: includes the District of Columbia, the states, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the territories organized by congress. See Wisconsin Statutes 990.01
(1) Unless the context otherwise requires, words or phrases defined in this section, or in the additional definitions contained in chs. 402 to 411 that apply to particular chapters or subchapters thereof, have the meanings stated.
(2) Subject to definitions contained in chs. 402 to 411 that apply to particular chapters or subchapters thereof, in chs. 401 to 411:
(a) “Action,” in the sense of a judicial proceeding, includes recoupment, counterclaim, setoff, suit in equity, and any other proceeding in which rights are determined.
(am) “Aggrieved party” means a party entitled to pursue a remedy.
(b) “Agreement” means the bargain of the parties in fact, as found in their language or inferred from other circumstances, including course of performance, course of dealing, or usage of trade as provided in s. 401.303. (Compare “Contract.”)
(c) “Bank” means a person engaged in the business of banking and includes a savings bank, savings and loan association, credit union, and trust company.
(cm) “Bearer” means a person in control of a negotiable electronic document of title or person in possession of an instrument, negotiable tangible document of title, or certificated security payable to bearer or endorsed in blank.
(d) “Bill of lading” means a document of title evidencing the receipt of goods for shipment issued by a person engaged in the business of directly or indirectly transporting or forwarding goods. The term does not include a warehouse receipt.
(dm) “Branch” includes a separately incorporated foreign branch of a bank.
(e) “Burden of establishing” a fact means the burden of persuading the trier of fact that the existence of the fact is more probable than its nonexistence.
(em) “Buyer in ordinary course of business” means a person that buys goods in good faith, without knowledge that the sale violates the rights of another person in the goods, and in the ordinary course from a person, other than a pawnbroker, in the business of selling goods of that kind. A person buys goods in the ordinary course if the sale to the person comports with the usual or customary practices in the kind of business in which the seller is engaged or with the seller’s own usual or customary practices. A person that sells oil, gas, or other minerals at the wellhead or minehead is a person in the business of selling goods of that kind. A buyer in ordinary course of business may buy for cash, by exchange of other property, or on secured or unsecured credit, and may acquire goods or documents of title under a preexisting contract for sale. Only a buyer that takes possession of the goods or has a right to recover the goods from the seller under ch. 402 may be a buyer in ordinary course of business. A person that acquires goods in a transfer in bulk or as security for or in total or partial satisfaction of a money debt is not a buyer in ordinary course of business.
(f) “Conspicuous,” with reference to a term, means so written, displayed, or presented that a reasonable person against which it is to operate ought to have noticed it. Whether a term is “conspicuous” or not is a decision for the court. Conspicuous terms include any of the following:
1. A heading in capitals equal to or greater in size than the surrounding text, or in contrasting type, font, or color to the surrounding text of the same or lesser size.
2. Language in the body of a record or display in larger type than the surrounding text, or in contrasting type, font, or color to the surrounding text of the same size, or set off from surrounding text of the same size by symbols or other marks that call attention to the language.
(fm) “Consumer” means an individual who enters into a transaction primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.
(g) “Contract” means the total legal obligation that results from the parties’ agreement as determined by chs. 401 to 411 as supplemented by any other applicable laws. (Compare “Agreement.”)
(gm) “Creditor” includes a general creditor, a secured creditor, a lien creditor, and any representative of creditors, including an assignee for the benefit of creditors, a trustee in bankruptcy, a receiver in equity, and an executor or administrator of an insolvent debtor’s or assignor’s estate.
(h) “Defendant” includes a person in the position of defendant in a counterclaim or 3rd party claim.
(hm) “Delivery” with respect to electronic documents of title means voluntary transfer of control and with respect to instruments, tangible documents of title, chattel paper, or certificated securities means voluntary transfer of possession.
(i) “Document of title” means a record that in the regular course of business or financing is treated as adequately evidencing that the person in possession or control of the record is entitled to receive, control, hold, and dispose of the record and the goods the record covers; and that purports to be issued by or addressed to a bailee and to cover goods in the bailee’s possession which are either identified or are fungible portions of an identified mass. The term includes a bill of lading, transport document, dock warrant, dock receipt, warehouse receipt, and order for delivery of goods. An electronic document of title is evidenced by a record consisting of information stored in an electronic medium. A tangible document of title is evidenced by a record consisting of information that is inscribed on a tangible medium.
(im) “Fault” means a wrongful act, omission, breach, or default.
(j) “Fungible goods” means any of the following:
1. Goods of which any unit, by nature or usage of trade, is the equivalent of any other like unit.
2. Goods which by agreement are treated as equivalent.
(jm) “Genuine” means free of forgery or counterfeiting.
(k) “Good faith” means honesty in fact in the conduct or transaction concerned.
(km) “Holder” means any of the following:
1. The person in possession of a negotiable instrument that is payable either to bearer or to an identified person that is the person in possession.
2. A person in possession of a document of title if the goods are deliverable either to bearer or to the order of the person in possession.
3. A person in control of a negotiable electronic document of title.
(L) “Insolvency proceeding” includes an assignment for the benefit of creditors or other proceeding intended to liquidate or rehabilitate the estate of the person involved.
(Lm) “Insolvent” means any of the following:
1. Having generally ceased to pay debts in the ordinary course of business other than as a result of bona fide dispute.
2. Unable to pay debts as they become due.
3. Insolvent within the meaning of federal bankruptcy law.
(m) “Money” means a medium of exchange currently authorized or adopted by a domestic or foreign government. The term includes a monetary unit of account established by an intergovernmental organization or by agreement between 2 or more countries.
(mm) “Organization” means a person other than an individual.
(n) “Party,” as distinct from a “3rd party,” means a person that has engaged in a transaction or made an agreement subject to chs. 401 to 411.
(nm) “Person” means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity.
(p) “Present value” means the amount as of a date certain of one or more sums payable in the future, discounted to the date certain by use of either an interest rate specified by the parties if that rate is not manifestly unreasonable at the time the transaction is entered into or, if an interest rate is not so specified, a commercially reasonable rate that takes into account the facts and circumstances at the time the transaction is entered into.
(pm) “Presumption” or “presumed” means that the trier of fact must find the existence of the fact presumed unless and until evidence is introduced which would support a finding of its nonexistence.
(q) “Purchase” means taking by sale, lease, discount, negotiation, mortgage, pledge, lien, security interest, issue or reissue, gift, or any other voluntary transaction creating an interest in property.
(qm) “Purchaser” means a person that takes by purchase.
(r) “Record” means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
(rm) “Remedy” means any remedial right to which an aggrieved party is entitled with or without resort to a tribunal.
(s) “Representative” means any person empowered to act for another, including an agent, an officer of a corporation or association, and a trustee, executor, or administrator of an estate.
(sm) “Right” includes remedy.
(t) “Security interest” means an interest in personal property or fixtures which secures payment or performance of an obligation. The term also includes any interest of a consignor and a buyer of accounts, chattel paper, a payment intangible, or a promissory note in a transaction that is subject to ch. 409. The special property interest of a buyer of goods on identification of those goods to a contract for sale under s. 402.401 is not a “security interest,” but a buyer may also acquire a “security interest” by complying with ch. 409. Except as otherwise provided in s. 402.505, the right of a seller or lessor of goods under ch. 402 or 411 to retain or acquire possession of the goods is not a “security interest,” but a seller or lessor may also acquire a “security interest” by complying with ch. 409. The retention or reservation of title by a seller of goods notwithstanding shipment or delivery to the buyer (s. 402.401) is limited in effect to a reservation of a “security interest.” Whether a transaction in the form of a lease creates a “security interest” is determined pursuant to s. 401.203.
(tm) “Send” in connection with a writing, record, or notice means any of the following:
1. To deposit in the mail or deliver for transmission by any other usual means of communication with postage or cost of transmission provided for and properly addressed and, in the case of an instrument, to an address specified thereon or otherwise agreed, or if there be none to any address reasonable under the circumstances.
2. In any other way to cause to be received any record or notice within the time it would have arrived if properly sent.
(u) “Signed” includes any symbol executed or adopted with present intention to adopt or accept a writing.
(um) “State” means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(v) “Surety” includes a guarantor or other secondary obligor.
(vm) “Term” means a portion of an agreement that relates to a particular matter.
(w) “Unauthorized signature” means a signature made without actual, implied, or apparent authority. The term includes a forgery.
(wm) “Warehouse receipt” means a receipt issued by a person engaged in the business of storing goods for hire.
(x) “Writing” includes printing, typewriting, or any other intentional reduction to tangible form. “Written” has a corresponding meaning.