Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 12 > Chapter 13 - National Housing
- account: means a demand deposit, savings deposit, or other asset account (other than an occasional or incidental credit balance in an open end credit plan as defined in section 1602(i) 1 of this title), as described in regulations of the Bureau, established primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, but such term does not include an account held by a financial institution pursuant to a bona fide trust agreement. See 15 USC 1693a
- additional coverage: means a plan of crop insurance coverage providing a level of coverage greater than the level available under catastrophic risk protection. See 7 USC 1502
- adjacent islands: includes Saint Pierre, Miquelon, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Bermuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica, the Windward and Leeward Islands, Trinidad, Martinique, and other British, French, and Netherlands territory or possessions in or bordering on the Caribbean Sea. See 8 USC 1101
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See 42 USC 7602
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Administration for Community Living of the Department of Health and Human Services. See 29 USC 796a
- administrator: means the official designated by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 1104(b) of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- advisory committee: means any committee, board, commission, council, conference, panel, task force, or other similar group, or any subcommittee or other subgroup thereof that is established or utilized by the Department of Agriculture in the interest of obtaining advice or recommendations for the President or the Department of Agriculture, except that such term excludes any committee which (A) is composed wholly of full-time officers or employees of the Federal Government, (B) is established by statute or reorganization plan, or (C) is established by the President. See 7 USC 2282
- advocates: includes , but is not limited to, advises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and admits belief in. See 8 USC 1101
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- aggravated felony: means --
(A) murder, rape, or sexual abuse of a minor. See 8 USC 1101
- Agricultural commodity: as used in this subchapter , means wheat, cotton, flax, corn, dry beans, oats, barley, rye, tobacco, rice, peanuts, soybeans, sugar beets, sugar cane, tomatoes, grain sorghum, sunflowers, raisins, oranges, sweet corn, dry peas, freezing and canning peas, forage, apples, grapes, potatoes, timber and forests, nursery crops, citrus, and other fruits and vegetables, nuts, tame hay, native grass, hemp, aquacultural species (including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, crustacean, or other aquatic invertebrate, amphibian, reptile, or aquatic plant propagated or reared in a controlled or selected environment), or any other agricultural commodity, excluding stored grain, determined by the Board, or any one or more of such commodities, as the context may indicate. See 7 USC 1518
- air pollutant: means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. See 42 USC 7602
- air pollution control agency: means any of the following:
(1) A single State agency designated by the Governor of that State as the official State air pollution control agency for purposes of this chapter. See 42 USC 7602
- alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Alternate valuation date: The earlier of the date six months after the decedent
- alternative trading system: means an organization, association, or group of persons that--
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- applicable implementation plan: means the portion (or portions) of the implementation plan, or most recent revision thereof, which has been approved under section 7410 of this title, or promulgated under section 7410(c) of this title, or promulgated or approved pursuant to regulations promulgated under section 7601(d) of this title and which implements the relevant requirements of this chapter. See 42 USC 7602
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- approved insurance provider: means a private insurance provider that has been approved by the Corporation to provide insurance coverage to producers participating in the Federal crop insurance program established under this subchapter. See 7 USC 1502
- area: includes any Indian reservation (as defined in section 1985(e)(1)(D)(ii) 2 of this title). See 7 USC 1471
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- article of wearing apparel: means any costume or article of clothing worn or intended to be worn by individuals. See 15 USC 1191
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
- automobile dealer: shall mean any person, partnership, corporation, association, or other form of business enterprise resident in the United States or in any Territory thereof or in the District of Columbia operating under the terms of a franchise and engaged in the sale or distribution of passenger cars, trucks, or station wagons. See 15 USC 1221
- automobile manufacturer: shall mean any person, partnership, corporation, association, or other form of business enterprise engaged in the manufacturing or assembling of passenger cars, trucks, or station wagons, including any person, partnership, or corporation which acts for and is under the control of such manufacturer or assembler in connection with the distribution of said automotive vehicles. See 15 USC 1221
- auxiliary aids and services: includes --
(A) qualified interpreters or other effective methods of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals with hearing impairments. See 42 USC 12103
- Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
- beginning farmer or rancher: means a farmer or rancher who has not actively operated and managed a farm or ranch with a bona fide insurable interest in a crop or livestock as an owner-operator, landlord, tenant, or sharecropper for more than 5 crop years, as determined by the Secretary. See 7 USC 1502
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- Board: means the Board of Directors of the Corporation established under section 1505(a) of this title. See 7 USC 1502
- Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 15 USC 1693a
- Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 7 USC 1a
- board of trade: means any organized exchange or other trading facility. See 7 USC 1a
- Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
- Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 15 USC 1692a
- Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 15 USC 1693a
- business day: means any day on which the offices of the consumer's financial institution involved in an electronic fund transfer are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of its business functions. See 15 USC 1693a
- case: means a standard shipping package containing thirty dozen eggs. See
- center for independent living: means a consumer-controlled, community-based, cross-disability, nonresidential private nonprofit agency for individuals with significant disabilities (regardless of age or income) that--
(A) is designed and operated within a local community by individuals with disabilities. See 29 USC 796a
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
- Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
- child: means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is--
(A) a child born in wedlock. See 8 USC 1101
- cigarette: means --
(A) any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or in any substance not containing tobacco, and
(B) any roll of tobacco wrapped in any substance containing tobacco which, because of its appearance, the type of tobacco used in the filler, or its packaging and labeling, is likely to be offered to, or purchased by, consumers as a cigarette described in subparagraph (A). See 15 USC 1332
- classified school employee: means an employee of a State or of any political subdivision of a State, or an employee of a nonprofit entity, who works in any grade from prekindergarten through high school in any of the following occupational specialties:
(A) Paraprofessional, including paraeducator services. See 20 USC 6682
- commerce: means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. See
- commerce: means commerce among the several States or with foreign nations or in any territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia or between any such territory and another, or between any such territory and any State or foreign nation, or between the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and any State or territory or foreign nation, or between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and any State or territory or foreign nation or the District of Columbia. See 15 USC 1191
- commerce: shall mean commerce among the several States of the United States or with foreign nations, or in any Territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia, or among the Territories or between any Territory and any State or foreign nation, or between the District of Columbia and any State or Territory or foreign nation. See 15 USC 1221
- commerce: means (A) commerce between any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, or Johnston Island and any place outside thereof. See 15 USC 1332
- Commission: means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission established under section 2(a)(2) of this title. See 7 USC 1a
- Commission: means the Consumer Product Safety Commission. See 15 USC 1191
- Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. See 26 USC 7701
- commodity: means wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, grain sorghums, mill feeds, butter, eggs, Solanum tuberosum (Irish potatoes), wool, wool tops, fats and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods and articles, except onions (as provided by section 13-1 of this title) and motion picture box office receipts (or any index, measure, value, or data related to such receipts), and all services, rights, and interests (except motion picture box office receipts, or any index, measure, value or data related to such receipts) in which contracts for future delivery are presently or in the future dealt in. See 7 USC 1a
- commodity pool: means any investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise operated for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--
(i) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- commodity pool operator: means any person--
(i) engaged in a business that is of the nature of a commodity pool, investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise, and who, in connection therewith, solicits, accepts, or receives from others, funds, securities, or property, either directly or through capital contributions, the sale of stock or other forms of securities, or otherwise, for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--
(I) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- commodity trading advisor: means any person who--
(i) for compensation or profit, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications, writings, or electronic media, as to the value of or the advisability of trading in--
(I) any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- communication: means the conveying of information regarding a debt directly or indirectly to any person through any medium. See 15 USC 1692a
- commuter authority: has the meaning given such term in section 24102(4) 1 of title 49. See 42 USC 12161
- commuter rail transportation: has the meaning given the term "commuter rail passenger transportation" in section 24102(5) 1 of title 49. See 42 USC 12161
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
- Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
- conservation: means the use of methods and procedures necessary or desirable to sustain healthy populations of wildlife, including all activities associated with scientific resources management such as research, census, monitoring of populations, acquisition, improvement and management of habitat, live trapping and transplantation, wildlife damage management, and periodic or total protection of a species or population, as well as the taking of individuals within wildlife stock or population if permitted by applicable State and Federal law. See 16 USC 669a
- consular officer: means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality. See 8 USC 1101
- consumer: means any natural person obligated or allegedly obligated to pay any debt. See 15 USC 1692a
- consumer: means a natural person. See 15 USC 1693a
- consumer control: means , with respect to a center for independent living, that the center vests power and authority in individuals with disabilities, in terms of the management, staffing, decisionmaking, operation, and provisions of services, of the center. See 29 USC 796a
- consumer education: means any action to advance the image or desirability of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl. See
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- contract of sale: includes sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell. See 7 USC 1a
- conviction: means , with respect to an alien, a formal judgment of guilt of the alien entered by a court or, if adjudication of guilt has been withheld, where--
(i) a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or the alien has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt, and
(ii) the judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint on the alien's liberty to be imposed. See 8 USC 1101
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 26 USC 7701
- Corporation: means the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation established under section 1503 of this title. See 7 USC 1502
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
- Credit bureau: An agency that collects individual credit information and sells it for a fee to creditors so they can make a decision on granting loans. Typical clients include banks, mortgage lenders, credit card companies, and other financing companies. (Also commonly referred to as consumer-reporting agency or credit-reporting agency.) Source: OCC
- Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
- Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
- creditor: means any person who offers or extends credit creating a debt or to whom a debt is owed, but such term does not include any person to the extent that he receives an assignment or transfer of a debt in default solely for the purpose of facilitating collection of such debt for another. See 15 USC 1692a
- crewman: means a person serving in any capacity on board a vessel or aircraft. See 8 USC 1101
- CTG: means a Control Technique Guideline published by the Administrator under section 7408 of this title. See 42 USC 7602
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- debt: means any obligation or alleged obligation of a consumer to pay money arising out of a transaction in which the money, property, insurance, or services which are the subject of the transaction are primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment. See 15 USC 1692a
- debt collector: means any person who uses any instrumentality of interstate commerce or the mails in any business the principal purpose of which is the collection of any debts, or who regularly collects or attempts to collect, directly or indirectly, debts owed or due or asserted to be owed or due another. See 15 USC 1692a
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- demand responsive system: means any system of providing designated public transportation which is not a fixed route system. See 42 USC 12141
- Department: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 1502
- Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2282
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- derivatives clearing organization: means a clearinghouse, clearing association, clearing corporation, or similar entity, facility, system, or organization that, with respect to an agreement, contract, or transaction--
(i) enables each party to the agreement, contract, or transaction to substitute, through novation or otherwise, the credit of the derivatives clearing organization for the credit of the parties. See 7 USC 1a
- designated public transportation: means transportation (other than public school transportation) by bus, rail, or any other conveyance (other than transportation by aircraft or intercity or commuter rail transportation (as defined in section 12161 of this title)) that provides the general public with general or special service (including charter service) on a regular and continuing basis. See 42 USC 12141
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- diplomatic visa: means a nonimmigrant visa bearing that title and issued to a nonimmigrant in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary of State may prescribe. See 8 USC 1101
- disability: means , with respect to an individual--
(A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual. See 42 USC 12102
- discharged: means released from an appointment as a Reserve officer. See 14 USC 3731
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Donee: The recipient of a gift.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- egg producer: means the person owning laying hens engaged in the production of commercial eggs. See
- egg products: means products produced, in whole or in part, from eggs. See
- eggs: means eggs from domesticated chickens which are sold for human consumption either in shell egg form or for further processing into egg products. See
- electronic fund transfer: means any transfer of funds, other than a transaction originated by check, draft, or similar paper instrument, which is initiated through an electronic terminal, telephonic instrument, or computer or magnetic tape so as to order, instruct, or authorize a financial institution to debit or credit an account. See 15 USC 1693a
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- electronic terminal: means an electronic device, other than a telephone operated by a consumer, through which a consumer may initiate an electronic fund transfer. See 15 USC 1693a
- electronic trading facility: means a trading facility that--
(A) operates by means of an electronic or telecommunications network. See 7 USC 1a
- eligible agency: means a consumer-controlled, community-based, cross-disability, nonresidential private nonprofit agency. See 29 USC 796f-5
- eligible commercial entity: means , with respect to an agreement, contract or transaction in a commodity--
(A) an eligible contract participant described in clause (i), (ii), (v), (vii), (viii), or (ix) of paragraph (18)(A) that, in connection with its business--
(i) has a demonstrable ability, directly or through separate contractual arrangements, to make or take delivery of the underlying commodity. See 7 USC 1a
- eligible contract participant: means --
(A) acting for its own account--
(i) a financial institution. See 7 USC 1a
- Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
- employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
- employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
- engage in terrorist activity: means , in an individual capacity or as a member of an organization--
(I) to commit or to incite to commit, under circumstances indicating an intention to cause death or serious bodily injury, a terrorist activity. See 8 USC 1182
- enrolled actuary: means a person who is enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries established under subtitle C of the title III of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. See 26 USC 7701
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Equal Credit Opportunity Act: Prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or because an applicant receives income from a public assistance program. Source: OCC
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- excluded commodity: means --
(i) an interest rate, exchange rate, currency, security, security index, credit risk or measure, debt or equity instrument, index or measure of inflation, or other macroeconomic index or measure. See 7 USC 1a
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- fabric: means any material (except fiber, filament, or yarn for other than retail sale) woven, knitted, felted, or otherwise produced from or in combination with any natural or synthetic fiber, film, or substitute therefor which is intended for use or which may reasonably be expected to be used, in any product as defined in subsection (h). See 15 USC 1191
- facility: means a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1886(d)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U. See 8 USC 1182
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- farm financial benchmarking: means --
(A) the process of comparing the performance of an agricultural enterprise against the performance of other similar enterprises, through the use of comparable and reliable data, in order to identify business management strengths, weaknesses, and steps necessary to improve management performance and business profitability. See 7 USC 1502
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Federal Trade Commission Act: means the Act of Congress entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission, to define its powers and duties, and for other purposes" approved September 26, 1914, as amended [15 U. See 15 USC 1191
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
- financial institution: means --
- financial institution: means a State or National bank, a State or Federal savings and loan association, a mutual savings bank, a State or Federal credit union, or any other person who, directly or indirectly, holds an account belonging to a consumer. See 15 USC 1693a
- fiscal year: means the fiscal year or license year of the State. See 16 USC 669a
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- fiscal year: means an accounting period of 12 months ending on the last day of any month other than December. See 26 USC 7701
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- fixed route system: means a system of providing designated public transportation on which a vehicle is operated along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule. See 42 USC 12141
- floor broker: means any person--
(i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, shall purchase or sell for any other person--
(I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- floor trader: means any person--
(i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, purchases, or sells solely for such person's own account--
(I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- foreign exchange forward: means a transaction that solely involves the exchange of 2 different currencies on a specific future date at a fixed rate agreed upon on the inception of the contract covering the exchange. See 7 USC 1a
- foreign exchange swap: means a transaction that solely involves--
(A) an exchange of 2 different currencies on a specific date at a fixed rate that is agreed upon on the inception of the contract covering the exchange. See 7 USC 1a
- foreign futures authority: means any foreign government, or any department, agency, governmental body, or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter, or any department or agency of a political subdivision of a foreign government empowered to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter. See 7 USC 1a
- foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See 8 USC 1101
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- franchise: shall mean the written agreement or contract between any automobile manufacturer engaged in commerce and any automobile dealer which purports to fix the legal rights and liabilities of the parties to such agreement or contract. See 15 USC 1221
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Fraud Alert: A key provision of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 is the consumer's ability to place a fraud alert on their credit record. A consumer would use this option if they believe they were a victim of identity theft. Source: OCC
- futures commission merchant: means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--
(aa) engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--
(AA) the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery. See 7 USC 1a
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- good faith: shall mean the duty of each party to any franchise, and all officers, employees, or agents thereof to act in a fair and equitable manner toward each other so as to guarantee the one party freedom from coercion, intimidation, or threats of coercion or intimidation from the other party: Provided, That recommendation, endorsement, exposition, persuasion, urging or argument shall not be deemed to constitute a lack of good faith. See 15 USC 1221
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- handler: means any person, specified in the order or the rules and regulations issued thereunder, who receives or otherwise acquires eggs from an egg producer, and processes, prepares for marketing, or markets, such eggs, including eggs of his own production. See
- handler: means any person (except a common or contract carrier of potatoes owned by another person) who handles potatoes in a manner specified in a plan issued pursuant to this chapter or in the rules and regulations issued thereunder. See 7 USC 2612
- hemp: has the meaning given the term in section 1639o of this title. See 7 USC 1502
- housing accommodations: means housing designed for occupancy by military personnel and their dependents, assigned to duty at or near the military installation where such housing units are constructed. See 12 USC 1748
- hunter recruitment and recreational shooter recruitment: means any activity or project to recruit or retain hunters and recreational shooters, including by--
(A) outreach and communications as a means--
(i) to improve communications with hunters, recreational shooters, and the general public with respect to hunting and recreational shooting opportunities. See 16 USC 669a
- hybrid instrument: means a security having one or more payments indexed to the value, level, or rate of, or providing for the delivery of, one or more commodities. See 7 USC 1a
- immigrant: means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens--
(A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family. See 8 USC 1101
- immigrant visa: means an immigrant visa required by this chapter and properly issued by a consular officer at his office outside of the United States to an eligible immigrant under the provisions of this chapter. See 8 USC 1101
- immigration judge: means an attorney whom the Attorney General appoints as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review, qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- immigration laws: includes this chapter and all laws, conventions, and treaties of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, deportation, expulsion, or removal of aliens. See 8 USC 1101
- immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- importer: means any person who imports tablestock, frozen, or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans or seed potatoes into the United States. See 7 USC 2612
- including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 26 USC 7701
- including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 26 USC 7701
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
- ineligible to citizenship: when used in reference to any individual, means, notwithstanding the provisions of any treaty relating to military service, an individual who is, or was at any time permanently debarred from becoming a citizen of the United States under section 3(a) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended (54 Stat. See 8 USC 1101
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- intended spouse: means any alien who meets the criteria set forth in section 1154(a)(1)(A)(iii)(II)(aa)(BB), 1154(a)(1)(B)(ii)(II)(aa)(BB), or 1229b(b)(2)(A)(i)(III) of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
- intercity rail transportation: means transportation provided by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation. See 42 USC 12161
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- interior furnishing: means any type of furnishing made in whole or in part of fabric or related material and intended for use or which may reasonably be expected to be used, in homes, offices, or other places of assembly or accommodation. See 15 USC 1191
- Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
- interstate commerce: means commerce--
(A) between any State, territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 1a
- interstate commerce: includes commerce between one State, Territory, possession, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and another State, Territory, possession, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 15 USC 1214
- interstate commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 15 USC 1241
- introducing broker: means any person (except an individual who elects to be and is registered as an associated person of a futures commission merchant)--
(I) is engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--
(aa) the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
- Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
- Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Law clerk: Assist judges with research and drafting of opinions.
- lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See 8 USC 1101
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- livestock: means cattle, elk, reindeer, bison, horses, deer, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (including egg-producing poultry), llamas, alpacas, live fish, crawfish, and other animals that--
(A) are part of a foundation herd (including producing dairy cattle) or offspring. See 7 USC 1471
- livestock producer: means --
(A) a person that is actively engaged in farming and that receives a substantial amount of total income from the production of grain or livestock, as determined by the Secretary, that is--
(i) an established producer or husbander of livestock or a dairy producer who is a citizen of, or legal resident alien in, the United States. See 7 USC 1471
- location information: means a consumer's place of abode and his telephone number at such place, or his place of employment. See 15 USC 1692a
- loss ratio: means the ratio of all sums paid by the Corporation as indemnities under any eligible crop insurance policy to that portion of the premium designated for anticipated losses and a reasonable reserve, other than that portion of the premium designated for operating and administrative expenses. See 7 USC 1502
- major security-based swap participant: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- major swap participant: means any person who is not a swap dealer, and--
(i) maintains a substantial position in swaps for any of the major swap categories as determined by the Commission, excluding--
(I) positions held for hedging or mitigating commercial risk. See 7 USC 1a
- Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
- marketing: means the sale or other disposition of commercial eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl, in any channel of commerce. See
- marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
- master: includes the pilot or other person in command of an aircraft. See 10 USC 8851
- maturity date: means the date on which the mortgage indebtedness would be extinguished if paid in accordance with periodic payments provided for in the mortgage. See 12 USC 1736
- maturity date: means the date on which the mortgage indebtedness would be extinguished if paid in accordance with periodic payments provided for in the mortgage. See 12 USC 1748
- member: means , with respect to a registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility, an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--
(A) owning or holding membership in, or admitted to membership representation on, the registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility. See 7 USC 1a
- military: includes Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. See 12 USC 1748
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- mortgage: means a first mortgage on real estate, in fee simple, or on a leasehold (1) under a lease for not less than ninety-nine years which is renewable. See 12 USC 1736
- mortgage: means a first mortgage on real estate, in fee simple, or on a leasehold (1) under a lease for not less than ninety-nine years which is renewable. See 12 USC 1748
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- mortgagee: includes the original lender under a mortgage, and his successors and assigns approved by the Secretary. See 12 USC 1736
- mortgagee: includes the original lender under a mortgage, and his successors and assigns approved by the Secretary. See 12 USC 1748
- Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
- mortgagor: includes the original borrower under a mortgage and his successors and assigns. See 12 USC 1736
- mortgagor: includes the original borrower under a mortgage, his successors and assigns. See 12 USC 1748
- NAAQS: means national ambient air quality standard. See 42 USC 7602
- narrow-based security index: means an index--
(i) that has 9 or fewer component securities. See 7 USC 1a
- national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See 8 USC 1101
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
- national of the United States: means (A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States. See 8 USC 1101
- naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See 8 USC 1101
- nonimmigrant visa: means a visa properly issued to an alien as an eligible nonimmigrant by a competent officer as provided in this chapter. See 8 USC 1101
- oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
- Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
- option: means an agreement, contract, or transaction that is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an "option" "privilege" "indemnity" "bid" "offer" "put" "call" "advance guaranty" or "decline guaranty". See 7 USC 1a
- order of deportation: means the order of the special inquiry officer, or other such administrative officer to whom the Attorney General has delegated the responsibility for determining whether an alien is deportable, concluding that the alien is deportable or ordering deportation. See 8 USC 1101
- organization: means , but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund. See 8 USC 1101
- organized exchange: means a trading facility that--
(A) permits trading--
(i) by or on behalf of a person that is not an eligible contract participant. See 7 USC 1a
- Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- package: means a pack, box, carton, or container of any kind in which cigarettes are offered for sale, sold, or otherwise distributed to consumers. See 15 USC 1332
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- passport: means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country. See 8 USC 1101
- permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See 8 USC 1101
- person: includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, State, municipality, political subdivision of a State, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee thereof. See 42 USC 7602
- person: means an individual or an organization. See 8 USC 1101
- person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 26 USC 7701
- person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See
- person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other entity. See 7 USC 2612
- person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or any other form of business enterprise. See 15 USC 1191
- person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 26 USC 7701
- person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, or any other business or legal entity. See 15 USC 1332
- person: import s the plural or singular, and includes individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts. See 7 USC 1a
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- personnel: shall include military and civilian personnel approved by the Secretary of Defense, or his designee, and the dependents of all such personnel. See 12 USC 1748
- persons: means any individual, partnership, corporation, or unincorporated association or any combination or association thereof. See 15 USC 1295
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- Point of order: A claim made by a legislator from the floor that a rule of the legislature is being violated. If the Chair sustains the point of order, the action in violation of the rule is not permitted.
- potatoes: means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown by producers in the 50 States of the United States, and grown in foreign countries and imported into the United States. See 7 USC 2612
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- preauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. See 15 USC 1693a
- Preauthorized electronic fund transfers: An EFT authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
- primary standard attainment date: means the date specified in the applicable implementation plan for the attainment of a national primary ambient air quality standard for any air pollutant. See 42 USC 7602
- Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- producer: means any person engaged in the growing of five or more acres of potatoes. See 7 USC 2612
- product: means any article of wearing apparel or interior furnishing. See 15 USC 1191
- products of spent fowl: means commercial products produced from spent fowl. See
- promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, to advance the image or desirability of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl. See
- promotion: means any action taken by the National Potato Promotion Board, pursuant to this chapter, to present a favorable image for potatoes to the public with the express intent of improving their competitive positions and stimulating sales of potatoes and shall include, but shall not be limited to, paid advertising. See 7 USC 2612
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- prudential regulator: means --
(A) the Board in the case of a swap dealer, major swap participant, security-based swap dealer, or major security-based swap participant that is--
(i) a State-chartered bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 7 USC 1a
- Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
- public entity: means --
(A) any State or local government. See 42 USC 12131
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- public target range: means a specific location that--
(A) is identified by a governmental agency for recreational shooting. See 16 USC 669a
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- rail passenger car: means , with respect to intercity rail transportation, single-level and bi-level coach cars, single-level and bi-level dining cars, single-level and bi-level sleeping cars, single-level and bi-level lounge cars, and food service cars. See 42 USC 12161
- Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- refugee: means (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such special circumstances as the President after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 1157(e) of this title) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. See 8 USC 1101
- registered entity: means --
(A) a board of trade designated as a contract market under section 7 of this title. See 7 USC 1a
- related material: means paper, plastic, rubber, synthetic film, or synthetic foam which is intended for use or which may reasonably be expected to be used in any product as defined in subsection (h). See 15 USC 1191
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- representative: includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity. See 8 USC 1182
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- research: means any type of research to advance the image, desirability, marketability, production, or quality of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, or products of spent fowl. See
- Reserve officer: means a commissioned officer in the Reserve, except an officer excluded by section 3732 of this title or a commissioned warrant officer. See 14 USC 3731
- residence: means the place of general abode. See 8 USC 1101
- responsible person: means --
(A) in the case of a station more than 50 percent of which is owned by a public entity, such public entity. See 42 USC 12161
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- sale or distribution: includes sampling or any other distribution not for sale. See 15 USC 1332
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 26 USC 7701
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 1502
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury. See 7 USC 1a
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture or any other officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture to whom there has heretofore been delegated, or to whom there may hereafter be delegated, the authority to act in his stead. See
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 16 USC 669a
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 2282
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2612
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 26 USC 7701
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 15 USC 1332
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Transportation. See 42 USC 12141
- Secretary of the Treasury: means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his. See 26 USC 7701
- security: means a security as defined in section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- security future: means a contract of sale for future delivery of a single security or of a narrow-based security index, including any interest therein or based on the value thereof, except an exempted security under section 3(a)(12) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- security futures product: means a security future or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security future. See 7 USC 1a
- security-based swap: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- security-based swap dealer: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
- Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See 8 USC 1101
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- significant price discovery contract: means an agreement, contract, or transaction subject to section 2(h)(5) of this title. See 7 USC 1a
- special immigrant: means --
(A) an immigrant, lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is returning from a temporary visit abroad. See 8 USC 1101
- spent fowl: means hens which have been in production of commercial eggs and have been removed from such production for slaughter. See
- started pullet: means a hen less than twenty weeks of age. See
- State: means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 7602
- State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 12103
- State: means any State of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam. See 7 USC 1471
- State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 1692a
- State: includes Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands. See 16 USC 590q
- State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 1693a
- State: shall include the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 16 USC 669c
- State: includes the several States, and Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. See 12 USC 1736
- State: includes the several States, and Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Canal Zone, and Midway Island. See 12 USC 1748
- State: includes any political division of any State. See 15 USC 1332
- State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
- State fish and wildlife department: means any department or division of department of another name, or commission, or official or officials, of a State empowered under its laws to exercise the functions ordinarily exercised by a State fish and game department or State fish and wildlife department. See 16 USC 669a
- station: means the portion of a property located appurtenant to a right-of-way on which intercity or commuter rail transportation is operated, where such portion is used by the general public and is related to the provision of such transportation, including passenger platforms, designated waiting areas, ticketing areas, restrooms, and, where a public entity providing rail transportation owns the property, concession areas, to the extent that such public entity exercises control over the selection, design, construction, or alteration of the property, but such term does not include flag stops. See 42 USC 12161
- stationary source: means generally any source of an air pollutant except those emissions resulting directly from an internal combustion engine for transportation purposes or from a nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle as defined in section 7550 of this title. See 42 USC 7602
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 26 USC 7701
- stowaway: means any alien who obtains transportation without the consent of the owner, charterer, master or person in command of any vessel or aircraft through concealment aboard such vessel or aircraft. See 8 USC 1101
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
- substantial: means , for purposes of paragraph (15)(E) with reference to trade or capital, such an amount of trade or capital as is established by the Secretary of State, after consultation with appropriate agencies of Government. See 8 USC 1101
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- swap: includes a master agreement that provides for an agreement, contract, or transaction that is a swap under subparagraph (A), together with each supplement to any master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement contains an agreement, contract, or transaction that is not a swap pursuant to subparagraph (A). See 7 USC 1a
- swap data repository: means any person that collects and maintains information or records with respect to transactions or positions in, or the terms and conditions of, swaps entered into by third parties for the purpose of providing a centralized recordkeeping facility for swaps. See 7 USC 1a
- swap dealer: means any person who--
(i) holds itself out as a dealer in swaps. See 7 USC 1a
- swap execution facility: means a trading system or platform in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade swaps by accepting bids and offers made by multiple participants in the facility or system, through any means of interstate commerce, including any trading facility, that--
(A) facilitates the execution of swaps between persons. See 7 USC 1a
- switchblade knife: means any knife having a blade which opens automatically--
(1) by hand pressure applied to a button or other device in the handle of the knife, or
(2) by operation of inertia, gravity, or both. See 15 USC 1241
- Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 26 USC 7701
- territory: includes the insular possessions of the United States and also any territory of the United States. See 15 USC 1191
- terrorist activity: means any activity which is unlawful under the laws of the place where it is committed (or which, if it had been committed in the United States, would be unlawful under the laws of the United States or any State) and which involves any of the following:
(I) The highjacking or sabotage of any conveyance (including an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle). See 8 USC 1182
- terrorist organization: means an organization--
(I) designated under section 1189 of this title. See 8 USC 1182
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- trading facility: means a person or group of persons that constitutes, maintains, or provides a physical or electronic facility or system in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade agreements, contracts, or transactions--
(i) by accepting bids or offers made by other participants that are open to multiple participants in the facility or system. See 7 USC 1a
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- transitional yield: means the maximum average production per acre or equivalent measure that is assigned to acreage for a crop year by the Corporation in accordance with the regulations of the Corporation whenever the producer fails--
(A) to certify that acceptable documentation of production and acreage for the crop year is in the possession of the producer. See 7 USC 1502
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Trustor: The person who makes or creates a trust. Also known as the grantor or settlor.
- Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
- unauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer from a consumer's account initiated by a person other than the consumer without actual authority to initiate such transfer and from which the consumer receives no benefit, but the term does not include any electronic fund transfer (A) initiated by a person other than the consumer who was furnished with the card, code, or other means of access to such consumer's account by such consumer, unless the consumer has notified the financial institution involved that transfers by such other person are no longer authorized, (B) initiated with fraudulent intent by the consumer or any person acting in concert with the consumer, or (C) which constitutes an error committed by a financial institution. See 15 USC 1693a
- United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 7701
- United States: means the forty-eight contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. See
- United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
- United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 7701
- United States: when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston Island. See 15 USC 1332
- United States worker: means an employee who--
(i) is a citizen or national of the United States. See 8 USC 1182
- unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See 8 USC 1101
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- VAWA self-petitioner: means an alien, or a child of the alien, who qualifies for relief under--
(A) clause (iii), (iv), or (vii) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title. See 8 USC 1101
- vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
- vessel: includes aircraft. See 10 USC 8851
- veteran farmer or rancher: means a farmer or rancher who--
- Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
- Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
- VOC: means volatile organic compound, as defined by the Administrator. See 42 USC 7602
- whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
- wildlife: means any species of wild, free-ranging fauna including fish, and also fauna in captive breeding programs the object of which is to reintroduce individuals of a depleted indigenous species into previously occupied range. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife conservation and restoration program: means a program developed by a State fish and wildlife department and approved by the Secretary under section 669c(d) 1 of this title, the projects that constitute such a program, which may be implemented in whole or part through grants and contracts by a State to other State, Federal, or local agencies (including those that gather, evaluate, and disseminate information on wildlife and their habitats), wildlife conservation organizations, and outdoor recreation and conservation education entities from funds apportioned under this chapter,1 and maintenance of such projects. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife conservation education: means projects, including public outreach, intended to foster responsible natural resource stewardship. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife-associated recreation: means projects intended to meet the demand for outdoor activities associated with wildlife including, but not limited to, hunting and fishing, wildlife observation and photography, such projects as construction or restoration of wildlife viewing areas, observation towers, blinds, platforms, land and water trails, water access, field trialing, trail heads, and access for such projects. See 16 USC 669a
- wildlife-restoration project: includes the wildlife conservation and restoration program and means the selection, restoration, rehabilitation, and improvement of areas of land or water adaptable as feeding, resting, or breeding places for wildlife, including acquisition of such areas or estates or interests therein as are suitable or capable of being made suitable therefor, and the construction thereon or therein of such works as may be necessary to make them available for such purposes and also including such research into problems of wildlife management as may be necessary to efficient administration affecting wildlife resources, and such preliminary or incidental costs and expenses as may be incurred in and about such projects. See 16 USC 669a
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
- writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1