(a) Board of Directors; use of mails; cooperation with other Federal agencies

The Board of Directors shall administer the affairs of the Corporation fairly and impartially and without discrimination. The Board of Directors of the Corporation shall determine and prescribe the manner in which its obligations shall be incurred and its expenses allowed and paid. The Corporation shall be entitled to the free use of the United States mails in the same manner as the executive departments of the Government. The Corporation with the consent of any Federal Reserve bank or of any board, commission, independent establishment, or executive department of the Government, including any field service thereof, may avail itself of the use of information, services, and facilities thereof in carrying out the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Examinations

(1) Appointment of examiners and claims agents

Terms Used In 12 USC 1820

  • affiliate: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841(k) of this title. See 10 USC 949s
  • appropriate Federal banking agency: means --

    (1) the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of--

    (A) any national banking association. See 10 USC 949s

  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • bank holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See 10 USC 949s
  • Board of Directors: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation. See 10 USC 949s
  • bridge depository institution: means a new national bank or Federal savings association organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(n) of this title. See 10 USC 949s
  • control: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See 10 USC 949s
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • default: means , with respect to an insured depository institution, any adjudication or other official determination by any court of competent jurisdiction, the appropriate Federal banking agency, or other public authority pursuant to which a conservator, receiver, or other legal custodian is appointed for an insured depository institution or, in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, for such branch. See 10 USC 949s
  • deposit: means --

    (1) the unpaid balance of money or its equivalent received or held by a bank or savings association in the usual course of business and for which it has given or is obligated to give credit, either conditionally or unconditionally, to a commercial, checking, savings, time, or thrift account, or which is evidenced by its certificate of deposit, thrift certificate, investment certificate, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar name, or a check or draft drawn against a deposit account and certified by the bank or savings association, or a letter of credit or a traveler's check on which the bank or savings association is primarily liable: Provided, That, without limiting the generality of the term "money or its equivalent" any such account or instrument must be regarded as evidencing the receipt of the equivalent of money when credited or issued in exchange for checks or drafts or for a promissory note upon which the person obtaining any such credit or instrument is primarily or secondarily liable, or for a charge against a deposit account, or in settlement of checks, drafts, or other instruments forwarded to such bank or savings association for collection. See 10 USC 949s

  • depository institution: means any bank or savings association. See 10 USC 949s
  • depository institution holding company: means a bank holding company or a savings and loan holding company. See 10 USC 949s
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Federal banking agency: means the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. See 10 USC 949s
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • foreign bank: has the meaning given to such term by section 1(b)(7) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See 10 USC 949s
  • insured depository institution: includes any uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank or a commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank for purposes of section 1818 of this title. See 10 USC 949s
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • receiver: includes a receiver, liquidating agent, conservator, commission, person, or other agency charged by law with the duty of winding up the affairs of a bank or savings association or of a branch of a foreign bank. See 10 USC 949s
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. See 10 USC 949s
  • State bank: means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, industrial bank (or similar depository institution which the Board of Directors finds to be operating substantially in the same manner as an industrial bank), or other banking institution which--

    (A) is engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than trust funds (as defined in this section). See 10 USC 949s

  • State bank supervisor: means any officer, agency, or other entity of any State which has primary regulatory authority over State banks or State savings associations in such State. See 10 USC 949s
  • State nonmember bank: means any State bank which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 10 USC 949s
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • violation: includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation. See 10 USC 949s
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291

The Board of Directors shall appoint examiners and claims agents.

(2) Regular examinations

Any examiner appointed under paragraph (1) shall have power, on behalf of the Corporation, to examine–

(A) any insured State nonmember bank or insured State branch of any foreign bank;

(B) any depository institution which files an application with the Corporation to become an insured depository institution; and

(C) any insured depository institution in default,


whenever the Board of Directors determines an examination of any such depository institution is necessary.

(3) Special examination of any insured depository institution

(A) In general

In addition to the examinations authorized under paragraph (2), any examiner appointed under paragraph (1) shall have power, on behalf of the Corporation, to make any special examination of any insured depository institution or nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in section 165(a) of the Financial Stability Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5365(a)], whenever the Board of Directors determines that a special examination of any such depository institution is necessary to determine the condition of such depository institution for insurance purposes, or of such nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or bank holding company described in section 165(a) of the Financial Stability Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5365(a)], for the purpose of implementing its authority to provide for orderly liquidation of any such company under title II 1 of that Act, provided that such authority may not be used with respect to any such company that is in a generally sound condition.

(B) Limitation

Before conducting a special examination of a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in section 165(a) of the Financial Stability Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5365(a)], the Corporation shall review any available and acceptable resolution plan that the company has submitted in accordance with section 165(d) of that Act [12 U.S.C. 5365(d)], consistent with the nonbinding effect of such plan, and available reports of examination, and shall coordinate to the maximum extent practicable with the Board of Governors, in order to minimize duplicative or conflicting examinations.

(4) Examination of affiliates

(A) In general

In making any examination under paragraph (2) or (3), any examiner appointed under paragraph (1) shall have power, on behalf of the Corporation, to make such examinations of the affairs of any affiliate of any depository institution as may be necessary to disclose fully–

(i) the relationship between such depository institution and any such affiliate; and

(ii) the effect of such relationship on the depository institution.

(B) Commitment by foreign banks to allow examinations of affiliates

No branch or depository institution subsidiary of a foreign bank may become an insured depository institution unless such foreign bank submits a written binding commitment to the Board of Directors to permit any examination of any affiliate of such branch or depository institution subsidiary pursuant to subparagraph (A) to the extent determined by the Board of Directors to be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(5) Examination of insured State branches

The Board of Directors shall–

(A) coordinate examinations of insured State branches of foreign banks with examinations conducted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under section 3105(c)(1) of this title; and

(B) to the extent possible, participate in any simultaneous examination of the United States operations of a foreign bank requested by the Board under such section.

(6) Power and duty of examiners

Each examiner appointed under paragraph (1) shall–

(A) have power to make a thorough examination of any insured depository institution or affiliate under paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5); and

(B) shall make a full and detailed report of condition of any insured depository institution or affiliate examined to the Corporation.

(7) Power of claim agents

Each claim agent appointed under paragraph (1) shall have power to investigate and examine all claims for insured deposits.

(c) Administration of oaths and affirmations; evidence; subpena powers

In connection with examinations of insured depository institutions and any State nonmember bank, savings association, or other institution making application to become insured depository institutions, and affiliates thereof, or with other types of investigations to determine compliance with applicable law and regulations, the appropriate Federal banking agency, or its designated representatives, are authorized to administer oaths and affirmations, and to examine and to take and preserve testimony under oath as to any matter in respect to the affairs or ownership of any such bank or institution or affiliate thereof, and to exercise such other powers as are set forth in section 1818(n) of this title.

(d) Annual on-site examinations of all insured depository institutions required

(1) In general

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall, not less than once during each 12-month period, conduct a full-scope, on-site examination of each insured depository institution.

(2) Examinations by Corporation

Paragraph (1) shall not apply during any 12-month period in which the Corporation has conducted a full-scope, on-site examination of the insured depository institution.

(3) State examinations acceptable

The examinations required by paragraph (1) may be conducted in alternate 12-month periods, as appropriate, if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that an examination of the insured depository institution conducted by the State during the intervening 12-month period carries out the purpose of this subsection.

(4) 18-month rule for certain small institutions

Paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) shall apply with “18-month” substituted for “12-month” if–

(A) the insured depository institution has total assets of less than $3,000,000,000;

(B) the institution is well capitalized, as defined in section 1831o of this title;

(C) when the institution was most recently examined, it was found to be well managed, and its composite condition–

(i) was found to be outstanding; or

(ii) was found to be outstanding or good, in the case of an insured depository institution that has total assets of not more than $200,000,000;


(D) the insured institution is not currently subject to a formal enforcement proceeding or order by the Corporation or the appropriate Federal banking agency; and

(E) no person acquired control of the institution during the 12-month period in which a full-scope, on-site examination would be required but for this paragraph.

(5) Certain Government-controlled institutions exempted

Paragraph (1) does not apply to–

(A) any institution for which the Corporation is conservator; or

(B) any bridge depository institution, none of the voting securities of which are owned by a person or agency other than the Corporation.

(6) Coordinated examinations

To minimize the disruptive effects of examinations on the operations of insured depository institutions–

(A) each appropriate Federal banking agency shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with principles of safety and soundness and the public interest–

(i) coordinate examinations to be conducted by that agency at an insured depository institution and its affiliates;

(ii) coordinate with the other appropriate Federal banking agencies in the conduct of such examinations;

(iii) work to coordinate with the appropriate State bank supervisor–

(I) the conduct of all examinations made pursuant to this subsection; and

(II) the number, types, and frequency of reports required to be submitted to such agencies and supervisors by insured depository institutions, and the type and amount of information required to be included in such reports; and


(iv) use copies of reports of examinations of insured depository institutions made by any other Federal banking agency or appropriate State bank supervisor to eliminate duplicative requests for information; and


(B) not later than 2 years after September 23, 1994, the Federal banking agencies shall jointly establish and implement a system for determining which one of the Federal banking agencies or State bank supervisors shall be the lead agency responsible for managing a unified examination of each insured depository institution and its affiliates, as required by this subsection.

(7) Separate examinations permitted

Notwithstanding paragraph (6), each appropriate Federal banking agency may conduct a separate examination in an emergency or under other exigent circumstances, or when the agency believes that a violation of law may have occurred.

(8) Report

At the time the system provided for in paragraph (6) is established, the Federal banking agencies shall submit a joint report describing the system to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives. Thereafter, the Federal banking agencies shall annually submit a joint report to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives regarding the progress of the agencies in implementing the system and indicating areas in which enhancements to the system, including legislature improvements, would be appropriate.

(9) Standards for determining adequacy of State examinations

The Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council shall issue guidelines establishing standards to be used at the discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency for purposes of making a determination under paragraph (3).

(10) Agencies authorized to increase maximum asset amount of institutions for certain purposes

At any time after the end of the 2-year period beginning on September 23, 1994, the appropriate Federal banking agency, in the agency’s discretion, may increase the maximum amount limitation contained in paragraph (4)(C)(ii), by regulation, from $200,000,000 to an amount not to exceed $3,000,000,000 for purposes of such paragraph, if the agency determines that the greater amount would be consistent with the principles of safety and soundness for insured depository institutions.

(e) Examination fees

(1) Regular and special examinations of depository institutions

The cost of conducting any regular examination or special examination of any depository institution under subsection (b)(2), (b)(3), or (d) or of any entity described in section 1813(q)(2) of this title may be assessed by the Corporation against the institution or entity to meet the expenses of the Corporation in carrying out such examinations.

(2) Examination of affiliates

The cost of conducting any examination of any affiliate of any insured depository institution under subsection (b)(4) may be assessed by the Corporation against each affiliate which is examined to meet the Corporation’s expenses in carrying out such examination.

(3) Assessment against depository institution in case of affiliate’s refusal to pay

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), if any affiliate of any insured depository institution–

(i) refuses to pay any assessment under paragraph (2); or

(ii) fails to pay any such assessment before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date the affiliate receives notice of the assessment,


the Corporation may assess such cost against, and collect such cost from, the depository institution.

(B) Affiliate of more than 1 depository institution

If any affiliate referred to in subparagraph (A) is an affiliate of more than 1 insured depository institution, the assessment under subparagraph (A) may be assessed against the depository institutions in such proportions as the Corporation determines to be appropriate.

(4) Civil money penalty for affiliate’s refusal to cooperate

(A) Penalty imposed

If any affiliate of any insured depository institution–

(i) refuses to permit an examiner appointed by the Board of Directors under subsection (b)(1) to conduct an examination; or

(ii) refuses to provide any information required to be disclosed in the course of any examination,


the depository institution shall forfeit and pay a penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day that any such refusal continues.

(B) Assessment and collection

Any penalty imposed under subparagraph (A) shall be assessed and collected by the Corporation in the manner provided in section 1818(i)(2) of this title.

(5) Deposits of examination assessment

Amounts received by the Corporation under this subsection (other than paragraph (4)) may be deposited in the manner provided in section 1823 of this title.

(f) Preservation of agency records

(1) In general

A Federal banking agency may cause any and all records, papers, or documents kept by the agency or in the possession or custody of the agency to be–

(A) photographed or microphotographed or otherwise reproduced upon film; or

(B) preserved in any electronic medium or format which is capable of–

(i) being read or scanned by computer; and

(ii) being reproduced from such electronic medium or format by printing any other form of reproduction of electronically stored data.

(2) Treatment as original records

Any photographs, microphotographs, or photographic film or copies thereof described in paragraph (1)(A) or reproduction of electronically stored data described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be deemed to be an original record for all purposes, including introduction in evidence in all State and Federal courts or administrative agencies, and shall be admissible to prove any act, transaction, occurrence, or event therein recorded.

(3) Authority of the Federal banking agencies

Any photographs, microphotographs, or photographic film or copies thereof described in paragraph (1)(A) or reproduction of electronically stored data described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be preserved in such manner as the Federal banking agency shall prescribe, and the original records, papers, or documents may be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the Federal banking agency may direct.

(g) Authority to prescribe regulations and definitions

Except to the extent that authority under this chapter is conferred on any of the Federal banking agencies other than the Corporation, the Corporation may–

(1) prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter; and

(2) by regulation define terms as necessary to carry out this chapter.

(h) Coordination of examination authority

(1) State bank supervisors of home and host States

(A) Home State of bank

The appropriate State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank has authority to examine and supervise the bank.

(B) Host State branches

The State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank and any State bank supervisor of an appropriate host State shall exercise its respective authority to supervise and examine the branches of the bank in a host State in accordance with the terms of any applicable cooperative agreement between the home State bank supervisor and the State bank supervisor of the relevant host State.

(C) Supervisory fees

Except as expressly provided in a cooperative agreement between the State bank supervisors of the home State and any host State of an insured State bank, only the State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank may levy or charge State supervisory fees on the bank.

(2) Host State examination

(A) In general

With respect to a branch operated in a host State by an out-of-State insured State bank that resulted from an interstate merger transaction approved under section 1831u of this title, or that was established in such State pursuant to section 36(g) of this title, the third undesignated paragraph of section 321 of this title or section 1828(d)(4) of this title, the appropriate State bank supervisor of such host State may–

(i) with written notice to the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State and subject to the terms of any applicable cooperative agreement with the State bank supervisor of such home State, examine such branch for the purpose of determining compliance with host State laws that are applicable pursuant to section 1831a(j) of this title, including those that govern community reinvestment, fair lending, and consumer protection; and

(ii) if expressly permitted under and subject to the terms of a cooperative agreement with the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State or if such out-of-State insured State bank has been determined to be in a troubled condition by either the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State or the bank’s appropriate Federal banking agency, participate in the examination of the bank by the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State to ascertain that the activities of the branch in such host State are not conducted in an unsafe or unsound manner.

(B) Notice of determination

(i) In general

The State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank shall notify the State bank supervisor of each host State of the bank if there has been a final determination that the bank is in a troubled condition.

(ii) Timing of notice

The State bank supervisor of the home State of an insured State bank shall provide notice under clause (i) as soon as is reasonably possible, but in all cases not later than 15 business days after the date on which the State bank supervisor has made such final determination or has received written notification of such final determination.

(3) Host State enforcement

If the State bank supervisor of a host State determines that a branch of an out-of-State insured State bank is violating any law of the host State that is applicable to such branch pursuant to section 1831a(j) of this title, including a law that governs community reinvestment, fair lending, or consumer protection, the State bank supervisor of the host State or, to the extent authorized by the law of the host State, a host State law enforcement officer may, with written notice to the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State and subject to the terms of any applicable cooperative agreement with the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State, undertake such enforcement actions and proceedings as would be permitted under the law of the host State as if the branch were a bank chartered by that host State.

(4) Cooperative agreement

(A) In general

The State bank supervisors from 2 or more States may enter into cooperative agreements to facilitate State regulatory supervision of State banks, including cooperative agreements relating to the coordination of examinations and joint participation in examinations.

(B) Definition

For purposes of this subsection, the term “cooperative agreement” means a written agreement that is signed by the home State bank supervisor and the host State bank supervisor to facilitate State regulatory supervision of State banks, and includes nationwide or multi-State cooperative agreements and cooperative agreements solely between the home State and host State.

(C) Rule of construction

Except for State bank supervisors, no provision of this subsection relating to such cooperative agreements shall be construed as limiting in any way the authority of home State and host State law enforcement officers, regulatory supervisors, or other officials that have not signed such cooperative agreements to enforce host State laws that are applicable to a branch of an out-of-State insured State bank located in the host State pursuant to section 1831a(j) of this title.

(5) Federal regulatory authority

No provision of this subsection shall be construed as limiting in any way the authority of any Federal banking agency.

(6) State taxation authority not affected

No provision of this subsection shall be construed as affecting the authority of any State or political subdivision of any State to adopt, apply, or administer any tax or method of taxation to any bank, bank holding company, or foreign bank, or any affiliate of any bank, bank holding company, or foreign bank, to the extent that such tax or tax method is otherwise permissible by or under the Constitution of the United States or other Federal law.

(7) Definitions

For purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(A) Host State, home State, out-of-State bank

The terms “host State”, “home State”, and “out-of-State bank” have the same meanings as in section 1831u(g) of this title.

(B) State supervisory fees

The term “State supervisory fees” means assessments, examination fees, branch fees, license fees, and all other fees that are levied or charged by a State bank supervisor directly upon an insured State bank or upon branches of an insured State bank.

(C) Troubled condition

Solely for purposes of paragraph (2)(B), an insured State bank has been determined to be in “troubled condition” if the bank–

(i) has a composite rating, as determined in its most recent report of examination, of 4 or 5 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Ratings System;

(ii) is subject to a proceeding initiated by the Corporation for termination or suspension of deposit insurance; or

(iii) is subject to a proceeding initiated by the State bank supervisor of the bank’s home State to vacate, revoke, or terminate the charter of the bank, or to liquidate the bank, or to appoint a receiver for the bank.

(D) Final determination

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B), the term “final determination” means the transmittal of a report of examination to the bank or transmittal of official notice of proceedings to the bank.

(i) Flood insurance compliance by insured depository institutions

(1) Examinations

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall, during each scheduled on-site examination required by this section, determine whether the insured depository institution is complying with the requirements of the national flood insurance program.

(2) Report

(A) Requirement

Not later than 1 year after September 23, 1994, and biennially thereafter for the next 4 years, each appropriate Federal banking agency shall submit a report to the Congress on compliance by insured depository institutions with the requirements of the national flood insurance program.

(B) Contents

Each report submitted under this paragraph shall include a description of the methods used to determine compliance, the number of institutions examined during the reporting year, a listing and total number of institutions found not to be in compliance, actions taken to correct incidents of noncompliance, and an analysis of compliance, including a discussion of any trends, patterns, and problems, and recommendations regarding reasonable actions to improve the efficiency of the examinations processes.

(j) Consultation among examiners

(1) In general

Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall take such action as may be necessary to ensure that examiners employed by the agency–

(A) consult on examination activities with respect to any depository institution; and

(B) achieve an agreement and resolve any inconsistencies in the recommendations to be given to such institution as a consequence of any examinations.

(2) Examiner-in-charge

Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall consider appointing an examiner-in-charge with respect to a depository institution to ensure consultation on examination activities among all of the examiners of that agency involved in examinations of the institution.

(k) One-year restrictions on Federal examiners of financial institutions

(1) In general

In addition to other applicable restrictions set forth in title 18, the penalties set forth in paragraph (6) of this subsection shall apply to any person who–

(A) was an officer or employee (including any special Government employee) of a Federal banking agency or a Federal reserve bank;

(B) served 2 or more months during the final 12 months of his or her employment with such agency or entity as the senior examiner (or a functionally equivalent position) of a depository institution or depository institution holding company with continuing, broad responsibility for the examination (or inspection) of that depository institution or depository institution holding company on behalf of the relevant agency or Federal reserve bank; and

(C) within 1 year after the termination date of his or her service or employment with such agency or entity, knowingly accepts compensation as an employee, officer, director, or consultant from–

(i) such depository institution, any depository institution holding company that controls such depository institution, or any other company that controls such depository institution; or

(ii) such depository institution holding company or any depository institution that is controlled by such depository institution holding company.

(2) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection–

(A) the term “depository institution” includes an uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank, if such branch or agency is located in any State; and

(B) the term “depository institution holding company” includes any foreign bank or company described in section 3106(a) of this title.

(3) Rules of construction

For purposes of this subsection, a foreign bank shall be deemed to control any branch or agency of the foreign bank, and a person shall be deemed to act as a consultant for a depository institution, depository institution holding company, or other company, only if such person directly works on matters for, or on behalf of, such depository institution, depository institution holding company, or other company.

(4) Regulations

(A) In general

Each Federal banking agency shall prescribe rules or regulations to administer and carry out this subsection, including rules, regulations, or guidelines to define the scope of persons referred to in paragraph (1)(B).

(B) Consultation required

The Federal banking agencies shall consult with each other for the purpose of assuring that the rules and regulations issued by the agencies under subparagraph (A) are, to the extent possible, consistent, comparable, and practicable, taking into account any differences in the supervisory programs utilized by the agencies for the supervision of depository institutions and depository institution holding companies.

(5) Waiver

(A) Agency authority

A Federal banking agency may grant a waiver, on a case by case basis, of the restriction imposed by this subsection to any officer or employee (including any special Government employee) of that agency, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may grant a waiver of the restriction imposed by this subsection to any officer or employee of a Federal reserve bank, if the head of such agency certifies in writing that granting the waiver would not affect the integrity of the supervisory program of the relevant Federal banking agency.

(B) Definition

For purposes of this paragraph, the head of an agency is–

(i) the Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency;

(ii) the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, in the case of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; and

(iii) the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, in the case of the Corporation.

(6) Penalties

(A) In general

In addition to any other administrative, civil, or criminal remedy or penalty that may otherwise apply, whenever a Federal banking agency determines that a person subject to paragraph (1) has become associated, in the manner described in paragraph (1)(C), with a depository institution, depository institution holding company, or other company for which such agency serves as the appropriate Federal banking agency, the agency shall impose upon such person one or more of the following penalties:

(i) Industry-wide prohibition order

The Federal banking agency shall serve a written notice or order in accordance with and subject to the provisions of section 1818(e)(4) of this title for written notices or orders under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 1818(e) of this title, upon such person of the intention of the agency–

(I) to remove such person from office or to prohibit such person from further participation in the conduct of the affairs of the depository institution, depository institution holding company, or other company for a period of up to 5 years; and

(II) to prohibit any further participation by such person, in any manner, in the conduct of the affairs of any insured depository institution for a period of up to 5 years.

(ii) Civil monetary penalty

The Federal banking agency may, in an administrative proceeding or civil action in an appropriate United States district court, impose on such person a civil monetary penalty of not more than $250,000. Any administrative proceeding under this clause shall be conducted in accordance with section 1818(i) of this title. In lieu of an action by the Federal banking agency under this clause, the Attorney General of the United States may bring a civil action under this clause in the appropriate United States district court.

(B) Scope of prohibition order

Any person subject to an order issued under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be subject to paragraphs (6) and (7) of section 1818(e) of this title in the same manner and to the same extent as a person subject to an order issued under such section.

(C) Definitions

Solely for purposes of this paragraph, the “appropriate Federal banking agency” for a company that is not a depository institution or depository institution holding company shall be the Federal banking agency on whose behalf the person described in paragraph (1) performed the functions described in paragraph (1)(B).