Subchapter I Definitions, Organization, and General Provisions Affecting System
Subchapter II Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Subchapter III Federal Advisory Council
Subchapter IV Federal Open Market Committee
Subchapter V Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Subchapter VI Capital and Stock of Federal Reserve Banks; Dividends and Earnings
Subchapter VII Directors of Federal Reserve Banks; Reserve Agents and Assistants
Subchapter VIII State Banks as Members of System
Subchapter IX Powers and Duties of Federal Reserve Banks
Subchapter X Powers and Duties of Member Banks
Subchapter XI Depositaries and Fiscal Agents
Subchapter XII Federal Reserve Notes
Subchapter XIV Bank Reserves
Subchapter XV Bank Examinations
Subchapter XVI Civil Liability of Federal Reserve and Member Banks, Shareholders, and Officers
Subchapter XVII Reserve-Bank Branches

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 12 > Chapter 3

  • Academy: means the National Academy for Fire Prevention and Control. See
  • Administration: means the United States Fire Administration established pursuant to section 2204 of this title. See
  • administrator: means the official designated by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 1104(b) of this title. See
  • Administrator: means , except as otherwise provided, the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration, within the Federal Emergency Management Agency. See
  • Administrator of FEMA: means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. See
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Advisory Board: means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. See
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • affiliate: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841(k) of this title. See
  • affiliate: shall include any corporation, business trust, association, or other similar organization--

    (1) Of which a member bank, directly or indirectly, owns or controls either a majority of the voting shares or more than 50 per centum of the number of shares voted for the election of its directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions at the preceding election, or controls in any manner the election of a majority of its directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions. See

  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agreement: means the Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for Such Carriage, and the annexes and the appendices thereto, done at Geneva, September 1, 1970, under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations. See
  • Agreement: means the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade referred to in section 3511(d)(5) of this title. See
  • alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • antitrust law: means the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U. See
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate Federal banking agency: means --

    (1) the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of--

    (A) any national banking association. See

  • appropriate regulatory agency: means --

    (A) When used with respect to a municipal securities dealer:

    (i) the Comptroller of the Currency, in the case of a national bank, a subsidiary or a department or division of any such bank, a Federal savings association (as defined in section 3(b)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U. See

  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See
  • audit committee: means --

    (A) a committee (or equivalent body) established by and amongst the board of directors of an issuer for the purpose of overseeing the accounting and financial reporting processes of the issuer and audits of the financial statements of the issuer. See

  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • bank: means (A) a banking institution organized under the laws of the United States or a Federal savings association, as defined in section 1462(5) 1 of title 12, (B) a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, (C) any other banking institution or savings association, as defined in section 1462(4) 1 of title 12, whether incorporated or not, doing business under the laws of any State or of the United States, a substantial portion of the business of which consists of receiving deposits or exercising fiduciary powers similar to those permitted to national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of the Currency pursuant to section 92a of title 12, and which is supervised and examined by State or Federal authority having supervision over banks or savings associations, and which is not operated for the purpose of evading the provisions of this chapter, and (D) a receiver, conservator, or other liquidating agent of any institution or firm included in clauses (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph. See
  • bank holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the Board of Directors of the Office of Compliance. See
  • Board: means the Merit Systems Protection Board under chapter 12 of title 5. See
  • Board: means the National Watermelon Promotion Board provided for in section 4906 of this title. See
  • Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See
  • Board of Directors: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation. See
  • broker: means any person engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities for the account of others. See
  • broker or dealer: includes a funding portal and the term "registered broker or dealer" includes a registered funding portal, except to the extent that the Commission, by rule, determines otherwise, provided that a national securities association shall only examine for and enforce against a registered funding portal rules of such national securities association written specifically for registered funding portals. See
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of the Census. See
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of the Census. See
  • business association: means any corporation (other than a public corporation), joint stock company, business trust, partnership, or any association for business purposes of two or more individuals. See
  • Canadian article: means an article that--

    (A) is an originating good under chapter 4 of the Agreement. See

  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • child: means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is--

    (A) a child born in wedlock. See

  • China: means (1) China including Manchuria, Tibet, Mongolia, and any territory leased by China to any foreign government, (2) the Crown Colony of Hong Kong, and (3) the Province of Macao. See
  • cigarette: means --

    (A) any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or in any substance not containing tobacco, and

    (B) any roll of tobacco wrapped in any substance containing tobacco which, because of its appearance, the type of tobacco used in the filler, or its packaging and labeling, is likely to be offered to, or purchased by, consumers as a cigarette described in subparagraph (A). See

  • clearing agency: means any person who acts as an intermediary in making payments or deliveries or both in connection with transactions in securities or who provides facilities for comparison of data respecting the terms of settlement of securities transactions, to reduce the number of settlements of securities transactions, or for the allocation of securities settlement responsibilities. See
  • Commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See
  • commerce: means (A) commerce between any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, or Johnston Island and any place outside thereof. See
  • Commission: means the Securities and Exchange Commission established by section 78d of this title. See
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Community Reinvestment Act: The Act is intended to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. It was enacted by the Congress in 1977. Source: OCC
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • conformity assessment procedure: means any procedure used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled. See
  • Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
  • consular officer: means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality. See
  • continental United States: means the States of the United States and the District of Columbia. See
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • control: has the meaning given to such term in section 1841 of this title. See
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • conviction: means , with respect to an alien, a formal judgment of guilt of the alien entered by a court or, if adjudication of guilt has been withheld, where--

    (i) a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or the alien has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt, and

    (ii) the judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint on the alien's liberty to be imposed. See

  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See
  • credit rating: means an assessment of the creditworthiness of an obligor as an entity or with respect to specific securities or money market instruments. See
  • credit rating agency: means any person--

    (A) engaged in the business of issuing credit ratings on the Internet or through another readily accessible means, for free or for a reasonable fee, but does not include a commercial credit reporting company. See

  • Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • day: means the time from eight o'clock antemeridian to five o'clock postmeridian. See
  • dealer: means any person engaged in the business of buying and selling securities (not including security-based swaps, other than security-based swaps with or for persons that are not eligible contract participants) for such person's own account through a broker or otherwise. See
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • default: means , with respect to an insured depository institution, any adjudication or other official determination by any court of competent jurisdiction, the appropriate Federal banking agency, or other public authority pursuant to which a conservator, receiver, or other legal custodian is appointed for an insured depository institution or, in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, for such branch. See
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • deposit: means --

    (1) the unpaid balance of money or its equivalent received or held by a bank or savings association in the usual course of business and for which it has given or is obligated to give credit, either conditionally or unconditionally, to a commercial, checking, savings, time, or thrift account, or which is evidenced by its certificate of deposit, thrift certificate, investment certificate, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar name, or a check or draft drawn against a deposit account and certified by the bank or savings association, or a letter of credit or a traveler's check on which the bank or savings association is primarily liable: Provided, That, without limiting the generality of the term "money or its equivalent" any such account or instrument must be regarded as evidencing the receipt of the equivalent of money when credited or issued in exchange for checks or drafts or for a promissory note upon which the person obtaining any such credit or instrument is primarily or secondarily liable, or for a charge against a deposit account, or in settlement of checks, drafts, or other instruments forwarded to such bank or savings association for collection. See

  • Deposit Insurance Fund: means the Deposit Insurance Fund established under section 1821(a)(4) of this title. See
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • depository institution: means any bank or savings association. See
  • depository institution holding company: means a bank holding company or a savings and loan holding company. See
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: means any director of a corporation or any person performing similar functions with respect to any organization, whether incorporated or unincorporated. See
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • domestic branch: includes any branch bank, branch office, branch agency, additional office, or any branch place of business located in any State of the United States or in any Territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or the Virgin Islands at which deposits are received or checks paid or money lent. See
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • electronic data interchange system: means any established mechanism approved by the Commissioner of U. See
  • electronic entry: means the electronic transmission to the Customs Service of--

    (1) entry information required for the entry of merchandise, and

    (2) entry summary information required for the classification and appraisement of the merchandise, the verification of statistical information, and the determination of compliance with applicable law. See

  • electronic transmission: means the transfer of data or information through an authorized electronic data interchange system consisting of, but not limited to, computer modems and computer networks. See
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • emerging growth company: means an issuer that had total annual gross revenues of less than $1,000,000,000 (as such amount is indexed for inflation every 5 years by the Commission to reflect the change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, setting the threshold to the nearest 1,000,000) during its most recently completed fiscal year. See
  • employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See
  • employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equal Credit Opportunity Act: Prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or because an applicant receives income from a public assistance program. Source: OCC
  • equipment: means the special transport equipment that complies with the definitions and standards set forth in annex 1 to the agreement, including, but not limited to, railway cars, trucks, trailers, semitrailers, and intermodal freight containers that are insulated only, or insulated and equipped with a refrigerating, mechanically refrigerating, or heating appliance. See
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • equity security: means any stock or similar security. See
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • exchange: means any organization, association, or group of persons, whether incorporated or unincorporated, which constitutes, maintains, or provides a market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers of securities or for otherwise performing with respect to securities the functions commonly performed by a stock exchange as that term is generally understood, and includes the market place and the market facilities maintained by such exchange. See
  • exclusive processor: means any securities information processor or self-regulatory organization which, directly or indirectly, engages on an exclusive basis on behalf of any national securities exchange or registered securities association, or any national securities exchange or registered securities association which engages on an exclusive basis on its own behalf, in collecting, processing, or preparing for distribution or publication any information with respect to (i) transactions or quotations on or effected or made by means of any facility of such exchange or (ii) quotations distributed or published by means of any electronic system operated or controlled by such association. See
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • exempted securities: includes --

    (i) government securities, as defined in paragraph (42) of this subsection. See

  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • extraordinary ability: means , for purposes of subsection (a)(15)(O)(i), in the case of the arts, distinction. See
  • facility: means a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1886(d)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U. See
  • facility: when used with respect to an exchange includes its premises, tangible or intangible property whether on the premises or not, any right to the use of such premises or property or any service thereof for the purpose of effecting or reporting a transaction on an exchange (including, among other things, any system of communication to or from the exchange, by ticker or otherwise, maintained by or with the consent of the exchange), and any right of the exchange to the use of any property or service. See
  • failing newspaper: means a newspaper publication which, regardless of its ownership or affiliations, is in probable danger of financial failure. See
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a set of United States statutes added as Title VIII of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Its purpose is to ensure ethical practices in the collection of consumer debts and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. It is often used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal agency: means any of the following within the meaning of chapter 2 of part I of title 5:

    (A) Any executive department. See

  • Federal banking agency: means the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. See
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal district court: means any Federal district court, and the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. See
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Federal savings association: means any Federal savings association or Federal savings bank which is chartered under section 1464 of this title. See
  • Federal supervisory agency: means the appropriate Federal banking agency, as defined in section 1813(q) of this title. See
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • financial institution: means --

    (A) a bank (as defined in paragraph (6) of this subsection). See

  • financial organization: means any savings and loan association, building and loan association, credit union, or investment company engaged in business in the United States. See
  • fire service: means any organization in any State consisting of personnel, apparatus, and equipment which has as its purpose protecting property and maintaining the safety and welfare of the public from the dangers of fire, including a private firefighting brigade. See
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign bank: has the meaning given to such term by section 1(b)(7) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See
  • foreign securities authority: means any foreign government, or any governmental body or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce its laws as they relate to securities matters. See
  • foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • General Counsel: means the General Counsel of the Office of Compliance. See
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • government securities: means --

    (A) securities which are direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed as to principal or interest by, the United States. See

  • government securities broker: means any person regularly engaged in the business of effecting transactions in government securities for the account of others, but does not include--

    (A) any corporation the securities of which are government securities under subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (42) of this subsection. See

  • government securities dealer: means any person engaged in the business of buying and selling government securities for his own account, through a broker or otherwise, but does not include--

    (A) any person insofar as he buys or sells such securities for his own account, either individually or in some fiduciary capacity, but not as a part of a regular business. See

  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • immigrant: means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens--

    (A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family. See

  • immigrant visa: means an immigrant visa required by this chapter and properly issued by a consular officer at his office outside of the United States to an eligible immigrant under the provisions of this chapter. See
  • immigration judge: means an attorney whom the Attorney General appoints as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review, qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title. See
  • immigration laws: includes this chapter and all laws, conventions, and treaties of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, deportation, expulsion, or removal of aliens. See
  • immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See
  • in danger of default: means an insured depository institution with respect to which (or in the case of a foreign bank having an insured branch, with respect to such insured branch) the appropriate Federal banking agency or State chartering authority has advised the Corporation (or, if the appropriate Federal banking agency is the Corporation, the Corporation has determined) that--

    (A) in the opinion of such agency or authority--

    (i) the depository institution or insured branch is not likely to be able to meet the demands of the institution's or branch's depositors or pay the institution's or branch's obligations in the normal course of business. See

  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • index: means an index or group of securities, including any interest therein or based on the value thereof. See
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • institution-affiliated party: means --

    (1) any director, officer, employee, or controlling stockholder (other than a bank holding company or savings and loan holding company) of, or agent for, an insured depository institution. See

  • insured bank: means any bank (including a foreign bank having an insured branch) the deposits of which are insured in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. See
  • insured branch: means any branch (as defined in section 1(b)(3) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U. See
  • insured depository institution: includes any uninsured branch or agency of a foreign bank or a commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank for purposes of section 1818 of this title. See
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • intended spouse: means any alien who meets the criteria set forth in section 1154(a)(1)(A)(iii)(II)(aa)(BB), 1154(a)(1)(B)(ii)(II)(aa)(BB), or 1229b(b)(2)(A)(i)(III) of this title. See
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • interstate commerce: means trade, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between any foreign country and any State, or between any State and any place or ship outside thereof. See
  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • issuer: means any person who issues or proposes to issue any security. See
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • joint newspaper operating arrangement: means any contract, agreement, joint venture (whether or not incorporated), or other arrangement entered into by two or more newspaper owners for the publication of two or more newspaper publications, pursuant to which joint or common production facilities are established or operated and joint or unified action is taken or agreed to be taken with respect to any one or more of the following: printing. See
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • level of margin: when used with respect to a security futures product, mean the amount of margin required to secure any extension or maintenance of credit, or the amount of margin required as a performance bond related to the purchase, sale, or carrying of a security futures product. See
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local: means of or pertaining to any city, town, county, special purpose district, unincorporated territory, or other political subdivision of a State. See
  • local government: means a local general unit of government or local educational unit. See
  • major security-based swap participant: means any person--

    (i) who is not a security-based swap dealer. See

  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • management: means any person who organizes, exercises control over, or administers or who is responsible for organizing, directing, or administering. See
  • margin: when used with respect to a security futures product, means the amount, type, and form of collateral required to secure any extension or maintenance of credit, or the amount, type, and form of collateral required as a performance bond related to the purchase, sale, or carrying of a security futures product. See
  • market maker: means any specialist permitted to act as a dealer, any dealer acting in the capacity of block positioner, and any dealer who, with respect to a security, holds himself out (by entering quotations in an inter-dealer communications system or otherwise) as being willing to buy and sell such security for his own account on a regular or continuous basis. See
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See
  • Member: means a WTO member as defined in section 3501(10) of this title. See
  • member: when used with respect to a national securities exchange means (i) any natural person permitted to effect transactions on the floor of the exchange without the services of another person acting as broker, (ii) any registered broker or dealer with which such a natural person is associated, (iii) any registered broker or dealer permitted to designate as a representative such a natural person, and (iv) any other registered broker or dealer which agrees to be regulated by such exchange and with respect to which the exchange undertakes to enforce compliance with the provisions of this chapter, the rules and regulations thereunder, and its own rules. See
  • merchandise: means goods, wares, and chattels of every description, and includes merchandise the importation of which is prohibited, and monetary instruments as defined in section 5312 of title 31. See
  • Mexican article: means an article that--

    (A) is an originating good under chapter 4 of the Agreement. See

  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • mortgage related security: means a security that meets standards of credit-worthiness as established by the Commission, and either:

    (A) represents ownership of one or more promissory notes or certificates of interest or participation in such notes (including any rights designed to assure servicing of, or the receipt or timeliness of receipt by the holders of such notes, certificates, or participations of amounts payable under, such notes, certificates, or participations), which notes:

    (i) are directly secured by a first lien on a single parcel of real estate, including stock allocated to a dwelling unit in a residential cooperative housing corporation, upon which is located a dwelling or mixed residential and commercial structure, on a residential manufactured home as defined in section 5402(6) of title 42, whether such manufactured home is considered real or personal property under the laws of the State in which it is to be located, or on one or more parcels of real estate upon which is located one or more commercial structures. See

  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • mother: include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother. See
  • municipal securities: means securities which are direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed as to principal or interest by, a State or any political subdivision thereof, or any agency or instrumentality of a State or any political subdivision thereof, or any municipal corporate instrumentality of one or more States, or any security which is an industrial development bond (as defined in section 103(c)(2) 1 of title 26) the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103(a)(1) 1 of title 26 if, by reason of the application of paragraph (4) or (6) of section 103(c) 1 of title 26 (determined as if paragraphs (4)(A), (5), and (7) were not included in such section 103(c)),1 paragraph (1) of such section 103(c) 1 does not apply to such security. See
  • municipal securities dealer: means any person (including a separately identifiable department or division of a bank) engaged in the business of buying and selling municipal securities for his own account, through a broker or otherwise, but does not include--

    (A) any person insofar as he buys or sells such securities for his own account, either individually or in some fiduciary capacity, but not as a part of a regular business. See

  • mutual savings bank: means a bank without capital stock transacting a savings bank business, the net earnings of which inure wholly to the benefit of its depositors after payment of obligations for any advances by its organizers. See
  • narrow-based security index: means an index--

    (i) that has 9 or fewer component securities. See

  • national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Bank Examiner: An employee of the Comptroller of the Currency whose function is to examine national banks periodically to determine the financial position of a bank and the security of its deposits. The examiner also verifies that the bank maintains procedures consistent with federal banking laws and regulations. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • National Customs Automation Program: means the program established under section 1411 of this title. See
  • nationally recognized statistical rating organization: means a credit rating agency that--

    (A) issues credit ratings certified by qualified institutional buyers, in accordance with section 78o-7(a)(1)(B)(ix) of this title, with respect to--

    (i) financial institutions, brokers, or dealers. See

  • naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See
  • new depository institution: means a new national bank or Federal savings association, other than a bridge depository institution, organized by the Corporation in accordance with section 1821(m) of this title. See
  • newspaper publication: means a publication produced on newsprint paper which is published in one or more issues weekly (including as one publication any daily newspaper and any Sunday newspaper published by the same owner in the same city, community, or metropolitan area), and in which a substantial portion of the content is devoted to the dissemination of news and editorial opinion. See
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • nonimmigrant visa: means a visa properly issued to an alien as an eligible nonimmigrant by a competent officer as provided in this chapter. See
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Office: means the Office of Compliance. See
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See
  • Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • organization: means , but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund. See
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • package: means a pack, box, carton, or container of any kind in which cigarettes are offered for sale, sold, or otherwise distributed to consumers. See
  • participant: when used with respect to a clearing agency means any person who uses a clearing agency to clear or settle securities transactions or to transfer, pledge, lend, or hypothecate securities. See
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • passport: means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country. See
  • penny stock: means any equity security other than a security that is--

    (i) registered or approved for registration and traded on a national securities exchange that meets such criteria as the Commission shall prescribe by rule or regulation for purposes of this paragraph. See

  • permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See
  • person: as used in this chapter shall be held to embrace also any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity. See
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See
  • person: means an individual or an organization. See
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, or any other business or legal entity. See
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See
  • person: means any individual, and any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity existing under or authorized by the law of the United States, any State or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any foreign country. See
  • person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations. See
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or other entity. See
  • person: means a natural person, company, government, or political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality of a government. See
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • persons: means any individual, partnership, corporation, or unincorporated association or any combination or association thereof. See
  • place of public accommodation affecting commerce: means any inn, hotel, or other establishment not owned by the Federal Government that provides lodging to transient guests, except that such term does not include an establishment treated as an apartment building for purposes of any State or local law or regulation or an establishment located within a building that contains not more than 5 rooms for rent or hire and that is actually occupied as a residence by the proprietor of such establishment. See
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • plan: means an order issued by the Secretary under this chapter. See
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • product: means any natural or manufactured item. See
  • profession: shall include but not be limited to architects, engineers, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, and teachers in elementary or secondary schools, colleges, academies, or seminaries. See
  • professional athlete: means an individual who is employed as an athlete by--

    (aa) a team that is a member of an association of 6 or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage. See

  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • receiver: includes a receiver, liquidating agent, conservator, commission, person, or other agency charged by law with the duty of winding up the affairs of a bank or savings association or of a branch of a foreign bank. See
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • reconciliation: means an electronic process, initiated at the request of an importer, under which the elements of an entry (other than those elements related to the admissibility of the merchandise) that are undetermined at the time the importer files or transmits the documentation or information required by section 1484(a)(1)(B) of this title, or the import activity summary statement, are provided to the Customs Service at a later time. See
  • records: means accounts, correspondence, memorandums, tapes, discs, papers, books, and other documents or transcribed information of any type, whether expressed in ordinary or machine language. See
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • refugee: means (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such special circumstances as the President after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 1157(e) of this title) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. See
  • registered broker or dealer: means a broker or dealer registered or required to register pursuant to section 78o or 78o-4 of this title, except that in paragraph (3) of this subsection and sections 78f and 78o-3 of this title the term means such a broker or dealer and a government securities broker or government securities dealer registered or required to register pursuant to section 78o-5(a)(1)(A) of this title. See
  • registrar: means the China Trade Act registrar appointed under section 143 of this title. See
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • representative: includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity. See
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • residence: means the place of general abode. See
  • respondent: includes a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, proprietorship, society, joint stock company, individual, or other organization or entity which reported information, or on behalf of which information was reported, in response to a questionnaire, inquiry, or other request of the Bureau. See
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • rules of a clearing agency: means the constitution, articles of incorporation, bylaws, and rules, or instruments corresponding to the foregoing, of an exchange, association of brokers and dealers, or clearing agency, respectively, and such of the stated policies, practices, and interpretations of such exchange, association, or clearing agency as the Commission, by rule, may determine to be necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors to be deemed to be rules of such exchange, association, or clearing agency. See
  • rules of a self-regulatory organization: means the rules of an exchange which is a national securities exchange, the rules of an association of brokers and dealers which is a registered securities association, the rules of a clearing agency which is a registered clearing agency, or the rules of the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board. See
  • sale or distribution: includes sampling or any other distribution not for sale. See
  • savings and loan holding company: has the meaning given to such term in section 1467a of this title. See
  • savings association: means --

    (A) any Federal savings association. See

  • savings bank: means a bank (including a mutual savings bank) which transacts its ordinary banking business strictly as a savings bank under State laws imposing special requirements on such banks governing the manner of investing their funds and of conducting their business. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See
  • Secretary: means , except as otherwise provided, the Secretary of Homeland Security. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • securities information processor: means any person engaged in the business of (i) collecting, processing, or preparing for distribution or publication, or assisting, participating in, or coordinating the distribution or publication of, information with respect to transactions in or quotations for any security (other than an exempted security) or (ii) distributing or publishing (whether by means of a ticker tape, a communications network, a terminal display device, or otherwise) on a current and continuing basis, information with respect to such transactions or quotations. See
  • securities laws: means the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U. See
  • security: means any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, security-based swap, bond, debenture, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement or in any oil, gas, or other mineral royalty or lease, any collateral-trust certificate, preorganization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate, certificate of deposit for a security, any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security, certificate of deposit, or group or index of securities (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof), or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currency, or in general, any instrument commonly known as a "security". See
  • security future: means a contract of sale for future delivery of a single security or of a narrow-based security index, including any interest therein or based on the value thereof, except an exempted security under paragraph (12) of this subsection as in effect on January 11, 1983 (other than any municipal security as defined in paragraph (29) of this subsection as in effect on January 11, 1983). See
  • security futures product: means a security future or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security future. See
  • security-based swap: includes any agreement, contract, or transaction that is as described in subparagraph (A) and also is based on the value of 1 or more interest or other rates, currencies, commodities, instruments of indebtedness, indices, quantitative measures, other financial or economic interest or property of any kind (other than a single security or a narrow-based security index), or the occurrence, non-occurrence, or the extent of the occurrence of an event or contingency associated with a potential financial, economic, or commercial consequence (other than an event described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(III)). See
  • security-based swap agreement: means a swap agreement as defined in section 206A of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (15 U. See
  • security-based swap data repository: means any person that collects and maintains information or records with respect to transactions or positions in, or the terms and conditions of, security-based swaps entered into by third parties for the purpose of providing a centralized recordkeeping facility for security-based swaps. See
  • security-based swap dealer: means any person who--

    (i) holds themself out as a dealer in security-based swaps. See

  • security-based swap execution facility: means a trading system or platform in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade security-based swaps by accepting bids and offers made by multiple participants in the facility or system, through any means of interstate commerce, including any trading facility, that--

    (A) facilitates the execution of security-based swaps between persons. See

  • self-regulatory organization: means any national securities exchange, registered securities association, or registered clearing agency, or (solely for purposes of sections 78s(b), 78s(c), and 78w(b) 1 of this title) the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board established by section 78o-4 of this title. See
  • Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • small business related security: means a security that meets standards of credit-worthiness as established by the Commission, and either--

    (i) represents an interest in 1 or more promissory notes or leases of personal property evidencing the obligation of a small business concern and originated by an insured depository institution, insured credit union, insurance company, or similar institution which is supervised and examined by a Federal or State authority, or a finance company or leasing company. See

  • Sole ownership: The type of property ownership in which one individual holds legal title to the property and has full control of it.
  • sore: when used to describe a horse means that--

    (A) an irritating or blistering agent has been applied, internally or externally, by a person to any limb of a horse,

    (B) any burn, cut, or laceration has been inflicted by a person on any limb of a horse,

    (C) any tack, nail, screw, or chemical agent has been injected by a person into or used by a person on any limb of a horse, or

    (D) any other substance or device has been used by a person on any limb of a horse or a person has engaged in a practice involving a horse,


    and, as a result of such application, infliction, injection, use, or practice, such horse suffers, or can reasonably be expected to suffer, physical pain or distress, inflammation, or lameness when walking, trotting, or otherwise moving, except that such term does not include such an application, infliction, injection, use, or practice in connection with the therapeutic treatment of a horse by or under the supervision of a person licensed to practice veterinary medicine in the State in which such treatment was given. See

  • special immigrant: means --

    (A) an immigrant, lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is returning from a temporary visit abroad. See

  • standard: means a document approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for products or related processes and production methods, with which compliance is not mandatory. See
  • standards-related activity: means the development, adoption, or application of any standard, technical regulation, or conformity assessment procedure. See
  • State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See
  • State: includes any political division of any State. See
  • State: means any of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. See
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See
  • State: has the meaning given the term in section 101 of title 6. See
  • State: means --

    (A) a State. See

  • State: includes the District of Columbia. See
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or any other possession of the United States. See
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See
  • State agency: means any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the government of any State or of any political subdivision of any State. See
  • State bank: means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank, industrial bank (or similar depository institution which the Board of Directors finds to be operating substantially in the same manner as an industrial bank), or other banking institution which--

    (A) is engaged in the business of receiving deposits, other than trust funds (as defined in this section). See

  • State bank supervisor: means any officer, agency, or other entity of any State which has primary regulatory authority over State banks or State savings associations in such State. See
  • State nonmember bank: means any State bank which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. See
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • technical regulation: means a document which lays down product characteristics or their related processes and production methods, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. See
  • temporary: shall be construed to mean not in excess of one year, or not in excess of the specific period during which appropriations are available for the conduct of a particular census, whichever is longer. See
  • temporary: shall be construed to mean not in excess of one year, or not in excess of the specific period during which appropriations are available for the conduct of a particular census, whichever is longer. See
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • terrorist organization: means an organization--

    (I) designated under section 1189 of this title. See

  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trade Representative: means the United States Trade Representative. See
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • transfer agent: means any person who engages on behalf of an issuer of securities or on behalf of itself as an issuer of securities in (A) countersigning such securities upon issuance. See
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • tribal: means of or pertaining to an Indian tribe. See
  • trust service: means any service customarily performed by a bank trust department. See
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston Island. See
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States of America, the territories and possessions of the United States of America, and the District of Columbia. See
  • United States: includes all Territories and possessions of the United States except the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, Johnston Island, and the island of Guam. See
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See
  • United States: means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. See
  • United States: when used in a geographical context, means all States. See
  • unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • VAWA self-petitioner: means an alien, or a child of the alien, who qualifies for relief under--

    (A) clause (iii), (iv), or (vii) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title. See

  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
  • violation: includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation. See
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See
  • wildland-urban interface: has the meaning given such term in section 6511 of title 16. See
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See