(a) Omitted

(b) General statement of budget enforcement through sequestration

This subchapter provides for budget enforcement as called for in House Concurrent Resolution 84 (105th Congress, 1st session).

(c) Definitions

Terms Used In 2 USC 900

  • account: means an item for which appropriations are made in any appropriation Act and, for items not provided for in appropriation Acts, such term means an item for which there is a designated budget account identification code number in the President's budget. See 2 USC 900
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • budget year: means , with respect to a session of Congress, the fiscal year of the Government that starts on October 1 of the calendar year in which that session begins. See 2 USC 900
  • budgetary resources: means new budget authority, unobligated balances, direct spending authority, and obligation limitations. See 2 USC 900
  • category: means the subsets of discretionary appropriations in section 901(c) of this title. See 2 USC 900
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • current: means , with respect to OMB estimates included with a budget submission under section 1105(a) of title 31, the estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying that budget and with respect to estimates made after that budget submission that are not included with it, estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying the most recently submitted President's budget. See 2 USC 900
  • deposit insurance: refers to the expenses of the Federal deposit insurance agencies, and other Federal agencies supervising insured depository institutions, resulting from full funding of, and continuation of, the deposit insurance guarantee commitment in effect under current estimates. See 2 USC 900
  • direct spending: means --

    (A) budget authority provided by law other than appropriation Acts. See 2 USC 900

  • discretionary appropriations: means budgetary resources (except to fund direct-spending programs) provided in appropriation Acts. See 2 USC 900
  • Discretionary spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays)controlled in annual appropriations acts.
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • OMB: means the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. See 2 USC 900
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • security category: includes discretionary appropriations associated with agency budgets for the Department of Defense, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the intelligence community management account (95-0401-0-1-054), and all budget accounts in budget function 150 (international affairs). See 2 USC 900
  • unanticipated: means that the underlying situation is--

    (A) sudden, which means quickly coming into being or not building up over time. See 2 USC 900

As used in this subchapter:

(1) The terms “budget authority”, “new budget authority”, “outlays”, and “deficit” have the meanings given to such terms in section 3 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 [2 U.S.C. 622] and “discretionary spending limit” shall mean the amounts specified in section 901 of this title.

(2) The terms “sequester” and “sequestration” refer to or mean the cancellation of budgetary resources provided by discretionary appropriations or direct spending law.

(3) The term “breach” means, for any fiscal year, the amount (if any) by which new budget authority or outlays for that year (within a category of discretionary appropriations) is above that category’s discretionary spending limit for new budget authority or outlays for that year, as the case may be.

(4)(A) The term “nonsecurity category” means all discretionary appropriations not included in the security category defined in subparagraph (B).

(B) The term “security category” includes discretionary appropriations associated with agency budgets for the Department of Defense, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the intelligence community management account (95-0401-0-1-054), and all budget accounts in budget function 150 (international affairs).

(C) The term “discretionary category” includes all discretionary appropriations.

(D) The term “revised security category” means discretionary appropriations in budget function 050.

(E) The term “revised nonsecurity category” means discretionary appropriations other than in budget function 050.

(F) The term “category” means the subsets of discretionary appropriations in section 901(c) of this title. Discretionary appropriations in each of the categories shall be those designated in the joint explanatory statement accompanying the conference report on the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. New accounts or activities shall be categorized only after consultation with the Committees on Appropriations and the Budget of the House of Representatives and the Senate and that consultation shall, to the extent practicable, include written communication to such committees that affords such committees the opportunity to comment before official action is taken with respect to new accounts or activities.

(5) The term “baseline” means the projection (described in section 907 of this title) of current-year levels of new budget authority, outlays, receipts, and the surplus or deficit into the budget year and the outyears.

(6) The term “budgetary resources” means new budget authority, unobligated balances, direct spending authority, and obligation limitations.

(7) The term “discretionary appropriations” means budgetary resources (except to fund direct-spending programs) provided in appropriation Acts.

(8) The term “direct spending” means–

(A) budget authority provided by law other than appropriation Acts;

(B) entitlement authority; and

(C) the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.


(9) The term “current” means, with respect to OMB estimates included with a budget submission under section 1105(a) of title 31, the estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying that budget and with respect to estimates made after that budget submission that are not included with it, estimates consistent with the economic and technical assumptions underlying the most recently submitted President’s budget.

(10) The term “real economic growth”, with respect to any fiscal year, means the growth in the gross national product during such fiscal year, adjusted for inflation, consistent with Department of Commerce definitions.

(11) The term “account” means an item for which appropriations are made in any appropriation Act and, for items not provided for in appropriation Acts, such term means an item for which there is a designated budget account identification code number in the President’s budget.

(12) The term “budget year” means, with respect to a session of Congress, the fiscal year of the Government that starts on October 1 of the calendar year in which that session begins.

(13) The term “current year” means, with respect to a budget year, the fiscal year that immediately precedes that budget year.

(14) The term “outyear” means a fiscal year one or more years after the budget year.

(15) The term “OMB” means the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(16) The term “CBO” means the Director of the Congressional Budget Office.

(17) As used in this subchapter, all references to entitlement authority shall include the list of mandatory appropriations included in the joint explanatory statement of managers accompanying the conference report on the Balanced Budget Act of 1997.

(18) The term “deposit insurance” refers to the expenses of the Federal deposit insurance agencies, and other Federal agencies supervising insured depository institutions, resulting from full funding of, and continuation of, the deposit insurance guarantee commitment in effect under current estimates.

(19) The term “asset sale” means the sale to the public of any asset (except for those assets covered by title V of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 [2 U.S.C. 661 et seq.]), whether physical or financial, owned in whole or in part by the United States.

(20) The term “emergency” means a situation that–

(A) requires new budget authority and outlays (or new budget authority and the outlays flowing therefrom) for the prevention or mitigation of, or response to, loss of life or property, or a threat to national security; and

(B) is unanticipated.


(21) The term “unanticipated” means that the underlying situation is–

(A) sudden, which means quickly coming into being or not building up over time;

(B) urgent, which means a pressing and compelling need requiring immediate action;

(C) unforeseen, which means not predicted or anticipated as an emerging need; and

(D) temporary, which means not of a permanent duration.